How to correctly cut the tree in the right direction
To avoid injury when felling a tree, the slicer should always aim in the right direction. It is considered correct to position yourself in such a way that the tree feller can get away from danger at any time. For this reason, before felling trees, the operator must clear away any small growth that could cause him to trip or fall. Hold the saw with both hands when you are cutting and stay in the opposite zone from where you plan to cut the tree.
It is only permitted to be in the fall area of the tree to cut the wedge. this is the first thing to do.
How to cut trees properly with a chainsaw
At first glance it may seem like a fairly straightforward task, especially since most gardeners have a chainsaw, and hardly anyone chops trees with an axe in the old-fashioned way. However, in fact, this work requires considerable effort and skill. About how to properly fell trees, we will tell in this article.
First of all, it is necessary to talk about safety precautions, which, unfortunately, many people neglect. First, to work with a chainsaw, do not wear wide clothing and jewelry. Secondly, don’t forget protective equipment: special glasses, thick gloves, silencers. The shoes must be non-slip. Before felling trees with a chainsaw, be sure to check that the chain is properly sharpened. It is also very important to tension it correctly, if it is done correctly, when pulling the chain away from the top of the bar the guide teeth should not come out of the groove. Check the chain tension every time you refill the oil.
And now the work itself. Felling trees in the countryside can be complicated by the fact that there may be houses or various buildings nearby. In this regard, you need to carefully inspect the area and plan the trajectory of the tree fall so that it does not damage nearby objects. Please note that it is extremely not recommended to carry out the work in strong winds. If you want to cut an emergency tree, make sure there are no dead limbs that could fall on you.
You also have to think of a way to get out of the working area, which should be clear of any obstacles. When felling a tree it is important not to let it get caught in the branches of neighboring trees, this will not only cause you a lot of inconvenience (it will be quite problematic to remove it), but it can also put it in danger. It is also important to realize that you not only cut the tree but also have to work on it, so it is better to choose such a direction of fall that no obstacles (like the terrain or the presence of other objects) arise during further work.
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Felling towards the slope
If the tree is straight and low (up to 4 meters), has a slope of at least two or three degrees, you can use the technique of felling towards the slope to cut it. The first thing to do is to decide on the height at which the sawing will be done. It depends on the final goal of the procedure:
- if the stump must be uprooted, cut at a height of 70 cm to 1 m from the ground (the remainder of the trunk will later serve as a lever);
- if the stump will remain in the ground or it is planned to be removed with chemicals, it is enough to leave 30-50 cm;
- If you plan to remove the tree stump with a chipper, look at the height of its cutter’s lift. you have to leave about three fourths of this lift.
It is more convenient to fell trunks towards the slope Source aograd.A detailed inspection of the tree will help you choose the depth of the felling. A healthy plant needs to be undercut by half of the trunk. A sick plant needs only about 20-40% of the thickness of the trunk, a musty plant needs about 20% of the trunk.
Consider how to correctly saw a tree in the direction of the slope. First make sure there are no obstacles in the place where the tree is going to fall (sloping side). After that it is necessary to make a notch on the slanting side which will become a guide. The second, deeper cut is made from the opposite side. If everything is done correctly, after these steps, the tree will begin to fall in the direction of its slope.
How to correctly cut the tree and fall it in the right direction
When pruning and felling you must clear a path to get out of the way beforehand. Of course a helper has to control the falling of each cut branch with the tied down rope, but no one can be sure that the branch will suddenly change its trajectory.
Never use a ladder. To secure yourself at height, wrap the second sling around the trunk twice and put your feet in the loops on its ends. Wear closed clothes, goggles, and gloves only. The head should be protected by a helmet or at least a tight hat. You should not only have a chain saw, but also about 100 meters of strong rope for belaying and keep a light halyard handy in case the branches get too close together.
The main problem when felling trees is that it is impossible to predict exactly how the weight of the crown is distributed. You cannot accurately predict the course of the fall, even if you trim the tree correctly. To make the work easier, it is recommended to carry out the work in spring or late fall, when the crown is sparsest. The weather must be windless and dry and the wood must not be slippery after a recent rain. First set up a stepladder and trim all lower branches that are within reach. Place the ladder in such a way that the tree trunk is between it and the branch to be cut. The most advantageous position even when working without a ladder is when you hold the chainsaw with both hands and as if embracing the trunk.
