How to make a setting on a hand saw
Hacksaw for wood with their own hands
The main cutting element of any hand saw is a series of teeth cut on the blade to form wedge-shaped cutters. Wood is sawn along, across and at an angle Θ to its fibers in the manufacture of all kinds of products made of it, therefore a distinction is made between crosswise, longitudinal and angular sawing and in each case a corresponding type of saw is used, which differs from the others in the shape of the teeth.
cross-cutting saws are used in crosscutting sawing if their cutting edges cut wood fibers as if with a knife and create a cut. Slit sawing differs from cross sawing in that the saw’s direction of motion is parallel to the wood fibers. leading edges of teeth of longitudinal saws plan the wood like knives of planers and deepen to form a kerf. When wood is cut at an angle Θ to its grain, universal (mixed) saws are used with teeth that are an intermediate form of transversal and longitudinal saws teeth.
Sharpening saw teeth is a kind of art that requires good hands, good eye, and attention. It’s not difficult to learn how to do it, you should have a desire and strictly follow the following rules:
- The saw blade must be firmly secured in a special fixture made of wood, which is also steadily installed on a well-lit work table. Sharpening saw teeth on stools or on your knees does not give satisfactory results.
- A personal file should be used, and the ground tooth edges should be cleaned with a velvet (fine-cut) file or a nail file. A file should preferably be new, sharp, and with a hooked handle. If you do not have one at the right time, you can use a used one, but be sure to clean it with a steel brush and rub it with charcoal, so that the file does not get clogged and blunt. When sharpening a tooth, the file should engage in its metal and remove its layer, depending on the amount of pressure. And if it slides over the tooth without removing metal, the saw’s teeth are overheated or the file is worn out. If this is the case, the sharpening must be repeated with a new file. If it still slips on the tooth, you are left with another saw.
- With the right hand the handle of the file is clamped and with the left hand the end of the file is held and the file is guided to the saw teeth. About file work depending on the type of the saw it is described below.
- It is important to apply pressure smoothly and evenly to the file teeth, and only to one side away from yourself. When the file is returned to its starting position it must not touch the teeth.
- it is necessary to try to grind metal of minimally equal thickness on tooth flanks, when driving file with equal pressure one and the same amount of times, which lets keep angle value, pitch and height of teeth after sharpening.
- Burrs form on the tooth flanks on the file exit side, which reduces the sharpness of the tooth, and if they are not removed, then in the process of the saw they break off, and the teeth are significantly blunted. To deburr, the tooth flanks are sharpened with a file with a velvet file and the flanks are deburred with a wet burr.
- After sharpening the teeth, their sharpness must be checked. Look at the point of a needle and the edge of a razor blade: when sharpened, they do not shine in the light. And if they are blunted, rounded surfaces appear on the tip of the needle and on the edge of the blade, which reflect the light and shine well. This is the principle used to check the quality of sharpening saw teeth. To do this, the saw is placed in front of the eye and the teeth are inspected along the blade. If their cutting edges and tops do not shine, then the saw’s teeth are sharpened satisfactorily, and if some of the teeth are shiny (they often are), then they should be sharpened with a file with a velvet notch, remove burrs and check again the light reflection by their edges and tops.
The teeth of crosscut saws are sharpened using a triangular fine-cut file with an apex angle of 60°.
For teeth sharpening the saw blade is clamped in a special device that allows to set it at an angle of 45-50° to the plane of the working table. File are parallel to the working table at an angle of 60-75° to the saw blade and thus in the first tooth sharpen the left edge A1A2B2B1.
The saw teeth are sharpened in several steps. Start by traversing the file over the left edges of the odd teeth in the far row, setting your hands in the same motion. Then, a file is passed over the right edges of the same odd teeth, completing the sharpening of the main cutting edges with very sharp tips. After sharpening the odd-numbered teeth, turn the saw blade in the sharpening machine and sharpen the even numbered teeth on the far side. When sharpening the crosscut saw teeth it must be ensured that each tooth has sharp main cutting edges with a dihedral angle of φ = 60-75°, a short cutting edge and a sharp tip.
Saw tooth setter
Setting the cutting edge in different directions eliminates the possibility of the blade jamming at the time of work. An example would be the case when when cutting a thick log, the blade cannot be moved out of place and removed. Also the saw can jam due to the heating of the metal and its expansion, the hot part can heat the resin and turn it into a kind of glue.
To avoid these problems, it is important to use a sawtooth setting device. Do not forget that mistakes made during work can lead to even bigger problems. The procedure in question can be carried out with the following tools:
- Special mechanisms are available. They allow for manual displacement of individual elements relative to each other. It is worth remembering that this version is made for certain products.
- Mechanical sharpening is most often used. They allow you to change the angle of the position, as well as their width. This tool is more efficient in its use.
- Handheld version is not designed to work with a hacksaw on wood, but can be used for this. Examples are pliers and other hand tools found in almost every workshop.
If sawing is carried out frequently, experts recommend buying a special device that allows you to quickly set the required angle.
Sharpening a saw
Working with a saw requires caution. Sharpening a saw can also lead to injury. What you can do to minimize the risk of cuts? You need to make a temporary cover out of rubber tubing. The tube is cut to length and used as a cover for the saw’s teeth. It is difficult to cut with this guard.
Hand saw sharpening. Not an easy task. To sharpen the dust, you need to clamp it with two hardwood clamps. Put a strip of cardboard between the clamps and secure the clamps with nails at the bottom. The saw is placed in the left-hand slot and the construction is squeezed out with the vice. Now it is easier to sharpen the dust. Sharpen each tooth with a triangular saw and the same number of strokes.
How to correctly set the teeth of a hacksaw?
