How to make a dear divorce. The process of turning step by step
Useful tips / a little about the divorce of teeth on tape saws ! Tips “experienced”.
To date, the market is full of machines for a divorce of various modifications, but 95% of them are created in order to earn money to the company to the manufacturer (seller), but not to the buyer, but also to force the buyer to buy tape saws as often as possible.
The answer is simple, the machines that these enterprises offer weak nodes of fixation of the saw, backlash, poor welding of the main nodes.
You put the saw in the divorce machine, press the handle forward so that the needle’s needle bent the saw tooth for the due value (looks on the indicator that is included), and the machine instead of bend the tooth forward for due value, the lower saw bends back, and itself The tooth is as it should be ahead, but, thereby, the effect of the swing occurs, which leads to deformation of the saw, and such a tool will not be suitable for work after a long time.
Since the saw has each tooth, and after the divorce it is sprinkled in different ways, about 20-25 minutes of time should go to one saw in order to hang out the deviation angle of each tooth as much as possible.
On most machines, the indicator can show the correct deviation of the tooth, and the reality will not be like that
Since the machine is simply not able to give out accuracy. This is easy to check, leaning against the teeth. A manual indicator for measuring the divorce of the teeth of the saw (production of Germany), which will show the level of teeth deviations as accurately as possible, the result will be depressing.
There are also machines on the market that bred two teeth at the same time. Service organizations and private individuals who need a “crazy speed” are very fond of buying this.
Since the levers that breed the tooth are only set to one divorce (deviations), and do not have the ability to squeeze the tooth, as required. Accordingly, each tooth will be divorced in different ways.
How to get out of such a situation so that the divorce is accurate, and the preparation of drank and the subsequent sawing does not bring a headache?
To date, on the market, machines with a clear fixation of the body of the saw in the form of the press have appeared, that is, in one press you fix the saw, the fixation is tough, so much that you cannot move it if you wish, and dilute the tooth with the second press, and squeeze it like it It requires it, the press excludes the swing regime (the example is given above), and in the end you get a well.Divorced saw.
Soft deciduous rocks: (sharpening angle of 12-16 degrees, minimum tooth height 4.8 mm, teeth divorce 0.54-0.66mm)
Soft coniferous rocks, medium resitness: (sharpening angle of 12-15 degrees, minimum tooth height 4.8 mm, teeth divorce 0.52-0.66mm)
Soft coniferous rocks, high tar: (sharpening angle of 12-16 degrees, minimum tooth height 4.8 mm, teeth divorce 0.52-0.60mm)
Hard-faced rocks: (sharpening angle 8-12 degrees, minimum tooth height 4.5mm, teeth divorce 0.41-0.46mm)
Soft deciduous rocks, ice cream: (sharpening angle 8-12 degrees, minimum tooth height 4.5mm, teeth divorce 0.46-0.56mm)
Soft coniferous rocks, medium tar, ice cream: (sharpening angle 8-12 degrees, minimum tooth height 4.5mm, teeth divorce 0.41-0.46mm)
Soft coniferous rocks, high tar, ice cream: (sharpening angle of 10-12 degrees, minimum tooth height 4.8 mm, teeth divorce 0.41-0.51mm)
Hard-faced rocks, ice cream: (sharpening angle of 8-12 degrees, minimum tooth height 4.5mm, teeth divorce 0.41-0.46mm)
Since when sawing a certain type of breeds, the saw should have a different angle of sharpening and a different deviation of the divorce of teeth. Only then will the saw be sawing perfectly, without a wave and with high quality.
On average, the saw serves 25-30 m3, after which there is a gap, or even the complete unusable saw for further work.
There are two types of saws for sharpening saws on the market, simple machines with an abrasive circle and full.Profile machines with a diamond circle.
The machine with an abrasive circle sharpens the saw only on the front and rear faces, while to well sharpen the saw with such a machine, you need highly qualified personnel capable of performing routine work. Since such a machine should be adjusted not only before the sharpening of the saw, but often and even during sharpening, a saw with such a sharpening machine will serve you 20 m3 after which it will become unusable.
