How to stuck an aluminum rivet with a hammer. Materials for rivets

How to stuck an aluminum rivet with a hammer

In modern designs, full.bodied rivets are less likely (for example, domestic standards GOST 10299 and GOST 10300 or German DIN 660 or DIN 661). We are following the path of simplification and saving of resources, therefore, the technology of exhaust rivets that appeared in the middle of the last century did not just take root, but took strong positions in the market of non.powerful formations. We examined in more detail the exhaust or blind rivets in the article “Peretnaya Group | General information ”, so today we note only its main advantages:

  • Extra.riveting of any size can be installed alone. Many modern tools allow this procedure even with one hand.
  • An exhaust rivet can be installed in a blind hole (when you do not have access to the back of the working surface). From here comes the name used in the domestic standards GOST: “Blind Rolling”.
  • It is easier to drill an exhaust rivet if you suddenly needed a replacement.
  • Free sale. This is also a plus: a traction rivet can be bought in almost any fastener store or in the construction market.

However, there are spheres in which you can not do without the good old complete riveting or, as it is often called “clogging”.

Complete riveting has its advantages:

  • She forms a fairly dense hermetic compound. During the installation process, the riveting tightly squeezes the connected surfaces and completely fills the hole in the connected materials.
  • A full.shaped riveting consists of one material (there is no combination of materials, like an exhaust riveting), which reduces the risk of electro corrosion.
  • Large selection of materials. The riveting is made not only of aluminum, copper, stainless and carbon steel (the most common materials for the production of exhaust rivets), but also acid.resistant steel AISI 316 (A4), copper, brass, titanium. Add here a larger number of possible rivets coating options.
  • It is much more difficult to drill a full.bodied rivet, which increases the anti.vandal properties of the entire structure.
  • And finally, the “rivet under the hammer” just looks beautiful! With proper installation, we get a very neat connection that looks good on both sides.

Tool for installing whole.metal rivets

With full.bodied rivets, everything is clear, now let’s see how and what to install them. Just about this our article today.

One of the names of all.metal riveting. “Rolling for a hammer“. It is with the help of a hammer that this type of rivet is most often installed. Of course, there are also manual and pneumohydraulic press-cakes, but they will talk about them in another article. Today we are talking about riveting pneumatic women.

Features of the riveting procedure

Riveting is called mechanical mating of sheet elements by installing a number of rivets. In this case, the connection itself is called a rivet seam.

Simplicity is one of the main advantages of the procedure under consideration.

  • The rivet is immersed in a through pre.prepared hole.
  • Its rod passes through the connected elements, and its end protrudes out from the opposite side of the structure.
  • The head rests on the surface of the first component installation.

During the riveting, the shape of the end of the rod changes. it is flattened. Therefore, metizes of this type are produced from plastic metals.

But here one important condition must be respected. It is formulated as follows: the materials from which the connected elements and rivets are made should be identical. Then the formation of galvanic pairs will be excluded, contributing to the flow of corrosion processes in the places of contact of fasteners with mating details.

Design

Structurally exhaust rivet consists of two elements. Body. hollow sleeve with a head, core. bore with bruis. The head of the sleeve can have flat, secret, semicircular performance. It is placed on the front side of the connection, if any. Most often, the rod head is made in the form of a flattened sphere. Given the features of the operation of the exhaust rivet, the strength of the material of the rod should be higher than that of the sleeve. Otherwise, the rod will collapse before the sleeve is compressed. Carbon and stainless steel, aluminum alloys, copper, bronze, but the strength of the rod are always higher than that of the sleeve are used as the initial materials for the manufacture of rivet fasteners. The main constructive dimensions of the exhaust rivets are diameter and length. The diameter and material determine the strength of the fastening, length. what can be the thickness of the connected materials. All characteristics and dimensions, the minimum and maximum thickness of the connected sheets are determined by the relevant standards and manufacturers’ instructions.

Special Rivets for Soft Materials

The connection of the sheets is carried out in several ways. In particular, rivet seams are performed in the end or overlap. One, two, or even several linings can be used to create docking seams. Methodology for a connection is when the other is laid on one sheet element. Seams with overlays are characterized by an increased level of reliability. Therefore, they found application in cases of the need to create responsible compounds subject to high loads.

This is how the design of the rivet connection, the overlap implemented in the way.

This is a rivet connection of two sheets using one lining.

How to use solid rivets the old way. and tips for using a hammer to make a gasket

Variant of rivet interfacing of sheets through two linings.

There is another criterion for the rivet seams unit for species. the location of the rivets. So, they are:

  • one.row. In this case, these fasteners form a row;
  • Double.row. rivets are located, in accordance with the name, in 2 rows;
  • multi.row. these are already several rows of established rivets.

