How to cut a doorway in foam block
Features of the installation of the entrance door in aerated concrete and foam block
When there is a need to change the existing layout of the house or apartment, a partition from foam concrete with their own hands is an excellent solution to this problem. This will help owners create a new housing scheme without destroying load-bearing walls.
Among the different materials, foam block for partitions is the most appropriate. At low weight it has high strength. It can be easily processed, so you can set any shape. At the same time it is fire safe. Since the masonry partition walls made of foam blocks has a large height with a small thickness, it must be reinforced. And for better sound insulation, you should choose blocks with a lower bulk density.
What is the material
The main difference is that in the process of construction work there is no need to spend extra money on insulation, the costs associated with heating the room are reduced by three times.
The material does not create a heavy load on the foundation, it is easy to work with. A comfortable microclimate is maintained inside the room.
The only disadvantage is its fragility. Houses made of foam concrete material must be reinforced at several levels.
Stopping the doorway with foam blocks
Foamblock is among the most popular material used in low-rise construction.
The block is a good combination of reasonable price, excellent insulating qualities and high durability index. For this reason, it is used not only for the construction of partitions, but also for load-bearing walls.
For obvious reasons, sooner or later the question arises. how to make a doorway in the wall of penblocks.
Bookmarking the doorway with bricks
Often, when remodeling the premises is done filling the doorway with brick, because not always the owners of apartments, houses is satisfied with the existing location of the door.
This may be a transfer of the opening to a new location, or laying it in a room where two doors and the room is passable, for other reasons.
In any case, consider the process of performing the work itself with the use of bricks. this is probably the most frequently used option of laying the opening.
First of all, you must decide which way you will perform the laying of the opening. It is imperative that the newly laid section of the wall or brick partition be connected with the existing one.
A door opening can be made:
- The first wayFrom the existing opening knocked out at the edges of two to four rows along the height of the opening bricks to a depth of at least 120mm (half a brick), forming the so-called recesses for dressing masonry. The bricks of the newly built wall on M. 50 cement mortar will go into these gaps, thus creating a firm bond with the old surface.
- The second wayThe use of anchoring elements. reinforcing bars with a diameter of 6. 10 mm or large nails 200 mm long, which are installed in the joints of masonry in three to four rows in height. Anchoring elements must go into the joints of the doorway to a depth of at least 100 mm. In terms of the distance between the rods is recommended to perform with a spacing of about 100 mm. For a more technologically advanced installation of them apply peoratora for drilling slots in the joints of the old wall.
Brick laying technique
Bricking the doorway begins, as with all processes, with the preparation of the opening itself. First of all, it is necessary to perform dismantling work. this is the removal of the door leaf, removing the door frame, oakum, foam, if any, cutting down the mortar from the slopes.
The new brick structure must rest on a solid and level base. The base can be concrete or reinforced concrete. floor slabs, for example.
Allowed to base the insert on a good quality cement screed, which is laid directly on the reinforced concrete floor slabs. If the screed is crumbling, it is better to remove it altogether before overlapping.
Dismantle the floor covering, the threshold, if it is present in the area of work, clear the place of the brick insert. Remove debris, dust and forward.
If you decide to choose the first method and make punctures, then after pulling out the bricks on the edges of the opening, then be sure to moisten the sides of it and the base with water. Brickwork is performed according to the usual requirements for it. Read more about the technology in the article. the device of brick partitions.
To save money, if you have a used brick, then after cleaning it from mortar, you can safely use it for laying the opening. This is often practiced because the embedded opening does not carry any load. a lintel remains above it. Insertion. a self-supporting part of the wall, partition.
With the second method of sealing, if you decide to ensure the monolithicity of the old and new construction with anchors, then lay out three to four rows, drill holes in the joints of the existing wall of the opening and hammer in there reinforcing pins or nails.
At the same time, make sure that the joints of the new construction coincide with the existing joints of the wall or partition horizontally. The joints are carefully filled with mortar.