The full.Profile machine, sharpening the saw not only on the front and rear faces, but throughout its profile, the coolant is also used during sharpening, so that the saw is not cauterized, the machine in addition to sharpening the saw also performs properties such as grinding, when grinding sharpening with a machine with an abrasive circle, microcracks are very strongly developed, due to which the saw rupture is subsequently rupture. A full-profile machine, polishes the saw so that microcracks disappear, thereby the service life of the saw can reach up to ~ 60 m3 instead of 20-30, and it also removes the voltage from the saw, which is very important, each tooth will have the same profile, which will increase the resistance of the saw In the boot.
The saw should work no more than 1-1.5 hours, after which it is removed, it is turned inside out, and weigh the nail for 24 hours, to relieve tension, you do not need to grind the saw after each shift, the more often sharpen the saw, the cutting properties of the saw preserve at least more1-2 shifts.
The divorce must be watched constantly if the operator feels that the sawmill goes tight during the saw, remove the saw and first of all check the Division of the saw. It is he who is the foundation.
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Sharpening and wiring saw
The main cutting element of any manual saw. A number of teeth cut on the canvas and representing cutters in the form of wedges. The wood, in the manufacture of all kinds of products from it, is sawn along, across and at an angle θ to its fibers, in this regard, transverse, longitudinal sawing and sawing at an angle to its fibers are distinguished and, in each case, the appropriate type of saw is used, which differs from other forms teeth.
A. Transverse sawing; b. Longitudinal sawing; one. Wood; 2. Drank; 3. Flaim for a trimmer of marking for sawing; Θ. The angle of inclination of the marking to the fibers of wood during mixed sawing.
During transverse sawing, transverse saws are used, the cutting edges of the teeth of which, when moving in wood, is interrupted by its fibers as a knife and form a cut. The longitudinal sawing differs from the transverse in that the direction of movement of the saw parallel to wood fibers. The front edges of the teeth of the longitudinal drank string the wood, like knives in the shirts, and, deepening, form a cut. When sawing wood at an angle θ to its fibers, universal (mixed) saws with teeth, which are an intermediate shape of the teeth of transverse and longitudinal saws are used.
Sharpening of the saw
In the process of work, the teeth of the saw are blunt, the cutting front and lateral edges are rounded, the pile of the saw becomes heavy and it is necessary to crush it greatly. Experienced masters in the brilliance of the cutting edges and tops of the teeth and the sound of the saw easily determine its acuteness. To restore the cutting ability of the teeth, they are pulled by files or files, giving them sharpness and preserving their parameters: angles, steps and heights.
Sharpening the teeth drank. In its kind, art, requiring fidelity of hands, good eye, attention. It is not difficult to learn this matter, it is necessary to have a desire and clearly adhere to the following rules:
- The saw canvas must be rigidly fixed in a special device made of wood, which is also steadily installed on a well.Lit desktop. Sharpening of teeth drank on stools or knees does not give a satisfactory result.
- You should use a personal file, followed by stripping the sharpened faces of the teeth with velvet (with a small notch) or a file. It is desirable that the file is new, sharp and with a mounted handle. If at the right time it was not the same, then you can use a used, but necessarily cleaned with a steel brush and grated with wood coal, so that the file does not clog and does not stupor. When sharpening the tooth, the file should cling to its metal and remove its layer depending on the strength of pressure. And if it slides down the tooth without removing the metal, then the teeth of the saw are rolled or the file is Istrut. In this case, it is necessary to repeat the sharpening with a new file. If in this case it slides along the tooth, then it remains to take another saw.
- The handle of the file is clamped with the right hand, and its end holds the end with his left hand and the file is directed to the teeth of the saw. About the work of the file, depending on the type of saw, is described below.
- The pressure of the file on the teeth should be smooth and uniform and only one way from itself. When the file is returned to the starting position, he should not touch the teeth.
- We must try to grind the metal from the faces of the teeth of the minimum of the same thickness, the lead of the file is the same number of times with the same pressure, which allows you to maintain the values of the angles, the step and height of the teeth after sharpening.
- On the faces of the tooth from the side of the file of the file, burrs are formed, which reduce the sharpness of the tooth, and if you do not remove it, then during the operation of the saw they are painted, and the teeth are significantly blunt. To remove the burrs, the edges of the teeth are wetted with a file with a velvet notch and the burrs from the side faces with a wet donkey are removed.
