How to sharpen a disc saw. How to determine wear?

How to make a machine and sharpen a disc circuit saw instruction with a detailed description

For sawing wood, a specialized power tool is used, as well as gear wheels that are blunting over time and cannot cope with the fulfillment of their tasks. In order not to buy a new cutting nozzle, the discs for the circular saw with your own hands are sharpened. The principle of sharpening is not difficult, and everyone can cope with this if you own the instructions for the implementation of this process.

Cutting discs for processing wood and wood materials abrupt and wear out over time, which helps to reduce their performance. To restore the effectiveness of the cutting tool, you will need to sharpen the teeth. To find out that you need to sharpen the teeth on the disk, you can subsequent factors:

  • To cut wood, it is necessary to make the efforts of the instrument pressed to the sawing workpiece
  • The occurrence of smoke coming from under the protective casing is observed
  • Excessive heating of the protective casing occurs
  • There are signs of the smell of Gary. This means that the teeth do not saw the wood, but cut it

The operation of a faulty nozzle on a power tool leads to the fact that the performance of the work is reduced, and the likelihood of an early failure of the power tool and the nozzle itself is increased. Reducing performance helps to increase the load on the electric motor, which eventually begins to overheat and fails.

It is interesting! It is irrational to work with a blunt disk, since in addition to increasing the load on the power tool, the work on sawing blanks increases.

The principles and angles of sharpening disk saws

Metal grinding scheme on the teeth of the saw.

The working parts of the circular saws are dragged at 4 main angles of sharpening. These angles (rice.2), like the shape of the cutting tooth, are the main technical parameters of the disk.

So, each tooth of the circular is characterized by the front (γ), the rear (α) corners, as well as the corners of the cut of the front and rear surfaces (ε1 and ε2). The value of these angles depends on the purpose of the sawing device, the sawed material and the direction of sawing.

How to sharpen a circular saw blade

sharpen, disc, determine, wear

In particular, the saw for longitudinal cutting is pulled at a relatively large front angle (from 15 ° to 25 °). The sharpening indicator of the front angle for cross.Cutting is in the range from 5 ° to 10 °. But the universal option that performs the processing of the material in all directions is traditionally sharpened at an angle of 15 °.

In addition, the degree of hardness of the cut objects also affects the indicated angles. Their values ​​are in strict dependence: the harder the material from which this or that workpiece consists of, the less pointed the cutting teeth should be.

The main principle of sharpening the teeth of carbide saws is based on the fact that during prolonged operation, the most significant wear occurs on the upper cutting edge. As a result of intensive use of its fishing line for a trimmer, it can be rounded to 0.3 mm or more. As for the planes of the tooth, the wear is most fixed on the front surface.

Proper grinding of cutting elements should provide a type of edges in which the radius of their rounding does not exceed a value of 0.2 mm. To do this, it is recommended to steal metal on the front and posterior plane planes in parallel to this method can be considered optimal. You can sharpen only the front plane, however, in this case, such an operation will take more time, in addition, the tooth itself will flow faster due to the need to remove more metal from the front surface.

The standard layer of stuck metal is considered 0.05-0.15 mm.

The principles and angles of sharpening disk saws

The saw has four main angles of sharpening the disc saw on the working part. The corners considered, like the form of the tooth, can be called the main operational characteristics. Each tooth can be characterized as follows:

The values ​​of the above parameters depend on the purpose of the sawing device, such as the material of the workpiece.

According to the above parameters, several saws can be distinguished:

  • To perform longitudinal cutting. In this case, the front angle should have an indicator from 15 ° to 25 °.
  • When performing transverse cutting, the considered indicator should be from 5 ° to 10 °.
  • The universal version is recommended to be sharpened at an angle of 15 °.

The type of material also determines what indicators should have a tooth. As a rule, the harder the material, the more difficult it is. That is why it is recommended to focus the cutting teeth to a lesser extent.

With prolonged use of saws from carbide material, significant wear occurs on the upper cutting edge. When considering the plane of the tooth, it is worth noting that the greater wear touches the front surface.

Performing the sharpening of disk saws at home

sharpen, disc, determine, wear

You can sharpen the saw with your own hands without using a special sharpener, which has a greater cost and is used quite rarely due to the use of carbide material when creating a cutting edge. However, you can’t just hold a circle in your hands, since you need to achieve certain cut parameters to ensure the necessary indicator of the efficiency of work.

To fix the gear circle in a strictly given position, an ordinary flat stand is used. It has the following features:

  • The surface of the flat stand should coincide with the level of the axis of the sharpening disk.
  • We have a gear circle on the stand so that the plane of the tightening is perpendicular to the saw canvas.
  • The device in question for teeth located at a certain angle is equipped with a rotary hinge.

