Handle for a hammer in what wood
Handles for hammers
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Hammer recovery. Mahogany handle.
In general. This project, was a project of endless craps, fixing craps and generating new ones in the process of fixing.
On my last run through the flea market, namely Udelka along with goodic. I bought a little something there.
I bought a hammer from a man. He wanted a hundred, but gave for fifty. This hammer was my grandfather on my father’s side, and when I was a kid, I really wanted it. But my grandfather never gave it to me, and when he was gone, my father threw everything away (yes, I did not have time). The guy said that on Vasilievsky Island, there is a place where they took the ruins during the war, and he digs there, finds things and sells them. So a hammer, with some history or other. For the handle I bought a wood chopper and asked a goodic for a mahogany planket. The story of how I put the knob in order, is worthy of a separate post, and at the request of workers I shall write about it. But it was also pretty bad.
As usual, a font in solutions of trillon, light sanding. Then I was slowing down for a month and finally I was ready to make a handle. Dissolve the board lengthwise, making a special saw for longitudinal sawing.
Jamb one: for the handle, always cut the workpiece with a margin, you can still trim it many times! With a good margin, at least 1.5 of the final length!
After that, the first time I picked up the whittler and cut all sizes, I was so worried that I threw everything I could.
Folks from the machine-chat advised to collect shavings and fill with epoxy, getting a mahogany again. And the slippers shredded and got black :D.But jokes aside, I sagged (it wasn’t sanded yet).
Saddened, but the next day he pulled himself together and made a wedge. At first I tried to make a notch for the wedge with a wood jigsaw, but I hurt myself and broke the saw (you know, mahogany is very fucking hard). One more thing. I ended up using a fine toothed saw.
I made the wedges from a ruler, but it was too soft. I had to finish it with the remnants of oak parquet. In the process of wedging, the handle cracked. Count the cracks. Another joint.
Then sanding, but by virtue of the fact that I dug deep enough and crooked enough pliers, I dug holes there, and they can not be corrected without remaking the handle. Another one. Except for overall aesthetics, it has little effect.
Shoals with cracks, and sagging, except for gussets, decided to fix with epoxy. But I couldn’t find 20 minutes of resin in the nearest store for a decent price, so I had to take a four-minute resin. I poured the top part without any problems.
And here, after the beater I wanted to put a thread on top of the resin and then spread more resin on top, but something went wrong, the resin hardened too quickly, the thread broke off, and on top of it I spread almost a flake of resin. But in general, the main thing that closed the cracks and fastened the thread.
After that, finishing with teak oil. Oooh, teak oil. I’m really excited about it.
Despite the fact that the handle shows traces of rough sanding, sinks and pits, also carelessly made girdle, the hammer looks very cool and kosher. And enough for my grandchildren for sure.
The mahogany is a delight to me, it’s not the first time I’ve encountered it, but it’s too beautiful. The disadvantages include the fact that even sawing it without a respirator is impossible, it hurts my throat and coughs. Only in the muzzle. It’s very hard, but it’s fun to work with.
Why I did not redo everything? Very simple: each step taught me something, in fact, a hammer like this can be bought off-the-shelf, but here’s the experience I gained. you can’t buy.
I would like to thank goodic for the workpiece, zhalmenov for his help in getting the hammer shaft in order.
You can’t do anything at home with your bare hands. In the blog it is told about what a domestic handyman should have, how to equip his workplace, and also tips on how to use various tools.