- After sharpening the teeth, it is necessary to check their sharpness. Look at the tip of the needles and the edge of the razor blade: they, sharpened, do not shine in the light. And if they lick them, then rounded surfaces appear on the tip of the needles and on the edge of the blade, which reflecting the light, sparkle well. On this principle, a check of the quality of sharpening of teeth saws was built. For this, the saw is placed in front of the eyes and examine its teeth along the canvas. If their cutting edges and peaks do not shine, then the teeth of the saw are saturatedly stumbled, and if some of the teeth with brilliance (often it happens), then they need to be undermined by a file with a velvet notch, remove the burrs and again check the reflection of the light with their edges and peaks.
Cross saws. The teeth of the transverse saws are pulled, using a trihedral file with a fine notch with an angle at a top of 60 °.
To sharpen the teeth, the saw is clamped in a special device, which allows you to install its canvas at an angle of 45-50 ° to the plane of the desktop. The file is carried out parallel to the desktop at an angle of 60-75 ° to the saw canvas and thus, in the first tooth, the left line is A1A2V2V2.
Sharpening of the transverse saw: 1. Saw canvas; 2. Sharpened tooth; 4. Sharpening device; 5. Drain drain; 6, 8. Directions of the file 7 in relation to the desktop and the drained teeth of the saw; nine. Fishing line for trimmering teeth during their divorce
Sharpen the teeth of the saw in several tricks. First, they pass the files along the left edges of the odd teeth located in the far row, setting up hands on the same movement. Then they pass a file on the right faces of the same odd teeth, completing the sharpening of the main cutting edges with very sharp peaks. After the sharpening of the odd teeth is completed, the saw canvas in the solid device turn over and thus sharpen even teeth, which ended up in the far row. When sharpening the teeth of transverse saws, it is necessary to carefully monitor that the sharp main cutting edges with the dual-sided angle φ = 60-75 °, a short cutting edge and a sharp peak are obtained in each tooth.
Features of sharpening
Before sharpening hand hacksaw on wood, it is necessary to check the wiring of the teeth. This is necessary so that the canvas does not jam in the process of cutting. The wider the wiring is, the wider the cut, respectively, the chances of jamming in this case is less.
However, it should be borne in mind that too wide wiring leads to a torn cut, in addition, for sawing, it will be necessary to make much more effort. Therefore, the best option is wiring, which is one and a half to two times higher than the thickness of the canvas.
As a rule, for this, teeth are bent at 0.25. 0.5 mm in each direction. True, if the wood of soft species is cut with a saw, then it is better to bend the teeth 0.5. 1 mm.
To perform high.Quality wiring with your own hands, you can use a special device, which is called. Wiring. This is a metal plate with a gap made in it, the width of which exceeds the width of the tool canvas.
Before starting work, the saw must be squeezed in a vice so that only teeth appear from them, which subsequently bent alternately.
First of all, it should be said that the sharpening of the hacksaw on wood may require different tools, depending on the shape of the cloves. So for a transverse saw you will need a trihedral file with a fine notch and an angle of about 60 degrees. If the tool is longitudinal, then you should use a rhombic file or roughly steamed files.
The instructions for performing this work looks like this:
- The canvas must be clamped securely. To do this, you can use a vice and other devices.
- Then the file should be sharpened with the left line on the first clip, holding the tool in relation to the canvas at an angle of 60 degrees. In this case, the movement of the file should be smooth and uniform, when the file is returned to the starting position, it should not touch the processed surface. I must say that when sharpening a longitudinal saw, the file can be kept in parallel to the table, t.E. Grind teeth at an angle of 90 degrees.
- Then all the left faces of odd cloves are sharpened in the same way.
- After that, the right faces are pulled by the file.
- Then the saw must be turned over and the teeth of the even row, which are now in the far row, should be turned over in the same way.
- At the end of the work, it is necessary to remove all the burrs with a velvet file. If this is not done, then the saw will quickly become dull.
This is the sharpening of the hacksaw on wood is completed. Now you need to look at the tops and edges of the teeth. If they shine in the sun, then it is sharp enough, otherwise the operation needs to be repeated.
Here, perhaps, is all the basic information on the sharpening of a hand saw on wood.
Hacksaw wiring requirements
In order to correctly carry out wiring, you need to pay attention to the basic requirements. They are as follows:
- The procedure is carried out when fixing the tool.
- The required angle must strictly withstand, the deviation from it becomes the reason for a decrease in the quality of the resulting cut.