The device under consideration allows you to fix the processed element in relation to the used abrasive material. Using a colored marker, marker lines are drawn, which allow you to choose the right angle. A vice is also needed in which the created device for fixing is attached.

Useful tips for private workshops

  • During work, it became more difficult to cut a sawtropol or a specific workpiece;
  • Sawed becomes brown, as he burned all the same;
  • The appearance of a specific smell and dark traces of saw teeth;
  • The protective casing of the engine is heated when overheating. Which in turn indicates a large load on the engine.

Why I Don’t Sharpen My Own Table Saw Blades / Saw Blade Sharpening Facts

  • Timely and correct sharpening will protect you from premature wear of the cutting element, will bring a decrease in the cost of electricity t. To. With a blunt disk, we can only aggravate the position, thereby increasing the load on the electric motor, which will further lead to its breakdown. This is especially noticeable on a circular with a low power engine.

Often, home craftsmen sharpen a disc saw with winning attacks by using manual corner grinder. The method is not very safe, and the disk is not enough for a long time. In this way it is easy to damage the teeth of a saw disk, it is also necessary to work with a corner grinder. But this is one of the ways to sharpen with my own hands. Although as I said not very safe.

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Sharpening of disk drank

Disk saws with carbide teeth consist of a canvas (disk) made of steel 9XF, 65g, 50XFA, etc., and carbide plates playing the role of incisors.

Saw disk

In domestic saws, special tungsten.Baltic alloys of VK grades (VK6, VK15, etc. Are used as a material for cutting plates. The number means percentage cobalt). VK6 has hardness 88.5 HRA, VK15. 86 HRA. Foreign manufacturers use their alloys. Solid alloys of VK consist mainly of a tungsten carbide of cubalt. The characteristics of the alloy depend not only on its chemical composition, but also the size of the carbide phase grain. The smaller the grain, the higher the hardness and strength of the alloy.

Fasten carbide plates to the disk with a high.Temperature ration. As a material for soldering, at best, silver solders are used (PSR-40, PSR-45), in the worst case. Copper-zinc solders (L-63, MNMC-68-4-2).

Geometry of carbide tooths

Four working planes have a carbide tooth. Front (a), back (b), and two auxiliary side (c). Intersecting among themselves, these planes form the cutting edges. The main (1) and two auxiliary (2 and 3). The above determination of the faces and edges of the tooth is given in accordance with GOST 9769-79.

Farm

The following types of teeth are distinguished by form.

Direct tooth. It is usually used in saws for longitudinal fast sawing, in which quality does not matter much.

Direct tooth

Oblique (mowed) tooth with the left and right angle of inclination of the posterior plane. Teeth with different angles of inclination alternate with each other, which is why they are called alternately, scrape. This is the most common tooth form. Depending on the size of the angles of sharpening, saws with alternately, a toothed tooth are used to saw a variety of materials (wood, wood-piece plastmass). Both in the longitudinal and transverse direction. Saws with a large angle of inclination of the posterior plane are used as subcutaneous when cutting plates with bilateral lamination. Their use avoids coating chips on the edges of the cut. An increase in the angle of bevel reduces the cutting force and reduces the danger of chips, but at the same time reduces the resistance and strength of the tooth.

Oblique tooth with a beveled rear plane

Teeth can be tilt not only the rear, but also the front plane.

Oblique tooth with a beveled front plane

Trapezoidal tooth. A feature of these teeth is a relatively slow speed of the cutting edges in comparison with alternately slipped teeth. Usually they are used in combination with a straight tooth.

Trapezoidal tooth

Alternation of teeth of various shapes

Alternating with the latter and slightly towering over it, a trapezoidal tooth performs a black saw, and a straight line following it. Finish. Saws with alternating straight and trapezoid teeth are used for cutting plates with bilateral lamination (wood-piece plate, wood-fiber plate, etc.), as well as for sawing plastics.

Conical tooth. Saws with a conical tooth are auxiliary and are used to cut the lower layer of laminate, protecting it from chips when the main saw passes through.

Conical tooth

In the vast majority of cases, the front faces of the teeth have a flat shape, but there are saws with a concave front line. They are used for finishing transverse sawing.

A tooth with a concave front surface

Sharpening angles of teeth

There are four main angles of sharpening of the disc saw, which along with the shape of the tooth determine its characteristics. This is the front angle (γ), the rear (α) and the angles of the bead of the front and rear planes (ε1 and ε2). The angle of pointing (β) has an auxiliary value, since it is set by the front and rear angles (β = 90 °.-γ-α).

Sharpening angles of the disk saw

The values ​​of the sharpening angles are determined by the purpose of the saw. T.E. Those for cutting what material and in which direction it is intended. Pilas for longitudinal sawing have a relatively large front angle (15 °.25 °). In the saw of transverse saw, the angle γ usually ranges from 5-10 °. Universal saws designed for transverse and longitudinal sawing have an average value of the front angle. Usually 15 °.

