How to make a circular saw with a planer with their own hands
Circular saw with pugilist with his own hands drawings. Circular machine with their own hands for a little money. Woodworking machine. a capital product for the home
For any work to succeed, it is necessary to have good equipment and tools. The same statement applies to lovers (or professionals) to “tinker” with wood. Masters of making furniture or other wooden products are always trying to get hold of various tools and devices that can help them in their work.
For example, a planer. This device significantly increases productivity and quality of work on wood. But here to buy it is not possible for all amateurs, because its price is quite high. But how to get out of such a difficult situation? There is a solution, and it is quite simple. it is to make a desktop planer with their own hands. And about the actual manufacturing process and will be told in the article.
What do you need a planer for?
In the woodworking shop can be a variety of machines, but the most commonly used (of course, except for the circular saw) can be called a planer and рейсмусовые devices. These two types of machines are a bit similar in their function, but differ in the way they are used.
If you need to make a wooden workpiece in the form of a board, bar or shield, it is better to use рейсмусовый machine. Such a device, the main tool of which is the same knife, is able to cut the source material into two parallel parts. In this case, both will be adjusted to a certain size.
Base planers are available as single-sided or double-sided. In the first case, only one side of the workpiece is machined in one pass. productive is a double-sided planer machine. The end result is basically a finished workpiece.
The shaft of the planer is located above the table top. The surface of the workpiece is massive, in order to reduce the large vibrations. The machine is also fitted with a noise-damping hood.
A planer has a slightly different task. This device is used to create a smooth, without significant roughness, surface on the workpiece. Such a machine as well as the previous version is equipped with a shaft with knives, only in a planer it is located under the table top.
The workpiece is fed to the work surface on one side, the output on the opposite side is already partially machined. This is how layer by layer the desired evenness is achieved. After you have finished the planing machine the workpiece can be fed to the planer.
There are many rotating parts in such a machine. Hence, we can conclude that to perform such a machine with their own hands will not be so easy. So, when you begin, you need to calculate your strength. If you already have some similar experience, then you will cope with the task. It is worth noting right away that you will not be able to make a planing machine entirely from parts of your own making. Of course, perhaps in your “closets” there is a large assortment of different devices, but this is rare. This applies first and foremost to the blade shaft and bearings. They are likely to have to buy or even order. But if everything you need is in place, you can safely go ahead with the planning.
Some parts for the planer: the blade shaft, blade bearings, will have to buy or order
First of all, it is worth to understand what kind of “complete set” you want to get. There can be several options:
- simply a planer machine. It will perform only one function;
- jointer and circular saw set. In this case, the functionality of the machine is doubled;
- equipment that can act as a planer, circular saw, grinder, sharpener and drill press. Such a device will be very useful for your workshop, but it is difficult to perform it with your own hands.
The best and easiest variant in execution is to make a jointer and a circular saw on one frame. Plus both tools will rotate from the same electric motor. Such a feature will greatly facilitate our task.
Consider the basic components of our future table planer. It will include:
- The bed. This design will hold the entire machine and the equipment mounted on it. For its manufacture it is best to use strong channels, with a wall thickness of 8-10 millimeters. The base can be either collapsible or solid. In the first case, all its components will be connected by bolts and nuts. If you do not need a portable machine, the channels can be fixed to each other by welding. This variant will be more reliable. It is possible to do without a bed if the worktable plays its role;
- The working tool. It is one of the most important parts of the machine. Planer blades and the saw itself. it is with their help that you will saw and process boards. The blades are firmly fixed to the shaft. They must be made of strong and durable steel. Saw for a circular saw with pobedite tips. Such a tool will last you much longer;
- The rotor. to which all the tools will be attached. No machine, thicknesser or circular saw can be made without this part. Find a suitable rotor can be quite difficult, so it is better to order it from a professional turner, pre-supplied with its drawings;
- Work table. For a properly functioning machine you need three surfaces. One will serve as the work table for the circular saw and the other two for the planer. The thickness of material for the surfacing must be at least five millimetres. Laminated plywood or metal sheets are good for this purpose. It is advisable to make a small height difference for the surfaces intended for planing. The side on which the workpiece will be fed should be a couple of millimeters below that to which the already processed side. Such a difference facilitates work and significantly reduces vibration.
Before making a homemade planer, you need to create drawings and understand the main elements that will be included in the scheme. As a rule, a planer consists of the following basic elements:
- the shaft with the knife;
- electric motor, from which the rotation is supplied;
- of several tables;
- thrust ridge.
Created drawing of the homemade planer must contain information about the distance at which the electric motor with a roller and a shaft with knives are installed. The scheme determines how much the number of output rotations will be reduced and the power will be increased.
Making a planing machine on the basis of an electric planer
General view of the electric planer: 1. front platform; 2. rear platform; 3. knife roller; 4. belt drive.
Modern electric planers already have the necessary set of elements. Therefore, they are quite often used to make a planing machine.
- The knife shaft is usually made with two slots, where the two knives. Special plates and spikes are provided for installation and adjustment. All one needs to do is to follow the instructions and align the blades with the underside of the blade.
