Cutters for cylinder-head boring with their own hands
Valve lapping tools (burrs, countersinks) and their applications
Valve seat wrenches are a tool used to return a car engine (or more precisely, its valve train) to serviceable condition after a repair. With the help of such burrs, which are also called countersinkers, restored tightness of the working cylinder engine, which is one of the main conditions for its technically sound condition.
Complete set of tools for valve seat refurbishment
The main cylinder head bores
Boring and polishing intake manifold bores is an important step to optimize intake, especially if the engine is being modified. Ask any reputable tuner about the basic principle of cylinder head refinishing, 9 out of 10 would name boring and polishing the channels. For people with hands, we recommend to carry out this operation by yourself. The main thing is to be careful and watch closely so that the channels of the manifold and the cylinder head smoothly passed one into the other. No steps, mismatches, etc. This is very important, a mismatch at the junction of the cylinder head and intake manifold can negate the entire job. At this point, there will be whirls of air flow. Instead of acceleration, you get a traffic jam.
Another Focus is not to make the joint place in the shape of a ball. The convexity, or rather depression in the way of the air flow, again, will not allow it to fly normally into the cylinder, creating a swirl and slowing down the movement of the mixture. Attention, patience and the right tool will help to avoid these mistakes, as a result the engine will breathe easier. Necessary tools for home cylinder head boring or porting: a straight grinder pneumatic or electric, cutters, a long nozzle for the grinder, abrasive, nozzle from a rolled-up sandpaper, petal circles circles. All this you can buy at the nearest hardware store.
Instructions for cylinder block boring
At home to do the boring on a classic or other car with an engine 8 or 16 valves problematic. This is time consuming because the process requires great accuracy.
To bore a cylinder block with their own hands, will need:
- Boring machine. To afford such equipment can not every service station, respectively, buy it for their own needs is inexpedient from a financial point of view. You can rent a machine.
- Sandpaper. Need sandpaper of different density, from fine to larger.
- Locksmith tools. set of screwdrivers, wrenches, etc. д.
- Spigot. Hose size must be smaller than the bored channel.
- A caliper.
The process of boring
Boring cannot be done on the machine, so the power unit must be dismantled.
The cylinder block boring procedure consists of several steps:
- Drain consumables from the power unit. Find the drain plug under the bottom of the car and put an old container under it in which the working fluid will be drained. Unscrew the plug of engine oil drain, and you will have to wait at least 30 minutes for the substance to completely drain out. The same way is performed to drain the coolant from the cooling system of the engine.
- After draining the liquids is disassembly of the power unit. The customer must remove the spark plugs, disconnect all wires and connectors from the engine. Disconnect the contacts from the sensors, remove the motor mounts, and, if necessary, place the supports under the motor. The procedure is long and will take time. After disassembly of main assemblies the unit is dismantled.
- The next step is to install the cylinder head on the base of the machine that will be used for boring. Proper level fixation gives the best result, so the head must be optimally fixed.
- If the repair procedure is performed due to ovalization of the channels, then before performing the task, all measurements are measured through the use of micrometer devices. This is done to determine the degree of wear. After measuring, it is possible to understand on which side and how many mm of steel to remove.
- Then the boring repair work begins. It is impossible to perform them correctly by yourself, in particular if the procedure is performed by the car owner for the first time. The master must have the qualifications. If the machine is not able to maintain the required size, it will be problematic to achieve an optimal result. This can generally affect the operation of the cylinder head of the engine.
- If the boring procedure is complete, then the inner surfaces of the cylinders are honed.
- The next step is to check the performed actions. Measured with measuring instruments, the diameter of the holes must be identical. Assembly of the power unit is performed in reverse order, the engine is installed on the machine. The motor is filled with consumables.
Making of boring on a special machine Finishing of working surfaces by fine abrasives Removal of burrs and defects from the cylinder head surface It is necessary to tell separately about the peculiarities of cylinder head honing:
- The procedure is performed in two steps. On the first use the tool for grinding of working surfaces, which has a coarse abrasive. This step is a roughing treatment of the surface, which removes the defective layer of metal. The cylindrical sleeves are smoothed out and their geometry is optimized, to get rid of any major roughness. Diamond honing stones manufactured on copper base are used for the task.
- Rough honing procedure is performed with machining of surfaces with cooling lubricants. This is done in order to completely remove residual abrasive and mechanical particles from the surface where the chone is applied.
- Finishing sanding is then performed, which requires a fine abrasive. It will allow the task to be performed with increased accuracy. To make the smoothness of the cylinder liners was high, you can additionally treat the surface with abrasive paste.