2 location schemes are allowed. in a checkerboard pattern or, when the fasteners are installed opposite each other.

  • firmly tight. Found application, mainly in heating boilers. Today, such seams are replaced by welding;
  • dense. They are created using gaskets made of elastic material, which are laid between fastened structural elements;
  • durable. These are two- or multi-row rivet seams. Used during riveting bridge structures, columns and beams.

Closed exhaust rivets

In order to avoid the inconvenience described above, you can use the more modern type of rivet. exhaust or traction rivets. The charm of exhaust rivets is that to install them does not need access to the back of the working surface. Thus, if necessary, you can carry out all the restoration work alone without opening, while, without much need, closed compartments, such as a block or a supply of buoyancy. An important point. To create a hermetic riveting seam, ordinary exhaust rivets are not suitable. Here you need exhaust rivets of a closed type or, if simply, closed exhaust rivets. The people are also called “hermetic” rivets, but this is not entirely correct. This type of rivet really allows you to create a moisture.proof compound, but for complete tightness, such a compound must be sealed.

Seven steps to replace the rivets on a boat

So, you are faced with the need to replace the rivets. Let me offer you a few simple tips that will help to simplify the workflow.

In the case when your boat has flowed a few rivets, it does not make any sense to change all the rivets and, if, of course, you are not faced with the task of crossing the whole bottom, you can get off with low blood and simply replace the weakened rivets. To do this, you need to determine which rivets give a leak. Visually, this does not always succeed, so water comes to the rescue here. There are two ways to check:

  • You can gradually lower the boat into the water and mark the weaknesses with a marker from the inside.
  • You can raise the boat on the shore and fill it with water, then examine the bottom and mark the places where the leak will be found.

What material should there be a rivet

Rivets are usually taken from the same material as the connected parts. this avoids electrochemical corrosion

Pay attention to the strength characteristics. But, as a rule, when combining aluminum parts, the strength of aluminum metizes is enough

In general, rivets are made from such metals:

Read also: Gaikovert for unscrewing wheeled nuts

When connecting copper parts, the installation of brass and copper is permissible. Aluminum is connected by aluminum alloys. Steel sheets. corresponding stamps of steel rivets. There are also mixed metizes. of two different metals (chemically not conflicting). Most often, aluminum-steel.

To install facade elements, slopes, castings, metal tiles and a profiled sheet, usually exhaust rivets from galvanized painted steel are used. Coloring. in tone with details.

With a standard stiletorus st/ S. steel/ steel. The dimensions of steel exhaust rivets from 3.0 x 6 to 6.4 x 45 mm. They are used to create unusual compounds of thin.leaf materials. With the help of the Hamber, the installation of rivets is possible when accessing only one side of the material.Characteristics and dimensions of exhaust steel rivets with a standard st/st

The size of the riveting D DK K R Max D1 L1 Rupture force n Street for cut n
3.0 3.0 0.08.0.ten 6.5.0.7 0.8 ± 0.2 0.2 one.90 27 1125 915
3.2 3.twenty.08.0.ten 6.5.0.7 0.8 ± 0.2 0.2 2.00 27 1285 1060
four.0 four.0 0.08.0.fifteen eight.0.one.0 one.0 ± 0.3 0.3 2.fifty 27 1990 1550
four.eight four.8 0.08.0.fifteen 9.5.one.0 one.1 ± 0.3 0.3 2.90 27 2920 2300
5.0 5.0 0.08.0.fifteen 9.5.one.0 one.1 ± 0.3 0.3 2.90 27 3255 2575
6.0 6.0 0.08.0.fifteen 12.0.one.5 one.5 ± 0.four 0.four 3.40 27 5000 4000
6.four 6.4 0.08.0.fifteen 13.one.5 one.8 ± 0.four 0.5 3.85 27 5400 4350

The thickness of the connected materials and the size of the hole for the rivet in mm