- At the time of work, attention is paid to the fact that the surface does not have defects.
It should be borne in mind that too much an indicator causes an increase in the width of the sawing, due to which the performance indicator is reduced. That is why a special device should be used for the divorce of teeth.
How to saw a two.Handed saw detailed instruction with a description
At first glance, the process of sawing with a two.Handed saw may seem easy and uncomplicated. However, it is only worth the beginner to take up the hacksaw, it immediately becomes clear that this is work for real and strong hands. However, it is not necessary to have a mountain of muscles to properly saw the wood with a saw “Friendship-2”. This needs a little experience, and also understand the principle of work.
It is interesting! Even with the experience of work with short.Made hacksaws, a beginner who picked up a two.Handed saw for the first time, will be unpleasantly surprised. If an experienced saw at the other end of the saw will stand, then the beginner will have a hard time until he masters the principle of operation of the device.
2.2 Divorce and the Law. How to apply for a Divorce
Instructions on how to cut a logs and trees as follows:
- First you need to fix the log by installing it on the “goats”. It should be borne in mind that it is most convenient to carry out the work standing on the legs, so even if the log lies on the ground, then for the correctness of its cut, it should be placed on a special stand. Goats. Goats
- A section of the log that is sawn off the main part should hang above the ground
- Both sawmills take a convenient position, putting their feet shoulder width apart. Here the main thing is reliable emphasis, otherwise the likelihood of an injury is not excluded
- Ideally, it is recommended that one of the sawmills be a little higher than the other, for example, substituting the tray. This will accelerate the cut, but is not at all a mandatory action
- Having taken up the handles of the tool, you can proceed. The main thing when working with a two.Handed hacksaw is synchronous work with hands. The effectiveness of achieving the final result depends on the smoothed work by hands
- The principle of steam sawing is as follows. You need to make an effort in only one direction. Pull the canvas on yourself. It is not necessary to push the tool from yourself, since this task is assigned to the partner. At a time when the partner pulls the canvas on himself, the hand of the first saw rests
- In this way, not only the efficiency of work increases, but also rapid fatigue is excluded
The speed of achieving the result is affected by many factors, like the thickness of the log, the length of the canvas, the quality of sharpening of the teeth, as well as the synchronous work of the sawmills. It is worth noting the following, with the right approach to sawing, it is possible to achieve a quick sawing comparable to the work of the chainsaw.
It is interesting! If the canvas has signs of corrosion deposits, then before the work it is recommended to clean the surface with fine sandpaper (to accelerate the work you can use a hand brush for metal), and then apply machine oil to reduce resistance when working with a tool.
How to make a diesual divorce on a circular saw
For longitudinal and transverse sawing of a wood array on round.Fed machines, discs are used to use round saws
The parameters of which correspond to the work performed, correctly prepared and do not have mechanical damage. Often, if the operating recommendations are not observed, disk saws are out of order prematurely. Bulk and dents with characteristic traces of the burners appear on the saw’s body, stiffenes on the teeth or their deformation are formed.
Wood and wood materials are usually sawn with manual saws, and only in some cases it turns out to be rational to use electric saws.
The most important detail of any saw is a canvas with teeth, which should be either tempered or made of high.Strength steel, or strengthened from the non.Working edge (lining), which gives it the necessary strength and rigidity.
76 shows the types of teeth of various saws.
How to sharpen a hacksaw
In various works with wood, such a tool as a hacksaw is actively used. Over time, the cutting surface of the tool wear out, and the process of sawing wood is becoming harder. The wear of the working edge is as follows:
As a result, the tool loses functionality and needs sharpening.
How to determine the moment when a hacksaw needs sharpening?
People with extensive experience easily determine this moment the sound made by the instrument when working, as well as by changing the color of the teeth. Beginners need to focus on the following signs:
- The work of a hacksaw becomes hard and requires great physical effort;
- It becomes very difficult to make a perpendicular cut of wood;
- It becomes difficult to hold the canvas along the line during work, it begins to deviate in different directions;
- The canvas of the hacksaw often jams.
Wrestling of teeth
Pilary wiring is a deviation of the tops of the teeth from the plane of the canvas. The teeth through one are rejected in different directions: odd in one direction, even. In the other.
