How the chainsaw should be carried. How to work a chainsaw correctly. Part 1
Labor safety rules for working with tools and devices
Appendix to the Order of the Ministry of Labor and Social Protection of the Russian Federation of November 27, 2020 N 835n
Occupational Safety and Health Regulations for Tools and Devices (hereinafter. The Rules) establish state normative requirements for labour protection at work with devices, mechanisms and other labour facilities, used to influence and change the object of labour, both moved by a worker in the course of work and installed permanently (hereinafter referred to as “the Rules”). tools and devices).
The requirements of the Rules are mandatory for employers who are individual entrepreneurs, as well as employers. legal entities, regardless of their organizational and legal form, carrying out work with the use of the following types of tools and devices:
6) tools driven by the internal combustion engine;
Hand tools, both non-mechanized and mechanized shall comply with the requirements of the technical regulations of the Customs Union “On Safety of Machinery and Equipment” (TR CU 010/2011) and the technical regulations of the Customs Union “On Safety of Low Voltage Equipment” (TR CU 004/2011). Technical Regulations of the Customs Union “On Safety of Machinery and Equipment” (TR CU 010/2011), adopted by the Commission of the Customs Union on October 18, 2011. N 823, (published in the information and telecommunications network “Internet” on the official website of the Commission of the Customs Union http://www.tsouz.ru/, October 21, 2011.) as amended by the decisions of the Board of the Eurasian Economic Commission of December 4, 2012. N 248, from May 19, 2015. N 55, the decision of the Council of the Eurasian Economic Commission of May 16, 2016. N 37.
Technical regulation of the Customs Union “On safety of low-voltage equipment” (TR TS 004/2011), adopted by the Customs Union Commission on August 16, 2011. N 768 (published in the information and telecommunications network “Internet” on the official website of the Customs Union Commission http://www.tsouz.ru/ September 2, 2011.) as amended by the decision of the Commission of the Customs Union on December 9, 2011. N 884, the decision of the Board of the Eurasian Economic Commission on December 4, 2012. N 247, December 25, 2012. N 292 and October 25, 2016. N 120).
The employer shall provide employees with the necessary instructions on the safe use of hand tools.
The rules do not apply to work performed with the use of machine tools, technical devices as part of technological, transport equipment, test benches, office equipment, control and cash registers.
On the basis of the Rules and the requirements of technical documentation of the manufacturing organization for specific types of tools and devices, the employer shall develop instructions on labor protection for professions and (or) types of work performed, which shall be approved by a local regulatory act of the employer taking into account the opinion of the relevant trade union body or other representative body authorized by the employees (if any).
1) and operation of tools and devices in accordance with the requirements of the Rules and technical documentation of the manufacturing organization;
2) monitoring compliance by employees with the requirements of the Rules and instructions for occupational safety and health.
When carrying out work with the use of tools and devices, workers may be exposed to harmful and (or) dangerous production factors, including:
1) Increased or decreased air temperature of the working areas;
2) increased gas and (or) dust content in the air of the working areas;
3) insufficient illumination of the working areas;
4) high level of noise and vibration in the workplace;
5) physical and nervous and mental overloads;
6) moving vehicles, lifting machines, materials being transported, moving parts of different equipment
7) falling objects (elements of equipment);
8) location of working places at a height (depth) relative to the floor (ground)
9) performance of work in hard-to-reach and confined spaces;
10) electrical circuits short-circuiting through the human body.
The employer, depending on the specifics of its activities and based on the assessment of the level of occupational risk, has the right:
1) establish additional safety requirements not inconsistent with the Rules. Occupational safety requirements must be contained in the relevant occupational safety instructions, brought to the employee in the form of orders, instructions, briefing;
Safety Tips for Using a Chainsaw. Part 1
2) use instruments, devices, equipment and (or) a complex (system) of instruments, devices, equipment ensuring remote video, audio or other recording of work processes in order to monitor safe work performance.
It is allowed to carry out the document flow in the field of labor protection electronically, using an electronic signature or any other method allowing to identify the identity of the employee, in accordance with the legislation of the Russian Federation.
