How to fix an electric screwdriver with your own hands. Replacing defective elements
How to repair an electric screwdriver with your own hands
Any Metabo, Intersterskol, Bosch, Diold DEA, CMI and others that have electrical and mechanical parts, over time, break. Reasons for their natural wear and operating conditions. And then the owners have a question of how to repair an electric screwdriver yourself.
There are tools that operate from a 220 volt power grid and battery, receiving power from the battery 12, 14.4 or 18 in. The principle of operation is the same for them. It is based on the transmission of torque. Which determines which fixing element an electric screwdriver can tighten.
The main details of these power tools include:
- Electric motor;
- The electronic unit;
- Revolution control regulator;
- Push button.
Basically, the case is made of plastic, which reduces weight and cost. In individual models, it is made of stainless steel, these are distinguished by increased shock resistance. The case usually has the shape of a pistol with a comfortable handle and a start button located on it.
The most expensive mechanism is a direct current engine. Representing a cylinder, inside which magnets are contained. The anchor is located on special brass supports, in its grooves there are motor windings. There is a way out on the anchor case, which provides communication with collector plates. The metal and graphite brushes of the engine are reliably pressed to the anchor with a special mechanism. Spring.Loaded plates. Thanks to this node, all the details of the tool are fixed in the required position.
The clamping mechanism can rotate around its axis, which significantly reduces the wear of an electrical screwdriver. The current is supplied only to the motor brushes.
Planetary gearbox is always made in a separate case. The knot consists of:
In expensive models, these parts are metal, cheap. Plastic.
Battery screws are equipped with a battery with a simple design. The larger the voltage value, the lower the size of the tool. Before repairing batteries for electric screwdriver, you must have at least elementary ideas about electrical engineering.
During the work, you have to use different nozzles for drills, screws. In standard performance, the tip is presented in the form of a hexagon. To fix the nozzles, you need a cartridge that is installed on the spindle. The cartridge is mounted with a screw that does not allow it to relax when rotating.
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The revolution regulator is in the immediate vicinity of the start button or executed with it as a whole. But its transistor is attached to the electric motor, where it is cooled through the grilles of the radiator. If there is no speed adjustment, this significantly reduces convenience when working with an electric screwdriver.
The basic parameters of the device and the principles of action of an electric screwdriver
Equipment in the construction market, where screwdrivers occupy a separate place, is quite large. Many models have individual criteria, are characterized by assembly quality and cost. However, most models are characterized by basic principles of action and internal performance.
The basic elements of any electric screwdriver include:
- The presence of an electric motor;
- Planetary reductor;
- Adjustable functional button “Start”;
- Reverse switch;
- Effort regulator;
- Power unit.
The electric engine is powered by a direct current network, structurally represented by a cylindrical shape. Inside is an anchor with brushes and magnets. The peculiarity of the engine circuit of the engine suggests that the direction of the voltage supply will be directed to the brushes. When the powerful polarity changes, reverse motor movement occurs.
The planetary gearbox is an important element that can convert high.Frequency fluctuations in the electrical shaft into a low frequency of cartridge shaft. As a rule, these parts are made of wear.Resistant plastic or metal. Many screwdrivers are equipped with gearboxes at 2 speeds. Switching to the first speed mode is necessary for working with self.Tapping screws, and at the second speed you can drill in a wood, plastic base or metal.
The Start key is starting the device. It is able to control the number of revolutions, providing for the ability to choose the optimal speed of rotation for the cartridge shaft. Accordingly, a powerful press will drive the engine at high speeds, and with a decrease in the power of pressing the power criterion, it will weaken.
The reverse switch is necessary for the operation of changing the rotational direction of the engine of an electric screwdriver. This functionality is convenient to use not only for twisting, but also to twist screws.
Regarding the regulator of efforts, we can say that it determines the speed of tightening screws. Actual models provide for a 16-speed adjustable gradation, which allows with maximum accuracy and convenience to determine which tightening speed is relevant, working with various material.
Dismantling of an electric screwdriver
How to disassemble an electric screwdriver vortex (or analogues)? You need to adhere to the following instructions:
- Disconnect the battery block from the device.
- Spin the fasteners that hold two parts of plastic.
- Remove the top cover, extract the contents.
- Disconnect the start button.
- Remove the speed switch.
- Disconnect the engine from the gearbox, cartridge and couplings, twisting the screws (4 pieces).
To remove the cartridge, it is necessary to loosen the screw inside the mechanism. Fists will have to be unclenched. Unscrewing clockwise (there is a left thread). Next, it is necessary to disconnect the gearbox from the cartridge, turning it to the left side.
If the question arises of how to assemble an electric screwdriver, then you need to do everything in the reverse order.
General recommendations before checking the battery
To correctly check the battery, you must familiarize yourself with the main recommendations for testing different types of devices.
This is the most common type of battery. They are most often installed in screwdrivers from Bosch. Among the advantages of these batteries, their resistance to external influences and durability can be distinguished.
Before checking such a battery, they must be completely charged. This will allow you to get the most accurate measurements and make sure the performance of the device. If you check the discharged battery, get accurate data will not work.
Such batteries are most often installed in the most expensive models of power tools. They have a large capacity and small percentage of loss of existing charge. However, they also have a serious drawback, which consists in the fact that they cannot be left for a long time discharged. The fact is that their crystals are quickly degraded and because of this the battery stops working.
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Before checking lithium-ion batteries, they must be completely charged and discharge them three times. This is done to eliminate the “memory effect” and obtain the most accurate test results.