You need to know that the quality of the wiring has strongly affects the saw process. Therefore, all teeth should be bent in different directions alternately on the same value, otherwise:
- If some teeth are rejected by a larger angle than the rest, then they will interfere with the movement of the tool and wear out faster;
- If the deviation is less than the necessary, then the width of the cut will not allow the canvas to move freely.
A special tool is used to wrap the saws of the saw. Wiring. The simplest wiring looks like a small metal plate with a handle. It has a slot, the width of which is slightly larger than the thickness of the hacksaw canvas.Denting is as follows:
- The saw is clamped in a vise so that the vyser sponges end at the base of the teeth;
- Then the teeth are alternately placed in the slot of the wiring and, bending in the middle part, they are taken to the side to a given angle;
- Periodically, the quality of the wiring is checked visually or with the help of a caliper;
- To check the quality of wiring, the vise sponge is pushed into the width of the wiring and the saw is extended between them (while the excessive bend of a tooth will not allow the canvas between the lips freely).
Checking the height of the teeth of the hacksaw
Therefore, before sharpening the hacksaw, you need to check the height of the cutting elements. This is done as follows:
- A sheet of paper is laid on a flat and smooth surface and tightly pressed a saw against it;
- The profile is clearly printed on paper, and teeth become clearly visible;
- If higher teeth are found compared to the rest of the teeth, then the saw is clamped in a vice and shortened to the desired height with a flat file.
Sharpening of a hacksaw
The next tool will be required for sharpening:
Also in the arsenal you must have the following types of files:
- Flat and rhombic with a notch of medium size;
- Triangular file;
- Triangular with velvet notch;
- Nadfili with notches of different calibers.
For sharpening, use a special device that allows you to fix the canvas at the angles of 45 and 90 degrees. If you need to sharpen a transverse hacksaw, act as follows:
Divorce procedure in England & Wales. The process and jargon explained.
- The canvas is fixed at an angle of 45 degrees;
- Sharpowing is carried out by a trihedral file with an angle at a top of 60 degrees;
- The file is directed to the hacksaw tooth at an angle from 60 to 75 degrees;
- First, several movements of the file from themselves are treated with the left faces of odd teeth;
- After that, the hacksaw is turned over and the left faces of even teeth are processed.
When sharpening the longitudinal hacksaw, they act as follows:
- The canvas is fixed vertically;
- For sharpening, a rhombic file with a fine notch is used (you can use the file);
- During sharpening, the file is directed strictly parallel to the table;
- The rest of the process is similar to the previous.
Bences that appear on the faces of teeth need to be removed using an emery bar or file with a velvet notch.
The process of sharpening the saw for the first time is quite difficult, so it is better to conduct it in complete silence and with maximum concentration. It is worth doing this several times, and then the thing will become familiar and will go “like clockwork”.
Wrestling of teeth
The teeth are rejected from the plane of the blade in a checkerboard pattern, for example, all even left, all odd to the right.Only very experienced carpenters are able to breed wood on the eye. This skill comes after several hundred diluted saws. Less experienced craftsmen better use a special tool. Wiring.The simplest version of the tool is a flat plate made of durable metal with a slot, which is the canvas in a minimum gap.The saw canvas should be clamped in a locksmith. The teeth should perform a little from the lips. The teeth one by one are clamped in the groove of the instrument of the plate and bend in the middle part. The wiring angle is required to constantly control. First, all even teeth are bent in one direction, then all the odd ones. In the other. At the end of the wiring, you can dilute the sponges into the width of the wiring and stretch the canvas between them. If any of the teeth is bent more than necessary, they will hurt for a vice. They need to be fixed.
Fabric with hot teeth are not subject to wiring.
Eyeliner and editing
The steel from which the hacksaw canvas is made has viscosity, which is why the formation of burrs on the cutting edge is possible. To remove them, it is enough to clean the flat edges of the tooth in the direction from the base to the top. Since it is very difficult to rule a bent tooth with a flat file, it is better to use abrasive paper for 80–120 grit, turning it into a small tube.
To perform accurate supplies, many masters recommend a little dulling the top of the teeth to form a third cutting edge. It is better to do this with a miniature subfound with a diamond puffing that has at least one flat line. Nadfil is brought to the tooth so that its working surface is located perpendicular to the plane of the canvas (not tooth). Then 1-2 light filming is carried out, the movement is carried out from the base of the tooth to the top.