How to make a reducer on a single axle tractor with your own hands
Features of making a reducer for a motoblock with your own hands
Self-made single axle tractor or power tiller can be supplemented with various attachments. This is done in order to expand:
Thanks to the possibility of assembling, you can operate the self-made machine in any season, even in winter, which allows all year round to use the technique. Besides ploughing and cultivation with the attached equipment they also plow the land, plant and dip crops, dig potatoes, as well as clean the territory, make haylage. If in addition to make a trailed cart to the tiller, it will also be able to carry out transport functions, helping to transport heavy, bulky cargo. Due to the high cost of attachment equipment, many people try to make their own inventions, using drawings, sketches, author’s video. But if you make a single-point hitch on a power tiller, you can also buy new equipment, such as from a power tiller Neva.
Rumble potato harvester
Making a potato digger for a self-made machine begins with the preparation of the carriage body, welded from wire and thin rods. To understand this process will help sketch presented here (you can also use video).
A shovel made of steel sheet and repeating the shape of the potato digger body is installed on the self-made axle in front of the carriage. At the back of the cart, extension bars are welded on, slightly bent towards the bottom. Description of parts is shown in detail on the scheme. This design is perfect for the vegetable garden.
To make a plough for a power tiller you use high-strength alloyed steel or sheet steel no thicker than 3 mm. The disassembled plough is shown on the scheme, the main thing is not to make a mistake with dimensions.
First prepare a template on the basis of the drawing and transfer it to cardboard, and then. to metal, and then cut it out with an angle grinder. The ploughshare should be reinforced with high-strength metal, e.g. from a circular saw. Mouldboard and stanchion can be made separately at first, and then joined together. This design is less vulnerable and in case of breakage of any element, it will be easy to replace it. The attachment of the share and the body must be reinforced at the point of attachment. A swiveling plough can also be made. The main thing is to hitch the plough to the rear hitch on the walking tractor. But for periodic work after plowing, you need a harrow.
Many people try to make a homemade trailer or adapter, equipped with a driver’s seat, to a ready-made motoblock. The motor-block trailer is designed so that you can sit on it and operate the machine while carrying a load.
1-Holder of implements; 2-Console; 3-Driver; 4-Step; 5-Driver’s seat; 6-Frame; 7-Body; 8-Support beam; 9-Bolt M-8; 10-Retaining ring; 11-Wheel.
Trailer frame for such a trailer is made of pipes, angles of any section. For wheel axle use metal rod with diameter of 30 mm. You can make a homemade trailer body from boards, trapezoid sheeting or metal sheet 1,2-1,5mm thick. To increase durability, corners of wooden trailer trailer are strengthened with metal plates, and the trailer made of profiled sheet is augmented with ribs. The attachment of the trailer is arranged in such a way that it is connected by a kingpin. The main thing is to watch that the dimensions are the same.
There are worm and chain drives. The differences between them are small, but important enough. The difference lies in the characteristics inherent in the two different types: Efficiency; angular velocity; number of gears; number of shafts and ratio between gears. Relatively inexpensive motor blocks often have non-disassembled gearboxes of simplified assembly. In this case, the service life is considerably reduced and additional features are eliminated:
This means that the quality of gearbox material is low and that most parts will not be sleeved. The diagram will give you an idea of how it works and how long it lasts.
Expensive motor blocks have gearboxes that are more complex in design and allow for further assembly and disassembly. It is quite possible to carry out maintenance, correcting all deficiencies in the operation of the device.
Repairs are made in order to continue operation. Defective parts should be replaced with more expensive ones. Timely lubrication also helps to prolong the operating life.
In most cases, the gearbox converts speeds, that is, the angular velocity is quickly and qualitatively transformed into a low. The input shaft will have a high angular velocity, the output shaft already has a low one.
To prevent unforeseen breakdowns, regular and proper maintenance is required. With a step change in speed, the reducer is called a gearbox. When the step system is not used, the device is called a variator.
How to assemble a homemade gearbox for a power tiller with your own hands
The pride of many dacha owners is a homemade single axle tractor, assembled with their own hands from parts of end-of-life mechanisms. To put an electric motor or small-sized petrol engine from an old scooter or motorcycle on a frame with wheels is not difficult even for a novice amateur mechanic. And here’s something to think about, so it’s the gearbox for the power tiller.
Construction of a motor block
Schemes of assembling homemade power tillers are so diverse, as different parts in the garage of each owner. The dimensions are also chosen for practical reasons.
With different composition and dimensions, there are mandatory elements:
- The frame. a sturdy structure for attaching other parts.
- Wheels. from homemade metal ones to factory-made rubber ones. The position of the wheel axle or wheelset is fixed in relation to the frame with iron columns with pressed bearings.
- Engine. 5 to 10 horsepower. You can even use an electric motor with a battery, but the most popular engines from a scooter or motorcycle. This choice is good with a ready-to-use speed control and even a gear unit.
- Gearbox is a node to transfer rotation from the motor to the executive mechanism, converts the speed and direction.