How to set a hammer?– Not everyone knows how to do it right now. I confess I’ve used a lot of hammers myself in the past. I haven’t had enough time to do everything properly and I haven’t needed a hammer that often. And now, in retirement, I have a lot of free time, I do some repair work all the time, that’s why I try to keep my tools in order. There are hammers on the market, the handle of which is made of metal or some synthetic material and it is not necessary to put a hammer on it. But traditional hammers with wooden handles are still very popular. It’s not only because they’re much cheaper. Wood. material is light, and for a hammer it is very important that the handle is light, but the “head” of the tool is heavy. Then the force of the blow will be much greater. Every person has his or her own anthropometric features. Hammers that are industrially made are for the average person and may be too big for a small person, but for a giant they are not. small. Using a home-made wooden handle it is possible to “adjust” a hammer to your hand: the thickness of the handle will be such that it is convenient to hold it, and its length will correspond to the length of the master’s hand. A real craftsman’s tool is always in order. This rule is especially important when these tools are used often. It is possible to hammer a couple of nails a year with a bad hammer, with its handle dried out and hanging around. But if a hammer is one of your most important tools, it should be in perfect condition. With this unpretentious tool, you can not only damage your finger if you miss the nail head or the butt of the chisel, but also cause serious injury to both the master and those around him, if his striking part suddenly “slips” off the handle. And it happens not so seldom, if the hammer is not put on it correctly. I’ve looked through quite a few pictures of the hammer on the internet and couldn’t find any that showed it was mounted properly.
(On the photo you can clearly see what happens if the hammer is not set correctly).
That’s why specifically here we will tell you how to attach the hammer to the handle correctly. First of all, you should keep in mind that not every wood is suitable for the handle of a hammer. What kind of wood is needed for the handle of a hammer?. Do not use wood that splits easily, such as spruce, pine, aspen, alder or others like them. But an ordinary birch tree, only not straight but twisted is quite suitable for this purpose. (By the way, according to GOST 231077 “Steel hammers for metalworkers”). It is allowed to produce hammers handles from hornbeam, maple, mountain ash, dogwood, ash, oak, beech and birch grades 1). So you can take not so thick birch branch (two or three times thicker than the handle itself) and from it you can cut a blanks for the handle of a hammer. If the branch is taken from a “living” tree, it should be dried well. The best way to dry is naturally, putting several pieces at once somewhere in the shade, but in a well-ventilated place. In the countryside it can be a usual pile of firewood, together with which the material for the handles will dry perfectly for about a month (in summer). In an urban environment you can put the blanks for the handles on the balcony. Do not dry the wood with any heating devices (for example, on a radiator), otherwise it may crack. An excellent handle for a hammer can be made from a broken wooden hockey stick, which uses very strong and hard wood. Why is it so important that the wood, from which you plan to make the handle of the hammer, should be dry?? – It’s very simple: any wood decreases in size when drying (water evaporates and quite naturally, the body volume decreases). So, a hammer handle that is not well dried will inevitably dry out over time, and no matter what wedges you hammer into it, the hammer head will still hang on the handle and may eventually come off it. What should be the shape of a hammer handle??. Already mentioned GOST has three different designs of hammer handles (see “Sapphire hammer grip”).It is important that the handle must not slip out of your hand when hitting the hammer), but it is also stipulated that it is acceptable to produce other, ergonomically comfortable handle shapes. So, if you decided to make your own handle, you can take these variants as a basis, or make one of your own design. The main thing is that the handle should be convenient and when hitting with a hammer it should not slip out of your hand.
When making the handle, you should take into account that the blank for it should be at least 5 centimeters longer than necessary. The handle should taper more smoothly towards the end where the hammer head sits. How to get the hammer head on the handle correctly?. The hammer head hole on both “inputs” is slightly larger than in the middle. So the size of the handle blank at the thinnest end should match the size of the hole in the middle of the hammer head. Always check how well the hole for the handle is made in the top of the hammer head. Take a look at
Keep in mind that not only does rubber act as an adhesive layer, but it also takes some of the weight of blows, thereby reducing the stress on the handle. This allows the hammer head to last longer. It is most common for the holes on the outer sides of the hammer head to be much larger than the same area in the middle. So that this does not become a complicating factor, it is possible to use a file and sandpaper to make the transition smoother or to make the widths of the heads the same both on the edges and in the middle. The average difference is 6 to 8 mm.
It is worth noting that the same machining method can also be used to reduce the size of the wooden handle. If the difference is insignificant, you may use only sandpaper. It is important to observe that the handle goes into the hammer at a right angle. Otherwise afterwards the tool can be not only unusable, but also quickly worn out.