How to disassemble a battery
Fasteners on the lower side can vary in an amount, starting from four to six. Often unscrewed by a cross.Shaped screwdriver. Screws are different lengths. This must be taken into account so that during the assembly you do not confuse them among themselves. On some modifications, you can find a non.Intelligent corps. Then study the entire surface and find a special strip along which the factory gluing passes. Next, you need to take a strong knife and enter it into the groove, slightly staggering to the sides. If the case is broken to the upper and lower part, the autopsy passed successfully. Not a problem if this happens by the groove. All discrepancies can be glued with a good superglue. The upper part of the case contains several parts for the battery. On each of these components, a voltage is measured, which must certainly be in the range of the optimal level. If the difference is over 10%, such a battery needs to replace.
Each manufacturer seeks to create a tool that will be as convenient as possible in the working process, creating an extensive assortment of models. From the basic levels to professional samples.
Hitachi screwdrivers confront the excellent quality of the assembly, as well as the practicality of their tools. The Bosch company’s model collection of batteries does not differ in Bosch, from the counterparts that have a cord for connecting to 220 V. Equipped with modes switches, as well as the shutdown button and an accelerator option, Bosch screwdrivers are an excellent solution for home and for professional use. In addition, brands such as Interskol, Makita, CMI, Zubble have proven themselves perfectly.
How the screwdriver battery works
AKB or battery battery is composed of sequentially connected elements. Each has an electrolyte, electrodes. Depending on the type of raw materials used in the manufacture of raw materials, batteries are divided into several varieties.
- Nickel-metallhydrid (ni-mh)-less common due to high cost. The pluses of devices include a large container, a lower level of self.Discharge, the absence of toxic substances in the composition. Long.Term storage in a discharged state leads to an uninvited loss of part of the properties. When in the conditions of negative temperatures, their power falls.
- Nickel-cadmium-characterized by a small heating, inability to fail due to overheating, maintaining the volume of container at temperatures to.40 degrees, durable use. From 8 to 10 years. To increase the life of performance, you need to work with elements until they are completely discharged and stored in this form. The disadvantages of the devices include toxicity due to the cadmium and low specific capacity.
- Lithium-ion-differ in the lack of memory effect, low self-discharge, withstanding more cycles in charging and discharge. Elements are sensitive to sharp changes in temperature and voltage surges during recharging. The average service life is 3 years, no more than 24 months are stored.
- Lithium-polymer-maintain performance at serious temperature differences, are characterized by high energy density with a small volume and weight. Negative qualities include risk of fire due to overheating or reloading. In conditions of storage, stay no more than 2 years.
Important! Modern nutrition elements have more advantages, but the obstacle to wide use is the high cost.
Features of the types of batteries
AKB is the most important detail in an electric screwdriver. If the tool has become poorly working, then one of the reasons is the failure of the batteries. The new battery block costs a little less than the electric screwdriver itself. And you need to make a serious choice. Buy a new block or a new tool. Not cheap pleasure.
But, if a person created it, then a person can repair. The main thing is that the head works, and the hands have the right source. With your own hands, you can make batteries repair, which after that will work for more than one year.
Batteries consist of several elements. They are very similar to ordinary batteries, but can be charged. The number of charge cycles determines the main price of elements. By type of material, battery elements are divided into:
In the list they are located in the frequency of use. Nickel-Cadmium elements (Ni-CD) are most common in screwdrivers of different brands. This is due to the comparative cheapness. But they have a low given voltage and the number of charge cycles. The discharge is also low. The voltage on one such battery is about 1.2 century. If a screwdriver requires 12 V for work, then the battery should consist of at least 12 such elements.
They are stored for a long time in an unlawful state and are not afraid of temperatures. But the level of self.Discharge makes the battery often, which is the reason for the failure. The ecology of the production of such batteries is not acceptable in every country in the world, but maybe that’s why they are cheaper.
Lithium. Ion (Li. Ion) batteries have the best indicators. The voltage on a separate copy reaches 3.6th century. High charge capacity. Four pieces are enough to work the tool. This is very pleasing to the hands, because the tool needs to be transferred and holding in your hands at any height. The number of charge cycles is high, but the price is also not low. But the battery has no “memory” to the level of charge. And the self.Discharge is small. In a word, everything is fine except the price.
Nickel. Metal. Hydrid (Ni. MH) Batteries have almost all the disadvantages of previous brands. With the quality of nickel. Cadmium elements, their price is equal to the cost of lithium. Ionic. Application in practice is very low where there are low temperatures. Low temperatures disable the entire battery at once.
You can repair the battery of batteries with your own hands, but this does not mean that one element can be repaired. One element can be tried to restore, and if the restoration does not help, then you just need to replace it. You can replace all the elements of the battery. This is the best option to buy new elements and make a replacement. But this is not always fast, but the tool is needed now.
How to disassemble an electric screwdriver for repair
In order to disassemble the device, take the following steps:
- Gently disconnect the start button from the body without damaging the wires connecting it with the engine;
- Remove the speed switch;
- Discharge the engine, gearbox, coupling and cartridge, unscrewing 4 screws;
To unscrew the cartridge, you need to twist the screw that can be seen inside the mechanism with fists of flesh. Unscrew the screw clockwise, because it is on the left thread. After that, the cartridge must be unscrewed from the gear shaft, turning it to the left (right thread).
Not all nodes and parts need to be repaired, in some cases they should be changed to other elements.