Gear unit types
The rotary motion can be transferred from the motor shaft to the actuator shaft by direct coupling of the axes if the speed and power of the motor are acceptable for operation and the axes of the driving and driven shafts coincide.
Such cases are extremely rare, and with several attachments of different purposes, a direct drive is absolutely impossible. 4 types and combinations of mechanisms are used to match speed and power on the drive and driven shafts.
The worm gear is structurally limited to the reduction speed function, the others can be used in both reduction gears and increase gears. In addition, such a gearbox always has a driven axis perpendicular to the shaft of the driven axis.
Such a scheme is called an angular gearbox. In addition to the worm gear, the axis direction can also be changed with a spatial planetary gear. Belt and chain drives leave the drive axle parallel to the motor axle.
In simple applications, reversing is only possible by changing the rotation of the motor.
Types of Gear Assemblies
Transmission of rotary motion from motor shaft to actuator shaft can be made by direct connection of axes, if speed and power of motor rotation are acceptable for operation, and axes of drive and driven shafts coincide. Such cases are extremely rare, and with several mounted implements for different purposes, a direct drive is absolutely not possible. 4 types and combinations of these gears are used to match speed and power on the drive and driven shafts. Basic gear types:
The worm gearing is structurally limited to the reduction speed function, the others can be used in both reduction gears and increase gears. In addition, such a gearbox always has a driven axis perpendicular to the driven shaft. This arrangement is called an bevel gear unit. In addition to the worm gear, you can change the direction of the axle with a spatial planetary mechanism. Belt and chain drives leave the driven axle parallel to the motor axle. In simple devices, reverse is possible only by changing the rotation of the engine.
Power tillers use engines with high rpm, as you can ascertain from the product datasheet. So, with your own hands you need to make a reducer to reduce the speed, and what type will be a homemade reducer on a single axle tractor, it is better to choose, knowing the characteristics of each type.
Every motorist who has ever looked under the hood of a car is familiar with a pulley or belt that transmits rotation from shaft to shaft. Speed reduction ratio is determined by dividing the radius of a small driven wheel by the radius of a large driven wheel.
Pros to belt reducers. it is easy to make and repair, a large variety of parts. And the disadvantages of the belt:
- stretching of the belt, reduction of the grip on the pulley from temperature and wear;
- slippage at sharp increases in torque;
- short service life.
Compensate for the disadvantages with a spring-loaded roller that presses on the belt surface between the wheels, the use of a toothed belt on pulleys with cross chamfers. Belt gearboxes require the leading and driven pulleys to be in one plane, bending or twisting of the belt will quickly lead to its rupture.
The chain type
The chain drive principle is similar to belt drive, but instead of pulleys there are sprockets and the belt is replaced by a chain. Such self-made gearbox will not allow slipping, and in similar conditions will work much longer. Just like a belt, a chain reducer must have leading and driven sprockets in the same plane, and its gear ratio is calculated by the ratio of their teeth. This design weighs more than a belt type, but it is more reliable on powerful motor blocks.
Unlike belt drives, chain drives require caution or extra precautions. If a rotating attachment collides with a thick root in the soil, its drag force will be transmitted to the motor, which can damage it. Until the engine fails or shuts down, it will try to twist with maximum power along with the frame around the gearbox idler axle. The more powerful the engine, the greater the overturning torque.
The gear ratio of a chain gear can be higher than a belt gear of the same size, since the drive sprocket, even having a small size, will not allow the chain to slip.
In terms of cost, ease of assembly, and parts prevalence, the chain gear is as good as the belt gear.
By means of pinions
a single-axle tractor with a gear reducer is more reliable, more durable than a chain or belt reducer. Gear constructions are put on the factory products, and not only on motor blocks. The units turn out to be small-sized as a result of combining two gears with different diameters on one axis. For a motorblock, for example, a gearbox from a Muravey scooter would be perfect. But you can make your own, using the gears from the gearboxes of automobiles. The necessary gear ratio can be provided by the planetary mechanism, in which between the outer and sun gears are set satellite gears, attached to a stationary ring. the driver:
For a reduction gearbox, the sun gear is installed on the drive shaft. The planetary gearwheel is attached to the stationary body, and the outer gear is connected to the actuator, rotating in the opposite direction to the sun gear.
Gear ratio of such a reducer can be calculated as a ratio of number of teeth of solar gear to the number of teeth on the external gear.
Any gearbox needs lubrication, so some farmers wonder: “What kind of oil to put in the gearbox of a motoblock?”. This kind of information is usually found in the owner’s manual. The manufacturers themselves determine which type of oil is suitable for their equipment.
If you have installed a homemade unit, we recommend using MOTUL products. This is a well-known manufacturer of oils, which are optimal for power tillers.
However, even a timely oil change is not able to insure a gearbox from breakdowns. Consider a few of the most likely causes. For example, in a MB Compact the gearbox knocks. What is it related to?
- Failure of the half-axle decoupling unit. In this case you need to disassemble the gearbox and replace worn parts. Besides, knocking may be provoked by wrong drive setting, it can be eliminated by changing cable tension.
