How to cut low frequencies on a speaker
Sub. bottom: cut or leave ? (1 online
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Some sources say that deep bass frequencies, while inaudible, also overload the sound track, and in general are only harmful. Other sources say that even though they are inaudible, they act as such a “substrate”, and without them the music sounds poorer in the low end. So what to do with them ?
Be like a sculptor.
This saying bluntly says, “cut and paste and be an artist.”. So imagine yourself as a sculptor, you have a block of stone in front of you, you must carve a sculpture out of it, give it shape and volume.
It’s the same with the sound or music you’re going to process. Just imagine that in front of you a stone, cut unnecessary purity, it can be both low and high frequencies, but do not overdo it, or your figure will get naked.
Adjusting the mid-bass and subwoofer
Practice shows that the sub should be set up so that the bass is well matched to the front speakers, there are no frequency gaps, etc.д. In other words, it’s not enough to tune the subwoofer, because the midbass speakers will also need tweaking.
As an example, if the subwoofer settings assume a top cut at 63 Hz, with the midbass cut at 100 Hz from below, a dip may occur in this case. A different cutoff frequency causes certain frequencies to “stick out” while others sound worse.
For proper tuning, you will need to make the section of the AFC smooth by slightly changing the LPF and HPF cutoff frequencies. You can do this both by ear and with an RTA analyzer. The main thing is to achieve a dense and voluminous sound so that there is no “frequency dropout”.
How to tune the cuts on an amplifier
The subwoofer is an important part of the car’s sound system. It is what allows you not only to listen to music, but to feel its depth and volume with your whole body. It is the correct setting of the subwoofer in the car that can significantly increase the pleasure of listening to music.
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There is an opinion that the subwoofer in the car is necessary only for the young listening to the womb Afro-American rap music that disembowels It really doesn’t. The subwoofer only allows you to extend the dynamic range of playback. In fact there are low frequencies in almost any musical material, even in classical music.
But small door speakers don’t allow you to listen to low bass. But a subwoofer can excellently cope with it. Naturally, if the subwoofer is properly made and the subwoofer in the car is properly tuned.
How to set orders and cuts in component acoustics
In this video we talk about tuning. Dmitriy Prikolota explains what are the basic cuts and their orders can be set when tuning two- and three-way acoustics, both near-field and pop components. Watch the video here:
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And below you can read the text version of this video.
How to set the cuts and orders in component speakers
Hello, friends! With you Dmitry Prykolota and AutoSound School.
One of the questions we are often asked is “How do you set the cuts??”, “What cuts? Recommend for one or the other speaker“. That’s why we decided to record such a short video, which would tell about the basic settings of cutoff frequencies and their orders. That is, how to “filter” the acoustics, both for component speakers and for pop.
How to tune your amplifier in 5 minutes?
But again, these recommendations are just a basis. Every system will have different final filter settings. Why? Because it all depends on the components, on the “iron” and on what you want to get as a result.
So, let’s take a look at some basic filter settings. For component speakers: the HPF is 4 kHz second order on the tweeter, the HPF is 80 Hz for the midrange, and the LPF is 3.15 kHz. This is all in second order. LPF for subwoofer. 63 Hz, second order. As you will see later, for a subwoofer, this parameter will not change in principle.
One more important thing to note: it does not matter if your signal is filtered in the head unit or in the amplifier. What’s important is how and in what form the cut off signal reaches the drivers themselves.
Next, let’s consider the case when we have not the classic “two-way subwoofer front” scheme, but another scheme, which is more expensive and better. This is a three-way subwoofer front.
For a tweeter, in this case, the HPF is a 6.3kHz second order cut-off. For the low pass filter midrange drivers, it’s 4kHz in second order, so that’s 12 decibels per octave. For HPF rigid cone midrange speakers, 500 Hz, second order. For a midrange speaker with a dome, the HPF is 1.25kHz in second order. It has to do with the possibilities and design features of any particular midrange frequencies.
For the midbass, in this case or rather, it should be called a midwoofer, we set the HPF to 80 Hz, second order. Low pass filter 250Hz, second order. And on the subwoofer, as already said, we leave the LPF at 63 Hz, second order.