A chainsaw is a motorized tool that is based on a two-stroke internal combustion engine. It cannot run on pure gasoline, so a petrol-oil mixture must be prepared in order to start it.
The proportion is simple: we take 20 grams of special engine oil for chainsaws per 1 liter of gasoline of А92 brand or higher (for expensive imported chainsaws, the brand is not lower than A95). The instructions call the ratio 1:50. After mixing fuel and oil in a plastic tub, open the filler neck and fill the tank with the fuel mix.
If you are a beginner, be careful not to mistake the fuel filler neck for the chain lubricating oil. On some chainsaw models, they are both on the same side of the body. They can be identified by a special marking next to the hole. On the fuel filler neck you will see a petrol station icon. Next to the oil filler neck there is a drop symbol.
Good chain lubrication is essential for a chain saw and a long life of the guide bar. The chain saw owner’s manual recommends the use of brand-name oil only. It is also possible to use quality motor oil with a viscosity of W30-W40. We do not recommend using oily waste and other oil-based substitutes for chain lubrication.
The mark to which you fill the oil tank is always near the filler neck. While working with the chain saw, don’t forget to check it once in a while so as not to miss the time when you fill up the tank. Every once a month, in addition to the chain, you should lubricate the bar bearing on the outer end of the chain. Some tires have a special hole there, into which a few drops of oil are sprayed with a syringe. You should only refuel your chainsaw on a horizontal, hard surface.
How to store your chainsaw
Correct storage is a prerequisite for trouble-free use of your chainsaw, especially if it is not in use for long periods of time. In this article, the master plumber tells you how to properly store your chainsaw.
What’s Good to Know for Every Chainsaw Owner
The chainsaws of today are equipped with a single-cylinder, two-stroke carburetor-type engine.
Note! The chainsaws do not use 4-stroke and diesel engines because of their heavy weight. operating them by hand would be physically demanding
The principle of operation of the monocylinder 2-stroke chainsaw engine:
- During the compression stroke, the fuel mixture prepared in the carburetor enters the crankcase;
- In the lowermost position, the cylinder exhaust ports open. exhaust gases and part of the fuel-air mixture exit through them;
- The crankcase mixture is pushed by the piston pressure into the cylinder and burns in it;
- The resulting overpressure moves the piston to its original position, which drives the main shaft of the engine.
2-stroke engines are not very economical. Therefore, in order to reduce fuel consumption and increase engine efficiency, many manufacturers use additional ventilation: the intake valve opens to supply fuel to the cylinder after the exhaust gas is released.
The difficulty of operating a chainsaw in winter lies in the reaction to low temperatures of the materials of which its units and components are made, and working fluids. fuel mixture and lubricant, as well as the formation of condensation on the units and mechanisms of the tool during temperature fluctuations. over, cold season of the year is mostly unsuitable for farm works.
Please note! There is a special series of chainsaws that are approved to work in the winter cold. Such models have a well-insulated body, as well as a heated carburetor system
Why it is important to store the tool properly
With the onset of cold weather, many chain saw owners simply send their chainsaws to be stored on a shelf in the garage, until better times. Not many of beginners know that proper chainsaw storage in winter involves conservation of equipment by special technology.
Long storage of the chain saw technique leads to a complete standstill of the actuating mechanisms, which leads to the following negative consequences:
- Friction pairs and other units cease to receive lubrication, which leads to their drying out.
- Old grease turns into a thick jelly which dries out and hardens over time.
- Seals deteriorate, as well as filtration elements.
- Fuels are exhausted and lose their conditioned properties.
In many cases, chainsaw owners have to wonder why the chainsaw worked fine in the fall, and then in the spring flatly refuses to even start. Improper gasoline-powered chain saw storage during the winter months is to blame.
The tasks and rules of conservation
The main purpose of conservation of absolutely any equipment is the prevention of development of negative processes on working surfaces of details and mechanisms. Negative processes include:
- Sludge formation and evaporation of liquids;
- Bending from temperature fluctuations.