The size of the riveting The thickness of the connected materials The diameter of the side The diameter of the hole
3.0 x 6 one.5. 3.5 6.5 3.13.2
3.0 x 8 3.5. 5.5
3.0 x 10 5.5. 7.0
3.0 x 12 7.0. 9.0
3.0 x 14 9.0. 11.0
3.0 x 16 eleven.0. 13.0
3.0 x 18 13.0. 15.0
3.0 x 20 fifteen.0. 17.0
3.2 x 6 one.5. 3.5 6.5 3.3. 3.four
3.2 x 8 3.5. 5.0
3.2 x 10 5.0. 7.0
3.2 x 12 7.0. 9.0
3.2 x 14 9.0. 11.0
3.2 x 16 eleven.0. 13.0
3.2 x 18 13.0. 15.0
3.2 x 20 fifteen.0. 17.0
3.2 x 25 twenty.0. 22.0
four.0 x 6 one.5. 3.0 eight.0 four.fourteen.2
four.0 x 8 3.0. 5.0
four.0 x 10 5.0. 6.5
four.0 x 12 6.5. 8.5
four.0 x 14 eight.5. 10.5
four.0 x 16 ten.5. 12.5
four.0 x 18 12.5. 14.5
four.0 x 20 fourteen.5. 16.5
four.0 x 22 16.5. 18.0
four.0 x 25 eighteen.0. 21.5
four.0 x 26 eighteen.5. 22.5
four.0 x 28 21.5. 24.0
four.0 x 30 21.5. 26.0
four.8 x 6 one.0. 3.0 9.5 four.9. 5.0
four.8 x 8 3.0. 4.5
four.8 x 10 four.5. 6.0
four.8 x 12 6.0. 8.0
four.8 x 14 eight.0. 10.0
four.8 x 16 ten.0. 12.0
four.8 x 18 12.0. 14.0
four.8 x 20 fourteen.0. 16.0
four.8 x 22 16.0. 18.0
four.8 x 23 16.5. 19.0
four.8 x 24 17.0. 20.0
four.8 x 25 eighteen.0. 21.0
four.8 x 28 21.0. 23.5
four.8 x 30 23.0. 25.0
four.8 x 32 25.0. 27.0
four.8 x 35 25.0. 30.0
four.8 x 40 30.0. 35.0
four.8 x 50 40.0. 45.0
5.0 x 6 0.5. 2.5 9.5 5.fifteen.2
5.0 x 8 2.5. 4.5
5.0 x 10 four.5. 6.0
5.0 x 12 6.0. 8.0
5.0 x 14 eight.0. 10.0
5.0 x 16 ten.0. 12.0
5.0 x 18 12.0. 14.0
5.0 x 21 fourteen.0. 17.0
5.0 x 25 17.0. 20.0
5.0 x 27 twenty.0. 23.0
5.0 x 30 23.0. 25.0
6.0 x 8 2.0. 4.0 12.0 6.16.2
6.0 x 10 four.0. 6.0
6.0 x 12 6.0. 8.0
6.0 x 14 7.0. 9.0
6.0 x 16 9.0. 11.0
6.0 x 18 eleven.0. 13.0
6.0 x 22 13.0. 17.0
6.0 x 26 17.0. 20.0
6.0 x 30 twenty.0. 24.0
6.4 x 8 2.0. 4.0 13.0 6.5. 6.6
6.4 x 10 2.0. 5.0
6.4 x 12 four.0. 6.0
6.4 x 14 6.0. 8.0
6.4 x 16 eight.0. 11.0
6.4 x 18 9.0. 13.0
6.4 x 20 eleven.0. 15.0
6.4 x 22 13.0. 16.0
6.4 x 25 fifteen.0. 19.0
6.4 x 26 16.0. 20.0
6.4 x 28 17.0. 22.0
6.4 x 30 eighteen.0. 24.0
6.4 x 32 22.0. 26.0
6.4 x 35 24.0. 30.0
6.4 x 40 thirty.0. 35.0
6.4 x 45 35.0. 40.0

Types of rivets

If we talk about the method of connecting the sheets, then the rivet seams are overlapped (one sheet is superimposed on the other) and the same. The docking seams can be with one or two overlays. With overlays more reliable, are used in responsible and loaded places.

Types of rivets: overlap and a joint with overlays

They can be located opposite each other or in a checkerboard pattern. The seams can be strong, dense (sealed) or firm-tight. Dense are performed using elastic gaskets laid between the connected details. Supported are used mainly in boilers. Now they will be replaced more often by welding.

Principle of operation

How to use a riveper is perhaps the most important question that is interested in the master. In order to create a reliable connection, during its execution it is necessary to adhere to the next algorithm of actions:

At the first stage, it is necessary to align the surfaces well so that you can provide the most dense contact between the details.

Starting to drill holes, it is necessary to ensure that they are located strictly along the same line. To properly perform this operation, the surface is recommended to be placed on a flat plane, for example, a wooden workpiece to which they should be fixed. After that they proceed to applying the location of future holes. Further, they begin to make holes, making sure that on each detail they are located exactly in the designated places.

An important task is to ensure the correspondence of the size of the opening of the required parameters. To do this, it is recommended to take a drill of slightly larger diameter. For example, if you create a hole with a diameter of 3.8 mm, you should use a drill with a diameter of 4 mm.

