How to properly sharpen a hacksaw and make a smoothing
The secret way to sharpen your saw quickly
A toothed, well-sharpened saw is not just a hand-held tool, it’s practically a violin in the hands of the craftsman. It does a great job, it does not tear or crumple the edge, and the cut is crisp and even. The secret is in the good sharpening. But constant use of the saw blunts the teeth and changes their setting. It’s not that hard to get your handyman back in working order, it can be done in just half an hour with a simple tool.
For those who didn’t know, there are three types of handsaws. Some of them are designed to cut wood crosswise, others. to work lengthwise, and there are universal saws that can cope with both tasks. It is the universal ones that are most common. And it is quite simple to determine the type of the saw: the tool for cross-cutting the teeth have a regular shape, for longitudinal. a strong bevel to one side, universal saws have one edge at a right angle, and the other. beveled. A cross-cutting cut is made in two directions, i.e. the saw blade moves back and forth, while a longitudinal cut moves in one direction only. Consider these points when sharpening the tines.
Design and construction of the saw
Hand wood hacksaws are used for cutting various wooden materials. It is a blade with teeth at the bottom. On one side of the tool is equipped with a handle, with which the master holds it during the sawing work. The quality of the handle determines the convenience and comfort of the saw.
The number of manufacturers of wood hacksaws is quite large, but they all differ not only in names, but also in quality. All of them are designed for sawing wood, chipboard, logs, laminate, and tree trunks. Saws are subdivided into such types as: classic, cupped, beam, as well as with a shank and award. Saw blade thickness plays an important role in the choice of machine. After all, a thin blade in the course of sawing wood can break, and a thick one is quite difficult to work.
Important! Wood sabre saws need to be sharpened periodically. Sharpenable saw blades include those that have not been hardened. If the blade links are hardened, they cannot be sharpened.
Why and when to sharpen
The tool in question is subjected to various stresses during use, which dulls the teeth. If you saw with a dulled-toothed saw blade, the result will be much less efficient than with a sharp saw blade. In addition, using a saw with blunted teeth is not recommended for the following reasons:
- Reduced tool productivity. Not only the craftsman’s strength will be consumed, but also his time.
- Reduced precision of work. It is impossible to cut wood materials evenly, let alone accurately, with a dull-toothed hacksaw.
- Danger of the tool. During the work, the saw will get stuck, jammed, come off the sawing line, so such work can be dangerous for the master.
A sharp hacksaw is not only easier to work with, but also much safer. To determine that it is time to sharpen the wood saw blade, you should pay attention to the following factors:
- The blade emits a characteristic blunt sound. If the craftsman often uses a hacksaw, it will not be difficult for him to identify such a sound.
- Tooth tips are rounded.
- A hacksaw refuses to do its job when trying to cut wood.
These factors indicate that it’s time to sharpen the wood hacksaw with your own hands. But before taking up the file, you should determine whether these links are subject to sharpening.
Sharpening a wood hacksaw begins with such a procedure as tooth deburring. Tooth setting in a hacksaw is used for things like allowing the blade to run freely without jamming. Tooth setting is the unbending of the teeth to one side, one after the other, by the same amount. This increases the kerf width, which in turn speeds up the shavings evacuation during sawing.
Important to know! The wider the teeth are set, the less chance of the blade jamming.
Tooth pitch depends on blade thickness and is usually 1.5 to 2 mm. A tool is needed to bend the tines to the same value. This tool is a metal plate with a special tool slot. The blade is clamped in a vise so that the links protrude slightly. After that, the process of unbending the teeth is carried out. Sharpened teeth also need to be bent at the same distance.
How to sharpen a wood hacksaw
To sharpen the wood hacksaw, the blade should be similarly clamped in a vise. To sharpen the saw links use files or triangular files with a fine cut. Not many people know how to properly sharpen a wood saw blade, so this process should be given as much attention as possible.
- Initially it is necessary to take a file in your hand. You should use a file with a fine notch, which should be held in one hand by the handle, and the other by the tip of the tool.
- The sharpening angle is determined, which is usually between 15 and 30 degrees. The angle is usually determined by eye, but if this is difficult to do, you may use special home-built tools, for instance a wooden block. To do this the block is ground until it is in the shape of a right triangle with angles of 30 and 60 degrees.
- Pressure is most important when using a file. To ensure uniform sharpening, you need to perform the same number of file passes on each tooth. With experience you will learn how to ensure that the top layer of metal is removed evenly.
- Using the prepared fixture, the sharpening angles are controlled. The process is carried out in the same way on the back side of the blade.
Now you know how to properly sharpen the teeth of a wood saw blade. But this is not the end of the process, because the teeth need to be aligned in height. If they have different heights, the uniformity of sawing will be disturbed. If there are any links that are higher than the others, they are shortened using the same file. Check with a piece of paper, against which the bar should be placed tooth by tooth. Then the dimensions are compared and the sharpening process is repeated.