Always trim the crown in ascending order so the branches fall freely and do not get tangled in the lower branches which are not yet cut. A rope, which an assistant can use to help control the fall, should be tied 1-1.5 meters away from the tree. The branches should be cut so that there are 30-40 cm long branches left, on which you can easily put slings or lean on with your legs. When the stepladder is not high enough, throw the footstrap over the most convenient bough or wrap it around the trunk at the desired height, and then rest your feet on the loops. You should stand so that the place for sawing is at breast level or just below. Hugging the tree with one hand, wrap the second sling (or better the chain) twice around the tree to insure the belt, connect the loops with a carabiner and screw the coupling on it. The second advantageous position is with your back to the trunk and with your feet on the branch to be cut, of course half a meter in front of you.
Before you start cutting, adjust the length and height of the lines for comfort and make sure you have enough room to maneuver. After that, you can lift the chainsaw from the ground by the rope tied to the handle, and you should choose a location as far away from the tool’s controls as possible.
Some trees don’t need pruning, some trees can’t be felled otherwise. Especially if there are gas pipes or power line wires near the crown. As we said before, the main purpose of trimming is to balance the tree, so it is not necessary to trim branches on the side where you plan to do the fall. Equally important is the height of the tree. If you can’t clear an area beneath the tree to the right length, you need to shorten the trunk. Naturally you have to trim all the lower tiers beforehand, and sometimes you even have to trim the deadwood side. What can you do? Sometimes the crown gets all twisted up in very strange ways. When working in gardens and green spaces neighboring trees often get in the way. Unless it’s dead wood, you don’t want to touch it. It is much better to trim off branches piece by piece, starting with the branch farthest away from the trunk that you can safely reach. Even if small fragments of branches get stuck in their own or a neighbor’s crown, the helper can easily yank them down and away.
It’s safe to say that you should only start felling if The tree after being felled looks like it is going to fall exactly the way you want it to. The height of the tree is 30-50% less than the length of the cleared area, similarly with the width of the crown. There are other trees or stationary objects nearby which you can attach pull ropes to guide the tree when it falls.
Now you can move on to the easiest part of the process and fell the peeled trunk. It’s really easy, the main thing is to make a correct notch. From the side where you plan to fell the tree, make a 60° notch with the chainsaw from top to bottom, one-third of the diameter of the trunk, as shown in the diagram below. Then from the lower part we make a straight cut or at an angle of 30 degrees so that we end up with a wedge. The wood will fall in a direction perpendicular to the mowing line of the bend obtained after knocking out the wedge, so it is desirable to make the joint of both notches as even as possible.
From the back side indent upwards from the plane of the bottom notch 2/3 of diameter of a trunk or slightly more. Sawing diagonally downward, toward the inside corner of the wedge-shaped notch. When you get close to the center you will hear a characteristic crack, and the tree will slowly start to tilt. You should immediately take the saw out of the expanding notch and calmly step five meters away from the tree. There is no need to tie down or pull on any ropes. the trunk will fall by itself. On the contrary, there should not be any in the direction of the fall. Don’t forget you should still tie down the line.
All that’s left to do is clean up after ourselves. In fact: you don’t want to leave the cut tree and stump as it is. First cut all remaining limbs and branches right down to their base. Cut the forks crosswise so that one cut cuts off both divergent parts. Depending on what kind of tree you fell and how you plan to use the wood, cut the trunk into pieces, taking into account the available method of transportation. The remaining stump is too tedious to uproot by hand. Using a 16-20 mm wood auger, drill vertical holes in the trunk cut to such a depth that they go 15-20 cm below the ground. Drill at staggered intervals of 5-7 cm. Using a funnel and a ramrod, fill the holes with ammonium nitrate up to the top, and cover the top with a piece of roofing felt. By next season, the stump will have turned to chaff, and you can easily remove the remains.
We hope it is not necessary to explain why felling trees requires a special approach to ensuring the safety of the work. You must have a clear and sober understanding of the threats to life, property and the surrounding areas posed by the uncontrolled fall of cut branches and the tree itself. In the same way you should be aware of the dangers of working at height.