A location with optimum microclimatic conditions should be selected for storage of mothballed equipment. A garage is the ideal place to store chain saws for longer periods of time. The room must be well ventilated. Your garage should be as dry and, if possible, insulated.
Regarding heating, yes, for long-term storage, you need a warm and dry place. But since heating a room purely for tool storage is economically irrational, it is better to give up permanent heating. In this case the situation can be saved by periodic heating of the garage.
Heat speeds up the evaporation of moisture. Dehumidifiers give the best results. An average household dehumidifier collects up to 1-2 liters of water per day. To save money, the dryer can be turned on periodically, during rain or slushy weather.
Devices for safe work with gasoline-powered saws
DEVICES FOR SAFE WORK WITH CHAIN SAWS.
Design of modern gasoline-powered saws allows to protect the operator from accidental human touching the heated parts: the cylinder and muffler (the temperature of the muffler when the gasoline-powered saw is working reaches up to approx. 200 degrees). The engine cylinder is covered by the housing cover and the muffler is separated from the front handle. High-voltage ignition system components are also fully insulated.
The hottest parts of the chainsaw are the cylinder and muffler
As a forest machine operator you are one of the most dangerous jobs in the world. if you look at all the injuries at a forest site, most of them are chain-saw related injuries to the legs and arms. Use of modern (safer and more ergonomic) gasoline-powered tools and special outfit reduces the risk of serious injury.
All modern chain saws have a throttle trigger lock. Accidental pulling of the throttle trigger is therefore impossible. the circuit remains stationary and therefore safe.
All modern petrol chain saws have a chain brake with a response time of tenths of a second.
The boy’s first chainsaws
Operating the chain brake can be contact and inertia.
The chain brake is triggered by activating the chain brake with the wrist when the saw starts to kick back.
A chain brake is the basis for chain saw safety. That’s why all STIHL saws are fitted with a STIHL QuickStop chain brake. Pulling on the front hand guard activates the chain brake manually, and the chain is stopped. The strong kickback action of the brake releases automatically regardless of its position. no hand contact required. In fractions of a second the chain stops completely.
Chainsaws with QuickStop Super are marked with a “Q” in the model name
Some models of this petrol chain saw have an additional safety feature that the STIHL QuickStop Super chain brake engages when the throttle trigger is released. This keeps the operator safe when working, when it is necessary to interrupt frequently and carry the saw from place to place or put it aside.
throttle lever stop
This system makes it possible to activate the brake immediately after releasing the rear handle. That is, the chain stops not only after a strong recoil or activation of the front shield, but also when the hand is removed from the rear handle.
What is the main advantage of this?
QuickStop Super works in any position, without additional levers or handgrips.
When conditions call for quick movements of the chain saw, for example when trimming limbs. this option comes in handy.
No special control is needed. the throttle trigger lock is also the chain brake release lever.
The chain brake activates itself automatically and during transport. no further manipulation is required.
Brake release: Depressing the throttle trigger lock releases the clutch drum and the chain can turn.
Brake activation: just release the rear handle and the brake strap automatically compresses the clutch drum, the chain stops in less than a second.
Kickback and danger sector of the saw bar
One of the most dangerous tool-related incidents is kickback. Kickback is a sharp, violent bounce of the working tool back toward the operator. Kickback occurs when the chain is in motion and the tip of the guide bar hits wood in the upper quarter (12 to 3 o’clock sector). The most common causes of kickback are: working with the tip of the guide bar; plunging with the tip of the guide bar; driving the saw into an existing kerf; bucking up several logs, limbing, etc. д. The only effective way to avoid serious injury from kickback is to stop the moving chain sharply before the saw makes contact with the operator.
When getting a gasoline-powered saw ready for work, and when checking the saw after service and repair, it is important to test the saw’s brake for proper operation. If the brake does not work, it is strictly forbidden to use such a saw.
Inertial engagement of the chain brake is due to the inertial forces resulting from the tool suddenly bouncing back. the inertial forces actuate the brake mechanism that tightens the brake band on the clutch drum and stops the chain.