Quite a common question can be called how to deburr the teeth in a wood hacksaw. If they are offset in one line, the cut is narrow and the working part gets stuck in one place.
This causes the metal to heat up quickly, so it begins to expand. To perform qualitative tooth setting it is recommended to use special mechanisms.
Recommendations for the work to be done are as follows:
- Clamp the saw in a vise for a firm grip. The possibility of damaging the working part can be eliminated by using plywood as a backing.
- All cutting elements are bent through one by one to the recommended angle.
In reviewing how to make a divot on a hacksaw, we note that several elements deflected at a larger angle can cause sawing to become more difficult.
How to saw with a two-handed saw detailed instructions with a description
At first sight, sawing with a two-handed saw can seem easy and uncomplicated. However, as soon as a beginner picks up a hacksaw, it immediately becomes clear that this work is for real and strong hands. However, you do not need to have a mountain of muscles to properly saw wood with the Druzhba-2 saw. You need a little experience, and you need to understand how it works.
That’s interesting! Even if you have experience with short-handled hacksaws, a beginner picking up a two-handled saw for the first time will be unpleasantly surprised. If the other end of the saw will be an experienced sawyer, the beginner will have a hard time until he has mastered the principle of operation of the device.
Instructions on how to saw logs and trees with a two-handed saw are as follows:
- First, the log must be secured by placing it on “trestles”. It is necessary to take into account that it is most convenient to work standing on feet, so even if the log is on the ground, for the correctness of his sawing, it is necessary to place it on a special stand. the trestle
- The part of the log which is sawn off the main part should hang over the ground
- Both sawyers are in a comfortable position with their feet shoulder width apart. The main thing here is to make a firm footing, otherwise the possibility of injury is not excluded
- Ideally one should stand slightly higher than the other, for example with a pallet. This will speed up the sawing, but is not a necessary action
- After grasping the handles of the tool, you can begin. The main thing when working with a two-handed hacksaw is the synchronous work of the hands. It is the smoothing of the hands that determines the efficiency of the end result
- Principle of articulated sawing is to apply force only in one direction. pulling the blade toward you. It is not necessary to push the tool away from yourself, because this task is entrusted to your partner. While the partner pulls the blade, the hand of the first sawyer rests
- This not only increases the efficiency but also prevents quick fatigue
Many factors affect the speed of achieving the result, such as the thickness of the log, the length of the blade, the quality of sharpening the teeth, as well as the synchronized work of the sawyers. It is worth noting that with the right approach to sawing, it is possible to achieve fast sawing, comparable with the work of a chainsaw.
That’s interesting! If the blade shows signs of corrosion deposits, then before the work it is recommended to clean the surface with fine sandpaper (for faster work you can use a hand brush on metal), and then apply machine oil to reduce resistance during work with the tool.
How to cut properly
Always saw from the cutting side, close to the marking line. this applies both for rough cuts with a hacksaw and for precise cuts with a fine-toothed saw
Then it is very important that the workpiece to be cut has a stable support in the form of a workbench top or a regular work table. For large workpieces it is best to use a sawhorse
Always hold the workpiece firmly with your hand (also with your knee on large-sized workpieces) while sawing. in other words, only the saw must move.
Sawing begins with the first short 30 to 45 degree angles. Only when the saw blade is set in the wood and anchored in it you may start the saw’s work with the full length of the blade.
At the edge of cut, use only short, sharp thrusts. This avoids chipping on the underside of the workpiece.
Piercing along the wood fibers is always a “critical” situation, especially if the wood is heavily sagged. The saw naturally wants to follow the path of least resistance and if it is not restrained, it starts to wander. That means the saw has to be pressed harder than usual in such cases, which in turn requires the workpiece to be in as stable a position as possible.
Saws can get jammed if you make large cross-cuts. In such cases it is better to use a thin-cutting saw with teeth widely set. But remember the band of the cut will be much thicker than the saw blade.
It is easier to cut fresh or wet wood if you wax or soap on the saw blade.
Saws for crosscutting
The workpieces are pressed firmly against the lintel, with its right edge guiding the saw.
Band saws are characterized by three distinctive features. they are made only from special kinds of tool steel to ensure high strength and wear resistance of the teeth. Russian producers usually use steel of 9XF and B2F categories, foreign companies give preference to C75 series. In any case the hardness of material has to be at least 45 HRS.
Cutting width of band saw blades is much narrower than in circular saws. As mentioned above, this is the key factor when working with fine wood and industrial wood.
Saws can handle workpieces of any length and diameter without any problem. A properly sharpened band saw blade ensures a high production output.
It should be noted that the reliability of closed circular saws can be explained by the heterogeneity of material used for producing of the blade.
The body of a circular saw blade in particular is made of spring steel, which has an incredible resistance to tensile and dynamic loads. steels with high percentages of tungsten and cobalt are used for the cutting edge. Individual parts of the blade are welded together by high-frequency currents. Tools made with this technique can be used to cut metal.
Identifying the right torque
Without experience, people often go from extreme to extreme and either sharpen the saw every few days or once a year. Determining the need for sharpening by time is the wrong approach.
There are a number of indications that the teeth have become dull:
- The blade regularly jams in the wood.
- When sawing, the sound changes, it becomes more “dull”.
- The color of the teeth changes.
- Material resistance increases significantly.
- The tooth tips are noticeably rounded.
- The blade moves away from the cutting line.
This measure is compensated for by flawless operation. In the body of the saw, in addition to the gas tank, there is another reservoir for chain oil, to determine the correct throat will help printed on the lid symbol.
The lubrication system feeds special oil into the work area to cool the saw headset and extend its life. Filling the oil system with used oil or other oil surrogates will adversely affect the longevity of the pump, and. as well as the performance of the chainsaw as a whole.