- The depth of scraping is determined by the position of the front sole. It can be moved vertically. Depending on the type of wood and planing tasks different processing depths are set. Most craftsmen set this value equal to 0,3 0,5 mm.
- Width is small. There are models where it is 82 mm. But it is more convenient to use a planer with a working width of 110 mm. Then you can plan wood boards or other workpieces.
- There is a side opening. It is possible to attach a hose from a vacuum cleaner. That way there are no chips on the work table, which have to be constantly removed.
- Special frames are supplied with the kit for sharpening knives. With their help, a craftsman can restore the sharpness of knives by himself.
- The blades are designed to be used on both sides. If it gets blunt, you don’t have to sharpen it right away. It is simply flipped over backwards and continues to work.
- Auxiliary plates are available for easy planing of surfaces perpendicular to each other.
- The product is equipped with special supports for cutting of quarters.
Set for stationary positioning of the planer:
The convenience of modern models is that they are equipped with a stand for installation on the desktop. The support can be rigidly fixed on a fixed support. Vertical elements are used to fix the electric planer in a given position.
Some craftsmen prefer to make their own support for stationary use. They make not only planing equipment. For obtaining parts of a given thickness, a thicknessing machine is created. The rework is minimal and the quality is a level higher.
A simpler and faster way to make a machine for planing their own hands. is to use a hand-held electric planer, preliminarily it is a bit modernized. Every self-respecting carpenter at home should have such a tool. All you need to do is to make a device for its fixation.
The easiest way to make a machine with your own hands is to use sheet material as a base:
It is necessary to make technological holes for mounting the tool, so that after installing the planer, the cutting edges of the blades and the receiving platform were in the same plane with the surface of the table.
Additionally, your device can be equipped with a thrust ruler for planing at right angles, and a system of chip extraction, which can be implemented with a household vacuum cleaner.
Circular machine, as close as possible to the factory models, requires a competent approach to the assembly, so before you make a circular saw stationary type, you need to think through all the details. In principle, the table mini circular saw differs from the stationary one in the height of the frame, which directly depends on the nature of the work performed and the size of the workpieces that will be processed by the device. One-time work can be carried out on a compact table saw, while the circular from a manual circular saw can be easily hidden in a shed or closet, and the carpenter, who constantly conducts manipulations with lumber, will need a stationary self-made circular. Below is a diagram, which details all the elements and devices for a circular saw of this type.
As can be seen from the figure, homemade circular saws of this type have a clear design, and the drawings, such as the one presented above, greatly facilitate the process of their assembly. Before you make a circular saw, as well as mount a circular table with your own hands, consider each detail of the unit separately, so that you know all the subtleties of its operation and installation.
Table for the circular saw
The table for a manual circular saw with a slot in the center is sometimes remade from an ordinary kitchen table or assembled from planks or metal profiles. Table for circular saw experts strongly recommend covering with a sheet of galvanized metal, because without coverage the base is threatened by abrasion in the center from the constant friction of the lumber, which in turn will adversely affect the quality of the cut, and the depth of cut will be uneven. Cross braces, which reinforce the sawing table, are better to make from 60. 80 mm steel angle with horizontal segment outwards in order to simplify the installation of the side limiter. Self-made table, on which the circular saw will be installed, must be strong and stable, as well as it must be firmly fixed in a fixed position.
Circular saw blade
Toothed blade must be at maximum one third of its diameter above the circular saw table surface, otherwise it will not cut wood properly and the cutting process itself will become dangerous. If it is necessary to cut a bar with diameter, for example, 100 mm, the similar parameter of the cutter should not exceed 350 mm, but the engine here is required with capacity from 1 kw. For workpieces over 150 mm in diameter a handmade mini circular saw is hardly suitable. Some factory-made circular saws have a riving knife installed behind the disk at a distance of 2 to 3 mm from the saw teeth. It eliminates the jamming moment due to the clamping of parts of the sawn workpiece, so it can also be very useful when assembling a homemade circular saw.
Adjustable side stop
To put a quality stop is possible from a steel angle of about 80 mm, which is 3. 4 cm longer than the table structure. The flat sides of the corner are bent down so that their width is one and a half cm thicker than the thickness of the table. After installation the stop is fixed to the homemade circular saw table in specified position with screws. Adjustment of this element is carried out according to the template placed between it and the cutter.
Shaft installed on the circular is the most critical node, so its turning out and testing together with the disk should be done only by a specialist with special equipment. The product of a pipe with a carelessly fixed wheel is excluded at once, because the slightest error in the work of this element will turn into major troubles such as equipment failure, damage to the workpiece and personal injury to the operator. The optimal solution would be to buy a ready-made shaft with a seating place for the cutter. It is better to give preference to the ball self-aligning bearings, which have a curved inner surface, otherwise the home-made node will quickly collapse and the shaft, mounted on a self-made circular saw, will be out of use.