The sizes of sharpening angles are determined not only by the direction of the saw, but also by the hardness of the sawed material. The higher the hardness, the less the front and the rear angles (less to the tooth is less).

The front angle can be not only positive, but also negative. Saws with this angle are used for cutting non.Ferrous metals and plastics.

The basic principles of sharpening

The main wear of the carbide tooth occurs along its main (upper) cutting edge. In the process, the latter is rounded to 0.1-0.3 mm. The front wears out of the faces the most quickly.

When sawing massive blanks, lateral faces are also carried out by rapid wear.

Do not allow excessive sawing of the saw. The radius of rounding the cutting edge should not exceed 0.1-0.2 mm. In addition to the fact that when working with a highly blunt saw, performance sharply falls, it takes several times more time to sharpen it than to sharpen a saw with a normal blunt. The degree of gear can be determined both by the teeth themselves and by the type of saw out, which they leave.

Sharpening and wiring saw

The main cutting element of any manual saw. A number of teeth cut on the canvas and representing cutters in the form of wedges. The wood, in the manufacture of all kinds of products from it, is sawn along, across and at an angle θ to its fibers, in this regard, transverse, longitudinal sawing and sawing at an angle to its fibers are distinguished and, in each case, the appropriate type of saw is used, which differs from other forms teeth.

A. Transverse sawing; b. Longitudinal sawing; one. Wood; 2. Drank; 3. Flaim for a trimmer of marking for sawing; Θ. The angle of inclination of the marking to the fibers of wood during mixed sawing.

During transverse sawing, transverse saws are used, the cutting edges of the teeth of which, when moving in wood, is interrupted by its fibers as a knife and form a cut. The longitudinal sawing differs from the transverse in that the direction of movement of the saw parallel to wood fibers. The front edges of the teeth of the longitudinal drank string the wood, like knives in the shirts, and, deepening, form a cut. When sawing wood at an angle θ to its fibers, universal (mixed) saws with teeth, which are an intermediate shape of the teeth of transverse and longitudinal saws are used.

Sharpening of the saw

In the process of work, the teeth of the saw are blunt, the cutting front and lateral edges are rounded, the pile of the saw becomes heavy and it is necessary to crush it greatly. Experienced masters in the brilliance of the cutting edges and tops of the teeth and the sound of the saw easily determine its acuteness. To restore the cutting ability of the teeth, they are pulled by files or files, giving them sharpness and preserving their parameters: angles, steps and heights.

Sharpening the teeth drank. In its kind, art, requiring fidelity of hands, good eye, attention. It is not difficult to learn this matter, it is necessary to have a desire and clearly adhere to the following rules:

  • The saw canvas must be rigidly fixed in a special device made of wood, which is also steadily installed on a well.Lit desktop. Sharpening of teeth drank on stools or knees does not give a satisfactory result.
  • You should use a personal file, followed by stripping the sharpened faces of the teeth with velvet (with a small notch) or a file. It is desirable that the file is new, sharp and with a mounted handle. If at the right time it was not the same, then you can use a used, but necessarily cleaned with a steel brush and grated with wood coal, so that the file does not clog and does not stupor. When sharpening the tooth, the file should cling to its metal and remove its layer depending on the strength of pressure. And if it slides down the tooth without removing the metal, then the teeth of the saw are rolled or the file is Istrut. In this case, it is necessary to repeat the sharpening with a new file. If in this case it slides along the tooth, then it remains to take another saw.
  • The handle of the file is clamped with the right hand, and its end holds the end with his left hand and the file is directed to the teeth of the saw. About the work of the file, depending on the type of saw, is described below.
  • The pressure of the file on the teeth should be smooth and uniform and only one way from itself. When the file is returned to the starting position, he should not touch the teeth.
  • We must try to grind the metal from the faces of the teeth of the minimum of the same thickness, the lead of the file is the same number of times with the same pressure, which allows you to maintain the values ​​of the angles, the step and height of the teeth after sharpening.
  • On the faces of the tooth from the side of the file of the file, burrs are formed, which reduce the sharpness of the tooth, and if you do not remove it, then during the operation of the saw they are painted, and the teeth are significantly blunt. To remove the burrs, the edges of the teeth are wetted with a file with a velvet notch and the burrs from the side faces with a wet donkey are removed.
  • After sharpening the teeth, it is necessary to check their sharpness. Look at the tip of the needles and the edge of the razor blade: they, sharpened, do not shine in the light. And if they lick them, then rounded surfaces appear on the tip of the needles and on the edge of the blade, which reflecting the light, sparkle well. On this principle, a check of the quality of sharpening of teeth saws was built. For this, the saw is placed in front of the eyes and examine its teeth along the canvas. If their cutting edges and peaks do not shine, then the teeth of the saw are saturatedly stumbled, and if some of the teeth with brilliance (often it happens), then they need to be undermined by a file with a velvet notch, remove the burrs and again check the reflection of the light with their edges and peaks.