How to sharpen a saw: Practical hints
When working on sharpening the hacksaw, the following recommendations should be adhered to:
- The device is firmly clamped on the work surface in a vise.
- Make sure the workplace is well lit.
- To sharpen the links files and files with different notches are used. The lower the notch, the better. Everything depends on the degree of blunting of the teeth.
- Metal is removed only by moving the file away from yourself in one direction.
- After the job is done, the quality should be checked. To do this, look at each link in the light. If the tooth is shiny, it is properly sharpened, as in the picture below.
Why sharpen the blade on a hand hacksaw and when sharpening is needed
Every tool has its own technical parameters. And it concerns not only electric, but also hand tools. The main parameter of a hand-held cutting tool is the quality of sharpening of the teeth. It is not only the ability to cut the workpiece, but also the effort required from the hacksaw operator. If the hacksaw is “dull”, it will be very difficult (if not impossible) to saw the workpiece.
That the tool needs to be restored to the sharpness of the teeth. Witness such a parameter as the need to apply a lot of effort and energy on the part of the sawyer. Sawing with a sharp hacksaw is 2-3 times faster than working with a blunted-toothed tool. Using a tool with blunt cutting teeth is not only wrong if you have to use a lot of force, but also for the following reasons:
- Lower cutting performance. A person who works with faulty tools wastes not only energy and strength but also time
- Impossible to perform high-precision work. it is almost impossible to cut material evenly with a hacksaw with blunted teeth. Blade will move away from material instead of digging into it and cutting it
- It is not safe to work with a “dumb” saw. Blunt hacksaw will constantly get stuck in the thickness of the material to be sawed, so the sawyer can be injured
If you realize that you are wasting your energy when working with a hand saw, then you need to sharpen the wood hacksaw with your own hands, which any sawyer can easily cope with. Before dealing with the correctness of sharpening the teeth of the saw, you need to make sure that such work is necessary. The following factors are taken into consideration:
- A sharp hand saw cuts itself, and from the master is only required to apply reciprocating action. If you not only have to move the tool back and forth, but also press it against the workpiece, it is time to sharpen the teeth again
- If you hear a dull thud while working with the tool. The blade of a tune-up saw makes no sound, and when the teeth become dull, it begins to jingle, making a muffled sound
- Changing the shape of the teeth. The normal shape of the teeth is triangular with sharp tips, and when these tips round off, it is time to take a file into your hands and restore the sharpness of the tool
- When trying to re-saw the workpiece, the hacksaw does not want to perform this manipulation, straying from the cutting line
All these signs indicate that it is time to sharpen the wood hacksaw with your own hands, which even a beginner can do at home. In order not to spoil the tool, as well as to carry out the procedure with maximum efficiency, here is a detailed instruction on how to sharpen a hand-held wood hacksaw.
What it should do
When sharpening, make sure that the teeth of the hacksaw are sharp and shaped like a shark’s tooth. Only such a tooth is good for sawing. the hacksaw will not slide over the wood, and will “gnaw” into it. And then it becomes clear why the “right” saw cuts by itself.
How to hone a hacksaw quickly and easily with a file
How to sharpen a wood saw: easy step-by-step instructions | (photo Video)
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The basic cutting element of any hand saw. a row of teeth cut on the blade to form a wedge-shaped cutter. Wood species in the process of manufacture of its various products is sawn along, across and at an angle to its fibers, for this reason we distinguish cross sawing, longitudinal and sawing at an angle to its fibers and at the variant use the corresponding type of saw, different from the others by the shape of the teeth.
In crosscut sawing, crosscut saws are used, the cutting edges of whose teeth, when moving in the wood, cut through its fibers like a knife and form a kerf. Longitudinal sawing differs from cross sawing in that the saw’s direction of motion is parallel to the fibers of the wood. The front edges of the teeth of longitudinal saws plan the wood, like knives in planers, and, deepening, form a kerf. When sawing wood at an angle Θ to its fibers, universal (mixed) saws with teeth, which are the intermediate form of teeth of crosswise and longitudinal saws, are used.
How to sharpen a hacksaw?
To do the sharpening with minimum loss of time and quality, it is necessary to use such special devices and tools, as:
- locksmith’s vice;
- sharpening bar;
- protractor and caliper;
- it is possible to use tooling, which allows fixing the hacksaw blade at an angle of 90 or 45 degrees.
It is imperative that you use the following files:
When sharpening a hacksaw for wood, both a simple vice is used, which is rather uncomfortable and long, and the vice of multicoordinate type, as their bed is rotated and fixed at the necessary angles to ensure the movement of the tool strictly in a horizontal plane. It is advisable to light the work area with electric lights. Throughout the sharpening process, the file / file must move without jerking, a constant pressure is necessary, and the cuts must be made without deviations from a constant angle. The sharpening process goes only with the file movements “from yourself”. The file/nadfil should be returned by air, and there should be no contact with the hacksaw.