- The next step is to perform additional quartzing. This procedure is not designed for boring, it is performed in order to clean the surface of traces of abrasives and its residues. If the cylinder head is made of cast iron, quartzing provides the opportunity to open the graphite grains. In the case of cast-iron units, it gives an opportunity to remove friction and reduce mechanical losses, as well as to prevent rapid deterioration of the internal combustion engine. Quartz honing is performed using special brushes, which are based on nylon threads and crystals.
- When the last stage of honing is completed, the power unit is flushed from metal shavings and dust residue.
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Grinding the head
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The procedure is performed in several stages:
- A ruler and feeler gauge are used to diagnose the degree of roughness. The ruler itself is placed on the edge of the cylinder head surface, and then the necessary feeler gauge is passed to measure the unevenness and clearance. These steps allow you to determine the defect and the correct degree of grinding. The surface distortion is greatest at the point where the cylinder-head gasket is burned out.
- Then determine if there are any cracks on the surface. The surface of the head is treated with a layer of slowly drying paint, which is removed after a certain time. This will identify defects, and if there are none, grinding is performed. However, cracks can only be detected from above. For diagnostics of defects inside the block itself you will need a specialized device with which to heat the cylinder head. If the head has defects, then bubbles will appear on its surface, this is due to the presence of pressure.
- The device is removed from the engine. A cutting disk or grinding stone will be needed for grinding. Wiping the valves and replacing their seals is a task that should be performed immediately. Wiping will increase the power of the power unit. New valves do not need to be installed if the condition of the old elements is assessed as high.
- The surface of the cylinder-head head is cleaned from gasket remnants, for this a stationery knife or a regular knife is used.
- The disc is installed on the cylinder head, it is run several times over the surface. Sharpening stone may be used, but this procedure takes longer. When grinding, it is imperative to know the maximum possible depth, otherwise the compression ratio can increase and the center to center distance can change. When grinding the surface of the cylinder head will be smooth, preferably in the form of zero or figure eight. Surface treatment is performed until all irregularities have been removed from it.
- In the end, the machine owner must have the cylinder head surface as mirror-like as possible to achieve an optimal seal. After grinding the cylinder head is installed in place.
Types of grinding procedures
Of course, the easiest way to grind the cylinder head is to go to the service. They will do it as quickly, efficiently and professionally as possible.
A detailed diagnostic is performed beforehand, which indicates the extent of damage and the possibility of repair. And then masters already work with a part on a specialized grinding machine. It’s easy, but the price of grinding the cylinder head is just confusing.
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To save money and as a consequence of the fact that many people like the process of repairing themselves, you can try to do everything at home.
Grinding the cylinder head with your own hands directly possible. In most cases, this will require special equipment in the form of a machine.
But it is also possible to grind by hand using some tools. It will take a certain long time, but will save a decent amount of money.
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How the cylinder head is lapped
To begin with, qualified operations with the cylinder head and cylinder grinding at home are not recommended, although it is possible and there are several ways. Now let’s move on to the procedure itself, taking into account how it should be performed correctly. The first thing to do is to check the flatness of the cylinder head.
This is done with the help of a long steel ruler, and feelers (you can use feelers to adjust the thermal valve clearance). An important condition is that the ruler must be flat, of equal thickness, without bends or defects. The specified ruler should be applied to the bottom plane along the diagonals, and then a suitable feeler gauge is inserted into the gaps that are formed between the plane of the cylinder head and the applied ruler. These actions are performed one by one.
Let’s go further. If the defects are detected, then the next step is to check the head for cracks. In a garage usually use a paint or paints similar to properties, which coated a body previously washed and cleaned from dirt cylinder head. Then the dye is removed from the surface, and then by the remains of the dye, trapped in the cracks, identify problem areas.
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The method is simple enough, but it is not possible to detect microcracks or internal housing damage with paint. For a more accurate diagnosis of the tightness of the body and to check the internal surfaces for cracks, it is necessary to call in specialists or have the proper equipment on hand.
The cylinder head should be heated, and then the head is placed in a special bath with water. Without going into too much detail, microcracks appear due to air bubbles that escape as a result of pressurized air flowing into the cylinder head housing. Then the cylinder head crack (if any) should be repaired, after which the cylinder head can be ground.
During milling, the most important parameter is the permissible grinding thickness. If simpler, you need to know how much metal can be removed from the surface of a particular cylinder head at most. Information on the depth to which you can grind the head, should be contained in the technical literature, repair manuals and additional sources with respect to a specific type and model of engine.
The engine manufacturer must necessarily specify this parameter for repair, after which the unit will normally work. If the defects of the plane is too serious, that is, deep milling to eliminate them may need to remove all the allowable margin and exceed the manufacturer’s recommended value, then in this case may need to replace the cylinder head.
Photos of cylinder head grinding
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