Almost always between the top row and the bottom of the opening is a gap, which can be filled with mortar, pieces of brick with mortar. Check the evenness of the masonry opening vertically with a rule or even ruler.
If you want to know what criteria are controlled by the quality of work, then read the article. quality control of masonry.
The aperture, as an option, can be closed with fortan, foam blocks, if the wall has the appropriate width. Gypsum board. one of the options, the installation process is dry and clean, but the strength of the surface is incomparable with brick. Look at the situation.
If you plan to nail something to the terminated opening, you will not be able to hang heavy objects on this area, hinged cabinets with dishes, rolling and so on. Of course, you can provide reinforcement profiles, but it is not expedient.
After patching the doorway, all that’s left to do is to plaster the new area, and then proceed with the finishing work. Bricking the doorway is not a super complicated process. This work can be done with their own hands, if you have the basic skills of a builder.
How to lay the foam block
According to a previously created scheme outline the frame of the partition on the floor, and then using a plumb line transfer the boundaries to the ceiling. Using a dye thread or level, on the floor and ceiling, a line for the boundary trimmer is beaten off. On the adjoining walls, the frame of the future structure is applied in the same way. These frames are needed to erect an even interior partition walls of foam concrete. Also on the walls you can fasten metal profiles for mounting plasterboard partitions.
And to control the evenness of the foam concrete walls over their entire plane, stretch a fishing line for a trimmer between the mounted pendulums. This will later save time and effort during plastering and puttying.
Before the first masonry floor is swept and cleaned of dirt, dust, and apply a primer of deep penetration. If the base is wooden, pins are hammered into it to give strength to the future wall, only then on the mortar. If the floor is concrete, the foam blocks can be put directly on the mortar.
The next rows can be put also in mortar, or one can use adhesive mixtures and gypsum plaster. Even tile adhesive can be suitable for this purpose. However, its consumption at a thickness of 2 mm will be approximately 15 kg/m³.
The joints in the rows should be done in a staggered manner to make the foam concrete walls more solid and rigid. To do this, begin the first row with a whole block, and the next one with a half. Since this material is easy to handle, it is not very difficult to do.
For greater strength every 3-4 rows a reinforcing mesh should be laid. Also, iron pins are inserted into the bearing walls, so that they will later enter into the masonry.
When the installation of the partition made of foam blocks is completed, putty all the holes, cracks and crevices with putty. Afterwards the surface is primed. Plastering begins only after the mixture and putty have dried.
Before laying the doorway, it should be properly prepared:
- Remove the old door and dismantle its parts: the door frame, the threshold and the sealing material;
- if the door stood in the brick or concrete wall opening on wooden embedded parts, they should be knocked out;
- Remove a layer of old mortar from the ends of the partition wall, where the masonry will subsequently adjoin;
- Remove the floor covering and part of the screed to the floor slab;
- Remove debris and dust.
Installation of the door opening must be made on a solid foundation. foundation or floor slab. If the screed under the door is recent and of good quality, it is allowed to put the partition directly on it, in other cases this layer of mortar must be removed. Before masonry work is carried out, a new waterproofing layer of ruberoid must be laid from the strip footing of the building.
When preparing window openings for caulking, the same operations are performed, only instead of the threshold it is necessary to remove the window sill. It is also a good idea to remove loose plaster during the dismantling process. Remove all wooden parts from the wall and remove debris.
For masonry it is recommended to use the same brick of which the building structure. Used material is also suitable, provided that it does not consist of solid halves and does not crumble in the hands. If the design of the house concrete or cinder block, then both white silicate and red ceramic bricks are suitable. For holes in walls made of cellular concrete and aerated concrete masonry is not suitable, they are sealed with the appropriate material.