We will give you some safety guidelines when describing the cutting technique, but most of them are of general importance and therefore have to be followed before you even pick up the chainsaw.
First of all, make sure you have a safety net in place. If you do not have a special harness, tie one yourself:
- Fold the rope (1 t or more to break) about 2.5 meters long in half.
- Put it between your legs with the loop backwards.
- Tie an octopus knot in the front of your waistband.
- Wrap the loose ends around the torso, passing each through the loop at the back.
- Tighten the ends and tie them in the front over the figure eight.
Figure of a figure eight knot
Figure eight for hooking the carabiner or rope
The loop in the front is for hooking the carabiner, which is fastened to the lifeline wrapped twice around the tree trunk. Tie a figure-of-eight knot or a Prusik’s loop at the ends of the sling. Tie anywhere, but it’s best if there’s a massive bough or branch just below. It’s not a good idea to loop the cord around your waist, because if you fall, there’s a big risk of injuring your ribs and spine.
Here’s another way to tie it on top of a heavy bough or branch
When pruning and felling you should clear escape routes in advance. Of course, the fall of each pruned branch must be controlled by an assistant with a tied rope, but no one is immune to the fact that the branch will suddenly change its trajectory.
Never work from a ladder. To secure yourself at height, wrap a second sling around the trunk twice and put your feet through the loops at the ends. Work only when wearing closed clothes, goggles and gloves. A helmet or at least a hard hat must protect the head. Apart from your chainsaw, make sure you have about 100 meters of strong twine and have a light halyard handy in case the branches get too close together.
Work clothing. 2. Helmet. 3. Safety Glasses. 4. Chain saw. 5. Rope. 6. Felling wedge. 7. Chainsaw. 8. Hand saw
To properly cut down a large tree with a chainsaw, you need to protect yourself competently from all sorts of dangers, such as getting wood chips in the eyes, stunned by the motor and other. Therefore, the worker should first look at the video and find
The chainsaw must be checked for malfunctions before it is started. If necessary, change the oil or fill the tool with fuel. If you have not used a chain saw before, you should study the instruction manual and try it out for a dry run to be sure it operates properly. An important point. the tool should be held very firmly and in the right direction, because with a small wrong move to the side it can easily injure the worker.
Start the chain saw when other people or animals move away from the saw at a safe distance. One more important rule is to avoid working at height, because it is dangerous even for experienced workers.
Felling with precutting
There are a number of trees which should not be removed from the site without first cutting down excessive branches. This is especially true when there are power lines or gas pipes nearby.
The main purpose of pruning is to balance, so cutting branches from the side where the trunk will fall is not necessary.
It is important to correctly calculate the area where the unwanted tree will fall. If you can not free up the entire length of the area, the tree is cut down in parts.
- After processing it is clearly visible that the felled trunk will fall in the right direction;
- the height is 30-50% less than the cleared area for the fall;
- There are stationary objects and other trees nearby which can be used to secure the tree when tilting it.
When everything is correct, you can start felling.
The first step is to inspect the tree and choose a felling direction. Then prepare the work area for felling and make the felling and sawing work. Make sure the tree has fallen in the direction you have planned and then go on to the next tree.
What is the purpose of the tree inspection? In order to assess felling conditions and then decide which felling techniques are appropriate for safely felling a tree which should be felled in the direction shown in the training map. The preservation of undergrowth must be taken into account, and damage to the undergrowth minimized. During the inspection the tree feller has to assess the wood of the trunk, visually determine the diameter and slope of the trunk, reveal the structure of the crown of the plant, take into account the strength and direction of the wind.
The wind strength is determined with a cup anemometer, but most often the wind is determined with the Beaufort scale, and at logging sites this is probably the only way. According to Beaufort, the strength of the wind has an approximate definition and is measured in points. Point 4. a moderate wind that can move only the thin branches of woody plants. 5 points. fresh wind, with large limbs in motion. 6 points. strong winds that sway thick limbs and the crown of the tree. 7 points. a strong wind that can rock the trunks of trees and bend large branches, even a person finds it difficult to walk against such a wind. In six point winds it is already forbidden to make felling in order to avoid accidents.