In our case, the ideal option would be a V-belt drive, but it is better to give up on the rigid gear mechanism, as such a self-made machine does not guarantee safety. If you suddenly find a nail in the lumber, the rotor motor will provoke disc failure, which can lead to injuries. If the inner diameter of the belt pulleys is small, it will ensure the slip, and the tensioned belt will serve as a kind of damper. Gear ratio is usually chosen based on the engine speed, necessarily taking into account the allowable number of disk revolutions. The smaller the diameter of the saw blade, the higher the rotation speed can be, and the cleaner the remodeled unit will cut.
Among homemade devices, the most popular is the circular saw, assembled from the engine from a washing machine.This choice is explained by the fact that its circuit is best suited for such purposes. In contrast to the collector units, which are usually equipped with power tools, the engine from a washing machine operates at less high speed, which means that it shows a longer work, has a higher efficiency and is not so subject to all kinds of clogging. You can also use a three-phase motor, but then you would need the additional cost of buying a starting and working condenser, so economical to make do with a device from a washing machine. That is, in general, all the wisdom.
The electric drive of a planing machine
And of course do not forget about the drive. All machinery must rotate. This means that the drive will be the “heart” of the machine. Here are some recommendations for this design element:. First of all, prepare the electric motor.
The electric motor for the planing machine
It is best to use a three-phase unit for this purpose. Of course, in this case you may have to redo the electrical network in your workshop, but it is worth it. Three-phase motors, operating at 380 V, can develop a lot of power. In addition, the torque of such devices is suitable for our purposes. The minimum power value should be 3 kW, but the maximum is up to you;
- To transmit the torque from the electric motor to the drive shaft must be made with belts. A two-strand wedge shape is best for this purpose. Such belts are more reliable;
- The motor itself can be cantilevered directly into the machine frame. Such a method helps to solve the problem with the belt tension. If you want to reinforce the motor more firmly, you need to add a sled to the design with which to make adjustments;
- to increase the frequency of rotation of the shaft, it is worth using two pulleys. One, of larger diameter, is mounted on the electric motor. The pulley with the smaller cross-section must be mounted on the shaft.
Be very careful about the power supply to the machine. Three-phase current is fed through a four-core cable. Reliable earthing must be arranged. These requirements will help to avoid accidents while working on the machine.
Drawing. Key steps in the construction of a planing machine
Benchtop planer. drawing (part 2)
Fugolovalny machine, the simplest version of it without additional functions, can be quite easily made with their own hands. The general course of work in this case will look as follows:
- First, prepare all the necessary parts, tools and materials;
- create the drawing of the future machine. Without this “document” you cannot start work. With the help of the drawing you can calculate all the nuances and prepare for them. In addition, having such a plan will greatly facilitate and simplify the task;
- further, we transfer all the dimensions of the future parts to the workpiece and make them;
- a very important detail is the place for installing the rotor bearings. It is made of several pieces of wood.
Glue and clamping is used in the bonding. The notch must fit perfectly to the size of the bearing;
- Next, carry out the installation of the electric motor. To do this, as noted above, you can use a cantilever mount, or install the unit on a skid;
- the next step is to assemble the rotor with the bearing and reassemble them. Connection to the electric motor by means of the belt drive should be carried out at the same time. Check that the rotor turns freely in the bearing;
- next, assemble and fit the worktop. It will consist of two parts. the feeding part and the receiving part. The second one should be a couple of millimeters higher than the first one. The work surface can be made of laminated plywood, and for greater strength and durability it can be clad with sheet iron.
After setting up the motor on and off system, the machine is ready to use. But for your new tool to bring only benefit and joy of work, it is worth to use it correctly and safely.
A rotary machine, like any machine, needs proper operation. If you do not follow certain rules, the device can quickly fail. And in the worst case, you yourself will be injured. Therefore, recommendations from specialists should be followed when using it:
- For the machine to work reliably preventive maintenance has to be done periodically. In such a complex include the following activities. check the reliability of the location of blades on the shaft, spritz the bearings, check the electric motor, inspection of the belt drive for sufficient tension, checking all contacts, and so on;
- Rotating parts are always dangerous. And if they are also equipped with sharp blades, the risk of injury is very high. To increase operational safety, it is better to cover the shaft with the knives. It will open when wood is coming in and will close again when not in use;
- Take all safety precautions when working on the machine. This applies especially to the quality of lighting of the workplace. Hang a powerful lamp over the machine, and the room in your workshop should be bright. Also note the quality of the floor. If it is too slippery, it is better to install a wooden platform or rubber mat;
- Do not use excessive force when planing or cutting material. Excessive force will not speed up the work, and will only spoil the workpiece or lead to damage to the machine itself;
- Don’t hesitate to call in an assistant for long workpieces. This way the work will be done faster, better and safer for your health.
It is of course worth keeping your workbench clean. When you have finished working, with the machine turned off and de-energized, clean the unit from swarf. Do the same for larger workloads from time to time. Switch off the machine and remove all accumulated shavings from all mechanisms and surfaces. Cleanliness makes your work easier and helps to keep the machine in good working order for a longer period of time.
In the video will be considered in detail one of the options homemade planer.