Dimensions and parameters of openings and door units
There are indicators that are often used in the construction of doorways. They look like this:
|The size of the cloth in width and height (cm)||The size of the door frame in width and height (cm)||The desired size of the opening in width and height with the maximum values (cm)||Outer dimensions of blocks, including moldings, width and height (cm)|
|55,0 х 188,0||61,5 х 192,3||63,5 х 193,5||75,0 х 200,0|
|60,0 х 190,0||66,5 х 194,3||68,5 х 195,5||80,0 х 202,0|
|60,0 х 200,0||66,5 х 204,3||68,5 х 205,5||80,0 х 212,0|
|70,0 х 200,0||76,5 х 204,3||78,5 х 205,5||90,0 х 212,0|
|80,0 х 200,0||86,5 х 204,3||88,5 х 205,5||100,0 х 212,0|
|90,0 х 200,0||96,5 х 204,3||98,5 х 205,5||110,0 х 212,0|
|60,0 х 210,0||66,5 х 214,3||68,5 х 215,5||80,0 х 220,0|
|70,0 х 210,0||76,5 х 214,3||78,5 х 215,5||90,0 х 220,0|
|80,0 х 210,0||86,5 х 214,3||88,5 х 215,5||100,0 х 220,0|
|90,0 х 210,0||96,5 х 214,3||98,5 х 215,5||110,0 х 220,0|
Penblock partition walls masonry technology
For installation we usually use 100 mm thick foam blocks. Penoblock partitions are most often of this thickness. If the work is carried out in a private home and for the partition has not been poured the foundation, you need to make a shallow-depth base to a depth of 30-40 cm. In order that the partition wall in the apartment of foam blocks was stable, the floor coating is removed to the floor slab and made screed under the level.
On the opposite walls install vertical screeds (profiles) to make the partition wall of foam blocks turned out strictly vertical.
To make the interior partition wall of foam blocks was stronger, and for fixing to the adjoining walls, in them after 2-3 rows laid pieces of rebar with a diameter of 10-12 mm and a length of 40-50 cm in the blind holes depth of 100-150 mm. These works can be performed as in the process of reinforcing a partition wall of foam blocks, or separately.
Step by step instructions for constructing a foam block partition wall
The erection of partition walls is carried out similarly to masonry of any other piece of material. Installing partition walls of foam concrete involves performing the dressing of rows to separate the vertical joints. This increases the strength of the construction.
Erecting partitions from foam blocks step by step.
- Take out the trash, remove the dust.
- Primer is applied to the ceiling area, supporting wall and floor.
- The surfaces are marked out. Chalking a level line for a trimmer. Alternatively, a strong cord or fine twine is used to mark them out. First you need to make marks on the ceiling. For correct geometry, prior to the construction of the foam block partition, the remaining boundaries are marked in advance with a level.
- If necessary, before the installation of the foam block partition, the soundproofing floor is arranged. You can lay a layer of roofing felt or other roll material with similar properties.
- Strips of steel bars are hammered into the floor to support the first row of masonry.
- A layer of binder is applied to the wall and floor surfaces. It can be a cement-sand mixture or mounting glue.
- Partitioning foam block is mounted against the wall. Parallel binding with the armature is done. Half of the 25 cm long rod is inserted into the hole drilled into the supporting construction. The remaining part is laid between the rows of masonry material.
- When installing the foam concrete blocks, in subsequent rows you must comply with the offset from the previous horizon. The minimum deviation is 25% of the length of an individual partition foam block.
- The obligatory condition is the reinforcement of the masonry.
- If an opening is planned, after row 7 for the lintel lay two bars of reinforcement in the grooves prepared in advance in the blocks. After that, at least two rows of masonry are laid. Between the ceiling and foam blocks of the partition there must be a gap of 20-40 mm. After two days the adhesive dries, and the gap can be filled with building foam.
- Adjust the size of the door opening with an angle grinder, removing the excess mass, while controlling the verticality.
- If the erection of a partition wall of foam blocks is carried out during construction, between the upper row of interroom foam blocks and the ceiling leave a gap of 15 mm. It is blown on both sides of the wall with assembly foam. Such a thermal gap compensates possible shrinkage of the building.