The process of putting the handle on the hammer
Often the hole size of the head of hammers is slightly wider at the top and bottom entrances than in the middle. Thus the dimensions of the blank for the handle in the thin end part must correspond to the dimensions of the holes in the middle of the striker part of the tool. It is necessary to check whether the hole for the handle is well made on the striker with the tool. How it is made, you can see on photo.
It shows the beater of an old hammer, which needs to be pre-treated. Without this work, it will not be possible to fit the handle. Paying attention to the picture we can see that the striker moulding was made rather badly, there are big metal overlaps and roughness, every entrance to the holes on the both sides is different for 6-8 mm than in the striker centre.
To correct all the imperfections and irregularities the inside and outside of the hammer head must be filed. Then insert the thin end of the handle into the bottom hole of the hammer to get the dimensions correctly adjusted. The tip of the handle should be flush with the opposite side of the striker. If the handle is thicker than the corresponding holes it must be ground with sandpaper so that the element is inserted into the hammer hole with a certain interference.
Due to the fact that at the end of the handle we achieve a hollow cone, then a deeper dive into the head of the hammer will draw it more tightly. It is worth mentioning that in the process of this it is important to take into account that the striker on the handle is not shifted, and should be set at a right angle.
To hammer the handle into the striker hole, you need to hit it with the back side vertically against the anvil, workbench top, etc.
Due to its weight, the striking part of the hammer will slowly build up on the expanding cone of the handle under the influence of its weight. It is strongly not recommended to strike with hammers or hard objects on the back side of the handle, because it will cause its splitting. This method may be used only when attaching a non-metallic striking part (wooden or plastic), for example, for a mallet.
Once the head of the hammer will be tightly seated, and no more movement of the handle in the striking part will be observed, it is necessary to saw off the protruding part using a hacksaw blade, having previously stepped half a centimeter above the striking head. That’s why you need to use a longer piece.
How to make a beater
Before we proceed to the description of the actions, it should be noted that the process of making the striker of a sledgehammer involves forging, which requires special tools, equipment and experience. If you do not have an anvil and a high-temperature oven, this manual will be only theoretical for you. You can look for the beater on ad sites or markets. In any case, its cost will be less than that of a ready-made sledgehammer. Well, for those who are not by hearsay familiar with blacksmithing, with the features of the product.
For the production of the striking element of the hammer, carbon steel of the following grades is used: 50, 45, 55, 50G, 50G2. This metal is used in the manufacture of truck axles, so if you do not have suitable material can be found at the nearest auto economy. The work requires a rectangular piece weighing 3 kg, from which a parallelepiped should be forged.
The next step is to make the place for fixing the handle. To do this, punch a through hole 25 to 30mm in diameter on one of the sides in the center. The sides of the workpiece are deformed. Having released the hole, you need to hammer the side edges so that the object has again taken the form of an even parallelepiped, and the round hole has become oval.
To make the fastening point as reliable as possible it is necessary to form a cone shaped hole, tapering from lateral sides to the center (in the beater section it resembles an hourglass). A special cone-shaped steel gauge is needed for this operation. The section of the gauge should be oval, and its length should be 180-200 mm. The lower part of the cross-section, should be a couple of millimeters narrower than the hole made in the striker, and the upper part slightly bigger than the handle you are going to install. After forging, the caliber should be hardened and polished.
To properly calibrate the hole, you should hammer the steel rod to a depth just below the center of the striker. When deepening the gauge, the side edges will be deformed. They need to be straightened by removing the gauge and forging the faces of the workpiece. Then hammer the caliber into the hole once again, and without taking it out, hammer the sides and set the faces. When the workpiece is shaped like a regular parallelepiped, repeat the calibration process on the other side of the hole.
When the bit is in the right shape and has a secure fixture, it is time to move on to the hardening stage. To make the steel really hard, it needs to be heated to 850 degrees Celsius until the billet is a bright red color. Once the necessary temperature has been reached, submerge it in cold water until it cools down.
Now that the steel is hardened, it is necessary to give it plasticity, so that it does not split when working. For this, heat the product to 250-300 degrees and let it cool down slowly. After cooling, sand the metal surface and read how to put a sledgehammer on a wooden handle.