As for the pop acoustics, everything changes here, it becomes a little bit different. For high pass filter. 8 kHz, second order. In this case, the HPF for the classic two-way radio is 160 Hz in the second order, and the low pass filter is 4 kHz in the second order, too. For the subwoofer we leave the low pass filter at 63 Hz, second order.
If we’re building a variety system, but already three-way, everything is also a little bit different. For high pass filter for tweeter we also have 8 kHz in second order. For the midrange LPF is 4 kHz, second order, and HPF is 500 Hz, second order. For the midrange we keep the HPF at 120 Hz in second order, and the LPF at 250 Hz in second order. And the subwoofer (LPF) also stays at 63 Hz, second order.
Tuning the cuts on the radio and the amplifier. Do-it-yourself car audio
So, to summarize! These recommendations for filtering the system are basic, and we will use them as a basis for setting up our audio system. It’s not just the cutoff frequency that we can change in the tuning process. It all depends on what our audio system can do. You have to listen to it. Maybe the midbass can play a little lower, maybe it will need to be “spread out” a little bit at the top. Maybe the tweeter can go a little lower, and there won’t be any artifacts, distortions in the sound.
This is the same for pop systems. But in addition to changing the frequency in the process of tuning, if your audio system configuration and filtering capabilities allow you to change the order, then, of course, the order is also changed. So the orders change, if we need to lower the frequency, the order should be higher. If we need to raise the frequency, we have to lower the order, i.e. go to the first order.
It’s all decided directly in the process of tuning the audio system. The final cuts are your own personal machine. Crossovers from someone else’s car won’t work for you, most likely. With few exceptions, if the systems are nearly identical.
And that’s all for today, my friends! I hope the video was useful to you. If it was, give it a “like”, share this material with your friends and subscribe to the channel!
This is Dmitry Prikolota with you and AutoSound School.
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Influence of bandpass filter
It was noted above that the equivalent quality factor Qt of the head corresponds to its operation from source with zero internal resistance, t. е. in short-circuit mode.
However, due to the influence of the band-pass filter, the operation of the midrange heads at the resonant frequency differs markedly from the short-circuit mode. Let’s consider, for example, the work of the head with the second order filter (fig. 2а).
Resistance of the oscillating circuit L1C1 is small only in the filter bandwidth, and beyond its limits as the frequency decreases so increases that near the resonant frequency the head starts to work in idle mode. The correspondingly increasing. approaching the acoustic, the equivalent quality factor, and hence the duration of the squelch increases.
A similar picture is seen when using a sixth-order band-pass filter (Fig. 2c), but this time, due to the influence of the L3C3.
A somewhat better damping of the midrange driver is provided by the fourth order bandpass filter (Fig. 2б). In this case, near the resonant frequency the head is bypassed by an L2 inductor whose resistance decreases as the frequency goes down.
Filters of different orders
To clearly understand the crossover design (see Fig.3), it is important to understand the crossover design (see Fig.4).Home-made crossovers for acoustics and their purpose), you need to understand the difference between filters of different order. We will talk about that below.
Note. There are several orders of crossover. In this case, order refers to the crossover parameter, which characterizes its ability to attenuate unwanted frequency signals.
The schematic of a 2-way crossover of this order is as follows:
From the diagram we can see that the LPF or low-pass filter is built on an inductance coil, and the high-pass filter is built on a capacitor.
Note. This choice of components is not accidental, because the resistance of the inductor increases in direct proportion to the frequency. And as for the capacitor, it is inversely proportional. It turns out that such a coil perfectly passes the LF, and the capacitor is responsible for passing the HF. Everything is simple and original.
You should also know that the first order crossovers, or rather their nominal value depends on the selected separation frequency and the value of the speaker resistance. When designing an LPF, you must first pay attention to the cutoff frequency of the woofer and midrange speakers (see.How to choose speakers for your car radio by yourself). To design the HPF, you must do the same with the HF.