Hacksaws are used for a variety of purposes. Cut wood lengthways or crosswise. Accordingly, the teeth will also be different.
Sharpening crosscut saw teeth
When sharpening such teeth a fine triangular file is used. The direction of the tool movement is an angle of 60 degrees. The hacksaw is fixed in the device at a 45-50 degree angle to the workbench. The file/surface file must be led strictly horizontally (keeping the angle of 60-75 degrees to the hacksaw), starting the sharpening from the first left tooth. You should start with “adjusting the movement of your hand with the tool”, so they run it along every left edge of the odd-numbered row of back teeth, which will give the necessary automaticity to your hand movements. After that the same is done repeating sharpening the right sides of odd teeth to complete sharpening the cutting edge and sharpening the tips. Having finished sharpening the teeth of the odd row, the hacksaw is turned over in the securing device and the same actions are repeated for the even row, which is the far row in this position.
Saws for longitudinal sawing
Teeth of crosscut hacksaw have angle less than 60 degrees so use files with big notches or fine-cut file with rhombic cross-section. The use of triangular files in this case is categorically not recommended. For sharpening, the hacksaw is held vertically in the unit. There are two methods of sharpening the hacksaw, which differ by giving different sharpening angles.
- Straight. Place the file at a 90 degree angle. It is given a direction parallel to the hacksaw, sharpening both the back and front cutting surfaces of each tooth. This is repeated for the entire back row of teeth. The hacksaw is then inverted in the clamping device by 180 degrees and the same operation is repeated for the other teeth that will make up the back row.
- Oblique. This method differs from the direct one only by the angle of tool movement to the blade plane. sharpening angle decreases from direct to 80 degrees. The process is exactly the same, but the teeth after sharpening resemble the teeth of a bow saw.
Mixed type saw
If you need to sharpen teeth, use large-sized notches or diamond-shaped fine-cut files. For mixed type saws there are the same two options as for longitudinal and cross type saws. They have slightly different sharpening angles (90 and 74-81 degrees, respectively).
How the saw is set and what it is
Setting the saw is a process of bending the teeth to different directions by a specified amount. This is done to prevent the saw from jamming in the material during cutting, and to enable the saw to feed easily and smoothly. The greater the bend in the tines, the lower the risk of the blade getting caught in the wood. But a too wide set will also have a negative impact on the sawing process. Maximum value should not exceed 2 mm.
If you cut dry material the width of the bend must be 0,3-0,5 mm, if you cut wet wood the bend must be 0,5-1,0 mm.
Special pliers can be used for deburring. On them set the necessary value of the bend, and then the adjustment of the tool is carried out. The process is carried out quickly and qualitatively, but pliers are not cheap. That’s why many people use adjustable plates with a stop and manual adjustment.
The saw must be firmly clamped in a vice before bending. The teeth are processed one by one: first one side and then the other. Bending must be carried out from the center of the cutter, not from the base. Otherwise it could break.
When sharpening a hand saw on wood, each master follows a number of rules:
- The maximum secure attachment of the hacksaw to a workbench or other fixed base by using a vice or clamps. This allows you to qualitatively sharpen the saw and reduce the likelihood of injury.
- Good working area lighting, so even the smallest teeth are clearly visible.
- The sharpening tool moves in one direction only, if the process is carried out with a file.
In addition, to quickly check the quality of sharpening, use sunlight. When exposed to the rays, the teeth begin to shine, if the sharpening process is performed correctly.
Self-made sharpening machine
How to sharpen a wood saw. And so that the sharpening of the teeth of the hacksaw is the same. Homemade saw sharpener. that’s the way out. Someone will probably say you can sharpen the saw with a file. But I lose time. And in addition, the quality of sharpening the hacksaw will suffer. Sharpening a saw or hacksaw correctly. How to sharpen a hacksaw is no longer a question. I made my first home-built saw sharpener in just one day. I did not spend any expensive materials. But the quality is not affected by this. See photo below.
View of the machine
The base for the machine is a frame, which I welded from square tubes of section 30 x30.By the way I cut all the metal on my homemade machine from the angle grinder. On this site there is an article stationary cutting machine from the angle grinder. As a table I used a sheet of iron about 2 mm thick. Because I could not find anything else. But this thickness is enough. See pictures in Figures 1,2,4.
In the case of the base, I installed a power supply to connect the motor. And on the frame I installed the legs. Because the machine moves without feet when working. In the machine I used the motor from the all-in-one printer. To my surprise the motor was powerful enough. My homemade sharpening machine video you can watch on the Zhelezkin channel. Since the motor had a diameter of 3.17 mm, my attachment from China fit. But, unfortunately, the nozzle has a runout. On drawings 3,4 you see the motor with a nozzle. I already installed the motor on the frame. See the drawing below and in Figure 3,4 you can see what the attachment parts look like.
Parts of the saw sharpening machine