On the necessity of a gap between the ceiling and the top of the partition a little more. The fact that over time, the building shrinks. Bearing walls can sag, but partitions cannot. If there is no gap, the floors can squeeze, damage the foam concrete partition. Well, the installation foam, which is usually poured between the partition and the ceiling, such shifts selffits.
The need for reinforcement
It is believed that increasing the strength is only necessary if you are building in an earthquake zone. And if the site is located on the sedimentary soils it is not necessary to do.
Nevertheless, in a private home, especially if the partition wall of foam blocks is not inter-room, reinforcement is better to do. When it separates the toilet and pantry, for example, having only one point of contact with the solid wall.
A metal mesh or reinforcement is used for reinforcement.
In the first case, the strengthening is carried out as follows:
The mesh must not protrude over the surface of the bonding mortar, i.e.к. this would compromise the bonding quality of the masonry rows.
In the second option, the reinforcement is placed in previously prepared grooves and filled with glue. Rods with a diameter of about 8 mm are used.
Choosing the material: what to seal the doorway in the wall
Many apartment owners are faced with an uncomfortable layout of the dwelling. The doorway may be uncomfortable or less functional if one room is isolated and the other is pass-through. To close the doorway use blind caulking.
To seal the doorway, which has become unnecessary, you can use any material, which is at hand
It can be carried out with the help of:
The first two materials are inexpensive and do an excellent job. You can close the door opening yourself. To do this, you need to level the place of the opening with the wall, and make the entrance to the room in another convenient location.
Sometimes, you can enter the far room by walking diagonally across the living room. The same way you need to pass to get into the bathroom, toilet, kitchen or hallway. This layout is not convenient if the family has children and they live in the far room. You can move the doorway to another part and separate the nursery from the living room or parents’ room. The old doorway will have to be gotten rid of.
Foam blocks are a good material for this purpose. Their cost is slightly higher than the first two materials. They are suitable for caulking the opening in panel houses.
How to install doors
First, you will need to prepare tools that are not highly specialized or professional.
- Preparing. Purchased door construction unpacked, carefully examine the completeness. It is mandatory to check the functionality of the lock and that the included hinges can be adjusted.
Important! If the door was without a protective film, then you have to protect it with a polyethylene film yourself, and the box to cover it with masking tape.
Then proceed to prepare the place where the product will be attached. If there are any objects nearby, they also need to be protected. In addition, decide on the side in which the door will open and the thickness of the gap.
- Dismantling. When replacing the entrance structures in a country or private house, this process is relevant. But if the house is new, then this step is skipped. If the canvas is hinged on the hinges, which are not disassembled, then it is removed by lifting up. The door can be removed easily with this method. Metal doors have a lot of weight, so you can dismantle them with a crowbar. If the hinges are dismountable, use a screwdriver to unscrew them. When dismantling a wooden door, it is necessary to unscrew the anchors, and the opening is tidied.
Remove the old door
- Preparing the door opening. Before installing an entrance door, note that metal structures are not subject to undercutting. The door leaf has standard dimensions and, of course, it can not be trimmed so as not to compromise the integrity and appearance. Therefore, before installing a door, you must carefully measure the parameters of the opening. It is practical to use doors with a width of at least 86 cm, as it is more convenient to carry furniture or appliances into the room through them. Sometimes it is necessary to reduce the opening to put a frame of metal. The disadvantage of this method is the emergence of thermal bridges. But there is a solution. to equip the slopes with insulation. To enlarge the opening, remove part of the wall with an angle grinder.
Attention! To make the opening wider, do not use impact methods so as not to disturb the load-bearing structure of the building.
Metal entrance door is heavy, because the optimal thickness of metal is 2 or 3 mm. The nondurable walls of hollow blocks may not be able to withstand the weight. In this case, cast a monolithic gantry and connect it with rebar to the wall. Then the door frame is installed in it.
It is not recommended to install a steel door into a wall that is less than 15 centimeters thick. If so, think about making the wall thicker. The load on the floor also increases, so check its strength. If bricks or timber were used for the old structure, they are dismantled, and the place is cleaned and poured with concrete.