Manual straightening of sheet metal.
Sheet and section metal is usually straightened on the straightened plates by hammering.
The sizes of plates are 1,5 X 1,5 m; 2,0 X 2,0 m; 1,5 X 3,0 m. Straightening plates are usually made of grey cast iron and are either ribbed or solid. The working surface of the plate must be flat. Sometimes the entire area of a proper room is lined with such boards.
The plates are installed on wooden bars, with the height of the working surface from the floor 400-650 mm. The main tools for straightening the plate are hammers and sledgehammers.
The right hammer handle. Hammer weight. Sledgehammer weight.
The working surface or flange of these hammers and sledgehammers is either flat or slightly convex, depending on the location and nature of the intended impact. Usually they are made with different surfaces on the ends. double-faced, as well as with an extended and narrow striker. Weight of hand hammers-hand hammers varies from 3/4 to 1 ½ to 2 kg. Sledgehammer weights range from 5 to 15 kg. Handles for hammers and sledgehammers are made of strong, hard wood. elm, dogwood, mountain ash, birch, etc., and fixed in the socket with an iron wedge.
Hammer handle length.
Depending on the weight of the hammer or sledgehammer, a corresponding length is given to the handle (Tables “Hammer and sledgehammer length” on page 42). 1).
Table 1. Length of hammer handle depending on weight.
|Weight of hammer or sledgehammer in kg||Handle length in mm||Weight of hammer or sledgehammer in kg||Length of handle in kg|
|0,5. 1,0||360||5. 6||800|
|1,25. 2,0||425||7. 8||850|
Form of hammers and sledgehammers.
Shapes of hammers and sledgehammers are shown in Fig. 1.
The paddles used for straightening are of different shapes, their models are shown in Fig. 2. Some ironers (2, a and e) are inserted by their shanks into the holes of the special handle, while others (2, b, c and d) are put on wooden handles like hammers.
For different metal profiles different smoothers are used.
The technology of metal straightening.
There are no exact instructions how to straighten the metal. Dressing skills are obtained by experience. We can only mention some basic straightening techniques. The basic method of manual metal straightening is the strike of a hammer or sledge-hammer on metal. The so-called “shoulder strike” is the main method of dressing metal, i.e. е. Such a blow in which all joints of the arm work: shoulder, elbow and wrist. This provides the necessary force to the blow. The force of the blow depends on the weight of the hammer and mainly on the velocity of the blow. This speed depends on the magnitude of the swing and the force that is applied to move the hammer downwards.
High performance with the least fatigue of the body is achieved by a certain rhythm in the work, ie. е. in a certain amount of time, you need to make a certain number of working movements, using all means to eliminate unnecessary forces, such as using the force of the hammer recoil from the metal when lifting it up to make the next blow. Equally important is the ability to choose the right place for the blows to straighten the metal. Distortion of plates in the form of one or more bulges in the middle of the plate between the stretched edges of it or a stretched middle of the plate with wavy edges is encountered.
The numbers indicate the sequence of hammer blows.
A bulge indicates that the surface area of the metal at this point is greater than the area where the bulge was formed. To straighten such a bulge, it is necessary to direct the hammer blows not at it, but at the metal around it and in such a sequence as to gradually spread the taut places (Fig. 3, а). If you strike the bulge, the metal will be crushed under their influence, and the bulge will increase. If there are several bulges on the surface of the plate, the blows are made on the metal in the isthmus between them, reducing all the bulges into one general, and then the blows stretch the stretched surface of the metal. With a corrugated edge of the sheet (Fig. 3, b) the blows are struck on the stretched part of the metal, the metal is stretched and the waviness disappears.
The surface of the straightened sheet is checked with a metal ruler that is held against the sheet with its edge in different directions. The gap between the sheet and the ruler is measured with a feeler gauge.
Metal straightening method. Metal shrinkage.
Long steel straighten, usually besieging (landing) and flexible and only in rare cases used handouts (stretching) of the metal.
It is straightened manually on a plate or on a special anvil with cutouts on the edges of the cutout anvil lay metal, the opposite side to that on which will be struck.
straightened metal; 2. anvil with cutouts.