Комментарии и мнения владельцев (50)
Hello, hoarse speaker, disassembled, centralized (it was my first time)) Reassembled, rattle gone, but now there is a sound like something peeled offVisually no problem what can make this sound?
Nazar, if there is no external damage and the coil or liner started to cling to the flange or core, it is likely that the coil is partially peeled off. In such cases, you need to rewind.
Hello, I repair the speaker cone, coil, suspension homemade. All assembled at low volume plays everything perfectly. At half volume, there is a strange noise like “farting”. glued everything well, tested with different amplifiers. What can be wrong? ? Please help me to solve this problem
Nik, I described a similar case and even gave a picture.
If you centered the coil and the surround before final assembly, a “hot” alignment will help, if not, you will have to redo everything.
Good evening!Please tell us how to center the core and how to glue it back to the magnet.
Jacob, it depends on the design of the magnet system.
Warning! Beware of pinching your fingers between the flanges and the magnet of the magnet system!
If the core came off the bottom flange, you must first separate the bottom flange, then glue the core to it, and only then glue the flange back in place. If the core is pressed into the bottom flange, or the magnet has come off the top flange along with the bottom flange and core, then restoring the adhesive connection is sufficient.
First carefully remove all traces of the old glue. Put on new glue. This is usually epoxy resin. Slightly clamp the flanges with clamps and center the core with a hammer and textolite bar. Check the size of the magnetic gap between the core and flange at three points with a gypsy needle.
If you don’t have epoxy and the speaker is small, you can glue the magnet system together with BF adhesive. To do this, the surfaces to be glued are coated with glue, dried completely, the core is centered, and the final bonding is done in a hot cabinet, oven or on the stove top. But, in order to get a reliable connection, you need to adhere to the regime of gluing in time and temperature, so, better to splurge on a two-component adhesive.
Good afternoon, today I had a problem with my Oris AMW-15 woofers, listening to music in the car, it sounded hoarse bass, turning down the volume on the speakers reduced the volume but the buffer remained at the same volume, sound control in. or in does not react, I made the dismantling of the head and noticed that inside the speaker (the centering washer is protected by a grid) there is a piece of dense material which broke off, after looking closely I noticed that this piece of the centering washer broke off right next to the sleeve, can it be repaired in some way?,If so, what kind of glue?? thanks in advance for your help. here is a link to a photo with damage red marked area of damage relative to the sleeve (the sleeve is marked black)
Hello! I have a question recently when listening to the S-90F 75th HF began to make some noise as if it creaks or rubs against something if the hand on the top of the cone pressed the bass comes out clean what can be wrong with it?
Artyom, according to your description and the picture there is little that I understood. But of course you can repair any loudspeaker.
Gosha, your woofer most likely moved a coil or part of a coil. The cause is either overheating or poor build.
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Dropping the phone
The second reason why the speaker on the phone hoarsely. drop the device. In general, any fall for the phone, one way or another, has negative consequences, but in this case we are talking about the dynamics. The fact is that when you fall down, there is a great risk that the impact may cause the contact of the speaker cable to come off or the speaker itself may come off. As a result, when listening to music, for example, will be clearly audible extraneous noises, crackles, etc. д. Here, actually, why the speaker on the phone croaks.
What to do in this situation and how you can fix the problem? Here again there are two options.
The first. to disassemble phone independently, to check contact on speaker cable or to fix it if it has come off.
The second option. to take your phone to the service center, where it will be dismantled by the master and will perform all the necessary manipulations.
What speakers to choose
So, I think you already realized that the answer to how to change the range of reproduced frequencies without the intervention of “dizzy” hands is “no way”. What does it mean? It is necessary to choose from available on the market, if you don’t want to “bother” with it.
Many loudspeakers specifies a range from 20 Hz to quite exorbitant 35 kHz and sometimes even higher. This is nothing more than a marketing ploy. you are unlikely to hear a sound over 20 kHz anyway. So it’s a good idea to buy speakers that perform in that range.
You can read about what the power of the speaker system is, here. I also advise to read about the best loudspeaker manufacturers. I will be grateful to everyone who will share this publication in social networks. See you tomorrow!