- Chain breakage. Such failure is usually accompanied by a characteristic knock, followed by jamming of the gearbox. The problem can be eliminated by replacing the torn chain.
These are not the only problems that can arise with the gearbox of the MB-Compact. Oil leakage is a sign of rubber sleeve wear.
To fix the problem you need to disassemble the gearbox and replace the element. In some cases, it is impossible to fix the transmission of the motorblock. There may be several reasons for this:
To ensure that the gearbox does not need repair for a long time, the product must necessarily undergo a running-in with subsequent replacement of oil in the system.
over, during the operation of your walking tractor you must check the oil level in the gearbox and try to avoid shock loads.
In the case of replacing worn parts, it is recommended to buy only original spare parts of the manufacturer.
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One of the most important mechanisms of a modern crawler tractor is a gearbox built into its design; its function is to continuously transmit the engine torque to the wheels of the agricultural machine used. Gearbox plays an important enough role in the construction of a power tiller, so every owner of machinery should know how to independently lubricate and repair the mechanism in case of breakage.
How to make a reducer for a motor-block with your own hands
To make a gearbox for a motor-block with your own hands. a difficult task and at the same time interesting. This is one of the important mechanisms, without which the work of garden equipment using a power tiller is unthinkable. Its main task is to reduce the speed of the drive shaft and simultaneously increase or decrease the torque on the drive.
It is possible to buy a transmission mechanism for your single axle tractor in a specialized store, but it is wiser to assemble a reducer with your own hands, taking into account all the technical characteristics of the engine. This will be the best option, because when designing a mechanism for a particular power plant, an individual calculation is made, which will simplify the task of pairing it with the engine.
Starting to make a reducer, it is necessary to clarify what type of mechanism is preferable for your motoblock. It depends not only on the power of the motor, but also on the scheme of its location, as well as the level of complexity of the tasks set.
How to make a single axle tractor gearbox with your own hands
Homemade reducer for motor-block requires for the manufacture of the preparation of tools. For a fruitful work will be needed:
- screwdrivers of various sizes;
- hacksaw for metal;
- bench vice;
- Welding machine;
- Hammers of different weight;
- rubber for gaskets;
- a drill with drill bits.
In the process of work may require some other tools. From the materials you need to prepare the shafts and bearings, sprockets and chains, belts and gears. A caliper can be used to measure parts. Before the work you need to make the simplest drawings.
So, the tools and sketches are ready, you need to prepare the material for welding the body or take a ready-made. You can weld it from pieces of stainless steel. The prepared gears must fit freely into the ready-made housing. These can be borrowed from an old chainsaw. Druzhba or any other brand is good. The saw must be carefully disassembled and the whole gears together with the shafts must be taken out. They are cleaned and washed, then sized according to the gear ratio.
When calculating the ratio, the number of idle revolutions of the engine crankshaft must be taken as the basis, and 10% must be added to this number.
In all constructions, there must not be any misalignment between the driving and driven parts.
Bearings must not be replaced by bushings. When disassembling the old saw keep this in mind.
When reassembling the product the parts are carefully inserted into their places in the housing and turned. The housing must be hermetically sealed. This prevents dust and dirt from getting on the parts. The shaft seals are installed on the shafts. Grease is poured inside the housing. Connect the self-made device in the same way as the original gearbox. To test it, start the engine and roll it on the ground. The parts should run in to each other for a while.
How much oil to put in the gearbox of your MotoBlock??
Finding the answer to this question is easy enough. You will need to do this in the following order:
- Place the single-axle tractor on a level surface so that the wings of the unit are parallel to the surface itself;
- Take a piece of wire, at least 70 cm long, as an oil dipstick;
- Bend the wire in an arc shape;
- Slip the wire inside the reservoir as far as it will go and pull it out.
If the oil is at least 30 cm of the length of the wire, you don’t need to add any more oil. If the wire remains completely dry, then you need to pour at least 2 liters of lubricant inside the gearbox.
How much oil to fill in the timing belt
Keep a constant oil level in the gearbox when the powerpack is in operation. If this simple rule is not followed, residual lubricant can boil over and jam parts. Only quality oil should be used. Even with constant level maintenance breakdowns happen. In a chain drive, the chain breaks or is pulled. If there are traces of oil on the outside, it is a sign of leaking oil seals. Worn parts need to be replaced with similar ones. It is better to buy them from a reputable manufacturer.
The transmission ensures the smooth running of the power tiller, extends its service life and increases the unit’s efficiency. Lubricating its parts is a good helper in this endeavor. Gear oil should be used for lubrication. Possible brand is ZIC 10W40, Super T-3. Oil level is determined this way:
- take a wire about 70 cm long instead of the dipstick and bend it into an arc;
- Insert it into the priming hole as far as it will go;
- pull the makeshift dipstick back out;
- the wire should be oiled to a length of about 30 cm.
This level is considered the norm. If there is not enough oil, you need to add it to the norm. In the purchased reducer, the level should be specified in the instructions. A Chinese single-axle tractor can be sold without oil.