Sections with a helical curvature straighten in a cold state twisting in the opposite direction lever devices (forks). In case of a significant curvature, the profiles are straightened in a hot state
Metal straightening tools. Screwed bead.
When straightening long steel different devices are used.
One of the types of such a device is a screw dowel The straightening process consists in the fact that the bent profile is installed in the body of the dowel, by pressing the screw on the corner from the convex side it is straightened. Straightening long steel with a screw bead is slow.
screw with a ribbon thread; 2. the body of the yoke; 3. straightened metal (angle).
During straightening, special attention should be paid to 18-8 type stainless steels. Due to propensity to intercrystalline corrosion, straightening plates made of this steel by blows on them with a steel sledge hammer is prohibited. When straightening, either copper sledgehammers should be used, or copper smoothers or copper lined sheets should be used. The plates are thoroughly cleaned before straightening stainless sheets on them. Local heating with a gas torch is not allowed.
My greenhouse, my long-term construction. Part one.
Even before I built my house, I always wanted to have my own greenhouse. Last year I still managed to start “making dreams come true”.
In the beginning the greenhouse was like a neatly stacked along the wall of the garage stack of profile pipes of different cross section. And a blueprint with calculations in a notebook, with a pen on a checkered sheet.
I bought the metal in 2020 before the went through the roof. The construction of the greenhouse was severely hampered by the fact that in this pile lurked entrance gate and wicket. and it’s a little uncomfortable without them.
But in the end, in two angle grinder sliced the profile according to the drawing, laid out the sliced pipes to their destination and invited a talented welder.
The size of a greenhouse my arbitrariness was defined 4 x 6 m. It was the steep price tag on structures of this size (or the flimsiness of the construction at a tolerable price) that made us refuse to buy a prefabricated greenhouse. And I like to do a little hacking for my soul.The roof structure was chosen gable, the most convenient for the inexperienced welder.
Here’s the first surprise. Section 25 x 50 mm profile, flight of thought engineering far from the design of steel structures man chosen for the horizontal strapping was behavioral badly dried board. A propeller blank must have been tampered with. At 6 meters the twist turned out to be 15 degrees. Alas, more than a year has passed since I bought it, so I haven’t got a chance to give it up. Two crowbars, a relative’s help, a small Petrovsky bend. and eventually the geometry of the profiled pipe became similar to the original engineering design. Repeat eight times and you can begin to assemble the base.By the way all the other pipes were straight.We carry the workpieces in place, twist and weld the corner braces
Now marking out the plot. Nostalgia takes me to distant student days:– And here’s three stakes, an axe and a roll of rope for you, dear freshmen. Who can make a right angle with this simple tool? he gets credit for the first topic.Well, I have more tools: a tape measure, stakes, life experience, etc.д.
With the help of our older son, we position the structure and mark the supporting points with stakes.
Let’s move a frame to the side and rent a miracle device.
We’re drilling under the concrete columns. Exactly align the frame on the axes of the site. Lower the assembled construction into the sample and rest until dusk.
Take a standard laser level and set the base exactly horizontally.The plot is far from being flat and the difference between the greenhouse corners is nearly 20 cm. This was the reason for the rejection of the monolithic foundation.
Fix the level with the scraps of paving tiles and wooden wedges. Along the way we pull out the interfering pepper bushes. I’m sick of putting it together.
As close to the ideal and go to sleep.
In the morning together with my son we are kneading concrete and pouring the support poles.
And we leave all this construction for couple of days.
During this time, we weld vertical columns with braces and other auxiliary trifle. Then we set the columns, controlling the verticality with the help of magnetic levels.
The stand for the angle grinder, which allows you to precisely cut off parts at a given angle, made the construction much easier. Alas, but the bill for a coping saw not a toad has not signed me.
The best helpers. clamps and welding magnets.
Grip, weld, grind, weld punctures, grind again, pumping skills welder.
Gradually we are drawing the size of the future structure
Struts for rigidity anchor the structure into a single monolith. At least under my 90 kg body when trying to pull up the ceiling does not sag.