Cross saws. The teeth of the transverse saws are pulled, using a trihedral file with a fine notch with an angle at a top of 60 °.

To sharpen the teeth, the saw is clamped in a special device, which allows you to install its canvas at an angle of 45-50 ° to the plane of the desktop. The file is carried out parallel to the desktop at an angle of 60-75 ° to the saw canvas and thus, in the first tooth, the left line is A1A2V2V2.

Sharpening of the transverse saw: 1. Saw canvas; 2. Sharpened tooth; 4. Sharpening device; 5. Drain drain; 6, 8. Directions of the file 7 in relation to the desktop and the drained teeth of the saw; nine. Fishing line for trimmering teeth during their divorce

Sharpen the teeth of the saw in several tricks. First, they pass the files along the left edges of the odd teeth located in the far row, setting up hands on the same movement. Then they pass a file on the right faces of the same odd teeth, completing the sharpening of the main cutting edges with very sharp peaks. After the sharpening of the odd teeth is completed, the saw canvas in the solid device turn over and thus sharpen even teeth, which ended up in the far row. When sharpening the teeth of transverse saws, it is necessary to carefully monitor that the sharp main cutting edges with the dual-sided angle φ = 60-75 °, a short cutting edge and a sharp peak are obtained in each tooth.

What will be needed to sharpen the discs of the circular saw

First of all, it is necessary to prepare the appropriate components that will allow you to properly sharpen the saw disk on the tree. It is important to provide the presence of the following tools:

Sharpening of a disc saw should only be carried out if the corresponding need occurs in this. You can recognize the onset of such a moment by two clear signs. In particular, conducting urgent sharpening of a disk saw on wood is necessary:

  • With the regular occurrence of severe heating on the safety cover of the saw in the electric motor. In some cases, with this increase in temperature indicators, smoke is released under the casing.
  • With strong pressure on the tool to obtain a good saw in the process of processing the material.
  • If dark marks appear, traces of soot on wood and a characteristic smell of burning wood. This arises due to the fact that the teeth drank blunt.

Disk canvases processing methods

To form a cutting edge, any sharpening machine is suitable, where the design of the equipment does not matter much. Of course, the angles of sharpening disk plates with carbide attacks are more accurately obtained on specialized equipment. However, its cost is very high, so they use a conventional sharpener, which has the opportunity to change the tilt of the crime disk.

In order to independently sharpen the circular disk, it is necessary to strictly fulfill several basic conditions:

  • Usually the upper edge is subjected to deformation. Sometimes the rounding of the faces reaches 0.3 mm. Therefore, sharpening begins from the upper part.
  • Processing is carried out taking into account the front edge and its back.
  • The operation is repeated at least 25 times. The thickness of the removed metal should not be more than 0.05-0.15 mm.
  • The quality of processing should be exactly the same on the entire processed surface.
  • After sharpening it is finished, it can be done by hand with sandpaper with small grain.

A simple way to sharpen a saw disk for a circular saw

Production process. Over time, the saw disc is blunting, and begins to leave the tan on the blanks. This is clearly demonstrated by the author, temporarily stopping the workpiece for a split second when performing the saw.

So, for sharpening, a diamond disk with a diameter of 150 mm and 150th grinding will be required. The master installs it instead of a saw disk, which will be hidden.

The first thing to take into account is the angle of inclination of carbide attacks relative to the radial line of the saw disk. On this particular disk it is 15 degrees. The master prepared a special conductor, on the reverse side of which he drilled and unscrewed the hole for the screw with a secret head.

On the front side of the conductor, he marked a fishing line for a trimmer, which should be a sharpening disc. The hole to which the saw disk will be attached to the side. So it turns out the required angle of 15 degrees.

It would seem that you can begin to get a hid, but it was not there. The cutting edge of the teeth is also tilted at an angle of 2.5 degrees, not perpendicular to the plane of the disk. In addition, this corner alternates on the “left” and “right” teeth. In order not to make a mistake, the author signs each of them.

Now you need to install a sharpening disk at an angle.2.5 degrees relative to vertical. So the left teeth will be hidden.

Now you can turn on the engine. The edge of the sharpening disk is brought to the attack, and the saw disk smoothly turns counting counterclockwise. So all the “left” teeth are hidden.

The master exactly repeats the processing of the workpiece, periodically stopping it. Even with a delay for a second and no more subfates were formed, and the surface of the workpiece is almost perfect.

I thank the author for the simple way to independently sharpen saw discs for the circular saw.

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