When making the technological map the general direction of tree fall is established. This direction is based on the skidding method. Correct felling is important for the safety of the feller brigade and also for the preservation of undergrowth. So it goes without saying that felling trees in a given direction is mandatory, and this must be taken into account when drawing up the technological map. However there are some exceptions, which are based on the need to deviate from the general rules, as it is impossible to maintain safe and defect-free felling with the given felling tools for various reasons.
Tree Falling: Directional Steering with the Back Cut
How to correctly prepare the working place? To do this remove all bushes and branches that hang low and interfere with the felling process. In winter, it is necessary to clear the snow from the trees, as well as to make waste paths. if the snow is not too deep, it can be removed by a lumberjack; if the snow is 0,6 m deep, it needs a separate employee to make the felling.
The next felling technique is the felling notch. It is made from the direction of fall, making sure the tree will fall in the right direction. Additionally, the felling notch prevents the trunk from splitting or cracking any part of it. Do not fell a tree without a felling notch to avoid injury to the tree feller.
Felling is made by a mechanized saw in the form of a characteristic wedge with a certain angle a=20-40 degrees, or two horizontal cuts, the distance between which bn not less than 0.1 d.
The depth of the undercut may be different. The felling is influenced by: the structure of the crown of the plant, the slope of the trunk, the direction and strength of the wind. For upright trees with a straight crown and no wind obstructions, the felling notch is made to a quarter of the trunk diameter (c=1/4 d). Trees with large crowns or with trunks sloping towards the top should be sawn to the depth of one third of the trunk diameter (c=1/3d) to avoid chipping. The same depth of felling is performed in a crosswind in the direction of felling. If the wind is blowing against the wind or if the trunk is sloping against the direction of fall, the felling depth is about 1/5 of the trunk diameter. This shallow felling is necessary to avoid the tree falling in the opposite direction of the fell, either sloping or downwind. Thin trees may be felled without an undercut!
The next step after the felling is sawing. Make the cut on the opposite side of the tree, aim horizontally and above the base of the felling notch. The height of the tree stump (h) may not exceed one third (1/3d) of the trunk diameter, but never more than 10 cm from the root bole! Medium-sized trees can be felled in one or two stages if the guide bar length allows it. Large trees should be sawn off in three stages, fanning out.
When a tree is sawn, an area of wood, called an undercut, is left behind. In fact, an undercut acts as a pivot, around the undercut arises the rotation of the falling tree. An undercut prevents the tree from falling over accidentally, and also prevents directional felling. If the tree is sawn all the way down, it will fall to the side, whether from a gentle breeze or a slight incline. This is the reason why an undercut is left. A good felling notch, good sawing, and good undercutting help to put an overhang on the trunk that keeps the butt from moving to the opposite side of the fell. If the width of the hinge is too narrow, more effort is needed to fell the tree.
There is a certain width of undercutting, depending on the diameter of the tree, for safety reasons. For trees up to 20 cm in diameter, leave an undercut of 1 cm in width. If trees up to 40 cm in diameter the hollow width is 2 cm. Up to 60 cm in diameter 3 cm and over 60 cm width 4 cm. If there is foul rot, the width of the felling notch is increased by 2-3 cm.
How to Safely Notch a Tree for Direct Felling
As a rule, the felling is as wide as it gets, but there are many other forms of felling. If the tree is sloping sideways, or if it is being carried away by a crosswind, the felling must be cut in the form of a wedge. The wider part of the wedge-shaped shortcut breaks slower than the narrower part, which means it holds the tree longer and thereby turns the butt part of the tree around on its axis. This causes the falling tree to turn in the direction the logger wants it to turn. One can say that felling operators “steer” the wood in this way, but only experienced felling operators know how to do it.
An unsawn tree keeps it from falling, and in order for it to fall in the right direction it must be influenced. There are special felling devices for this, but we will talk about this in the following articles. Today we’ve looked at felling techniques.
Sawing and felling trees on the site: technology, safety, legal framework for tree removal
Despite current legislation in the field of green space preservation, sometimes there are situations, both in the city and in the countryside, which are forced to resort to the cutting of trees and overgrown shrubs. But even in certain circumstances you need to know exactly how to correctly perform tree felling in each specific case.