In addition, there are a number of design solutions to reduce the likelihood of kickback. For example, saw chains with a reduced kickback tendency which have a low profile and special link geometry. Another example is the geometry of the bar end: the smaller its radius, the lower its tendency to kick back.
Tightening the saw
When the moving chain is clamped, the saw can be tightened. If the upper side of the bar is clamped, the direction of the saw motion is toward the operator, if the lower side is clamped, the direction of the saw motion is in the opposite direction. loss of control of the tool and serious injury to the operator.
Checking and starting a chainsaw
Before each start of the chainsaw engine:
- Move the tool at least 3 meters from where you were mixing and filling the fuel tank.
- Make sure there are no people or animals in the area.
- Remove protective cover from tire.
- Be sure the saw chain is clear of the ground, grass and other obstructions.
- Check that the chain is properly tensioned and adjust if necessary.
- The chain is not sharpened, damaged or critically worn;
- The tire is bent, warped, or the tire groove is loose;
- The chain brake is broken, missing or non-functioning;
- Your chain saw shows signs of mechanical damage;
- The chainsaw is missing any of the factory-required components.
Start the chain saw using the following procedure:
- Always start your chainsaw on a flat surface that is free of debris.
- Move the chain brake to the locked position.
- Turn on the ignition.
- Close the choke shutter.
- Hold the chain saw steady with your hand.
- You may additionally support the saw with your foot by stepping on the area under the handle.
- Pull the starter grip several times until the engine fires.
- Open the choke.
- Start the engine.
- Warm up a cold engine for a minute.
When the chainsaw engine is warmed up, start in the same way, but skip steps 4, 7 and 8.
Additional tips for using your chain saw:
- The saw chain is intended for sawing wood only. Do not use the saw for cutting other materials.
- Never use a chain that is too dull. Sawing is done with light pressure, if you have to push hard when sawing and small chips are flying. The chain needs to be sharpened or replaced.
- To extend the life of your blade and chain, maintain proper chain tension and use a high-quality lubricant.
- Be careful when handling fuel. Fill up your saw before you start the engine. Do not smoke while you are fueling your saw.
- Do not store the gasoline-oil mixture for more than 3 weeks, t.к. Gasoline will break down the oil and it will precipitate.
- Use a ratio of 25 grams of 2-stroke oil per liter of gasoline, and 35 grams of 2-stroke oil per liter for a new chain saw.
- Use your chain saw only in well ventilated areas.
- Some cutting tasks require special training. If in doubt, consult a professional.
Additional recommendations for the use of the chainsaw:
- Saw chain is designed to cut only wood. Do not use the saw to cut other materials.
- Never use a chain that is too dull. Sawing is done with light pressure, if you have to push hard when sawing and small chips are flying. the chain needs to be sharpened or replaced.
- To extend the life of your blade and chain, keep the chain properly tensioned and use a high-quality lubricant.
- Be careful with the fuel. Gas up your chainsaw before you start the engine. Do not smoke while filling up the saw.
- Do not store the gasoline-oil mixture for more than 3 weeks.к. Gasoline breaks down the oil and it precipitates.
- Use a ratio of 25 grams of 2-stroke oil per liter of gasoline, for a new saw first tank 35 grams of 2-stroke oil per liter.
- Use chain saw only in well ventilated areas.
- Some cutting tasks require special training. If you are in doubt, you should consult an expert.
Safety precautions when working with chain saws
The sleek motor housing of a modern chainsaw keeps the chainsaw perfectly balanced and easy to control while you’re sawing. Electric chainsaws are simple and easy to use, so it makes sense to use them in places where you can connect to an electrical outlet. Garden chain saws and electric chainsaws are comparable in power and efficiency to professional models. Electric chainsaw (chain saw) will be useful in the private household not only for garden work, but also for the construction or repair of facilities.
If you have any questions or you want to bring a chain saw to repair, we are happy to help! Appeal to the store “MotoMir” at: c Volzhsky, Lenin Avenue, 302b.
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