When the holes are ready, be sure to “try on” prepared fasteners. If everything is done correctly, then the head of the rivet will be tightly adjacent to the surface in the edge of the hole and completely close it.

At the final stage, rivets are installed, adhering to the following order:

  • First, the cylindrical body of the rivet must be placed in the made hole of the connected elements.
  • With the help of a riveter, you need to capture the rod passing through the entire body, and it should be fixed with the lips or the riveting head of the tool directly at the base of the cylinder head.
  • When putting the necessary effort on the rod, it must be pulled through the groove body, while expanding it with a hat and deforming the end of the cylinder. As a result, you should have a reverse wide part of the rivet on the inner part of the connected elements.
  • Having selected the necessary effort for the rivet, the parts are reliably connected, after which you only have to break off the protruding parts of the elongated rod.

In most cases, when using a manual riveper, you have to press the lever several times to achieve the necessary result. After connecting the elements on one side of it, the head of the body of the rivet will be located, and on the other. the flattened end of the cylinder, which looks like a group of petals.

Recommendations for the choice of tools

Today, stores offer many varieties of manual rivets, which can be purchased at a price of about 2-3 tons. R. To select the most suitable model, you must first understand for what purposes you need a tool. If you decide to purchase it for a frequent connection of different elements of parts, we advise you to opt for a more expensive professional tool. All the rest will be quite enough and the budget model, which will cost it about 150-500 r.

If you want the tool to serve you for a long time, you should not only know how to choose a manual bracket, but also observe accuracy while using it. Otherwise, it will quickly break in your hands, even if it is an expensive professional tool from a well.known brand.

Price is one of the important factors that should be considered when choosing this device. But besides him, other characteristics are of no small importance:

stuck, aluminum, rivet, hammer, materials
  • Material of rivets. You can buy any of the tools available in stores to connect aluminum parts. If you have to fix steel details, we advise you to make a choice in favor of more powerful rivets.
  • Ease of use. If you plan to use fasteners of different diameters and from different material to connect, then it makes sense to purchase a two.handed model. When choosing an instrument, we advise you to pay attention to his head. It is desirable that she be a turning point. Then you can easily perform the connection in complex areas. Before buying, it will not hurt to find out if there is a set of interchangeable nozzles in the configuration. This is especially worth worrying about those who are going to use different fasteners to connect.
  • An important characteristic that must be taken into account when choosing a riveter is the presence of a container for waste. It will be especially indispensable to those masters who are going to build a fence on the territory or lay a roof.

Types of rivets

If we talk about the method of connecting the sheets, then the rivet seams are overlapped (one sheet is superimposed on the other) and the same. The docking seams can be with one or two overlays. With overlays more reliable, are used in responsible and loaded places.

Types of rivets: overlap and a joint with overlays

They can be located opposite each other or in a checkerboard pattern. The seams can be strong, dense (sealed) or firm-tight. Dense are performed using elastic gaskets laid between the connected details. Supported are used mainly in boilers. Now they will be replaced more often by welding.

Types of rivets

What is a rivet? This is a cylindrical rod made of plastic metal (may be hollow or not) with the head of a certain shape at one end. This head is called a mortgage. In the process of installation, due to flattening the metal of the rod from the second side, the second head is formed. It is called closing (closing).

There may be composite rivets (for example, popular exhaust or screw), which consist of a case and a rod. But the essence of this does not change: the mortgage head rests on the material, and at the other end, due to the plasticity of the metal, the second head is formed. It is simply formed due to the fact that the rod is stretched and the expanded part crushes the second part.

Types of rods and mortgage heads

Rivets differ in the shape of the head and rod. By the type of rod, they come:

  • with a continuous rod (high load capacity, but are difficult to install);
  • semi.empty (part of the rod near the mortgage head is solid, part is hollow);
  • Hollow (head and rod have a cylindrical continuous hole, are easily rumble, but high loads are not tolerated).

Types of rivets according to the type of rod and mortgage head

Rivets have the following types of heads (in the photo above):

  • Semicircular (high and low). Sometimes called spherical. The most reliable, create a strong seam.
  • Cylindrical and conical (flat). Used if the connection is in an aggressive environment.
  • Secret and semi.lane. Installed when fasteners should not protrude above the surface. The most unreliable connection is used only if necessary.

Different rivets can be installed nearby

Each type of mortgage heads meets each type of rod. Select them depending on the planned load. Maximum loads need metizes with a continuous rod and a semicircular head. Hollow seams can also be used on not too loaded seams, but they do not provide tightness. If such a characteristic is important, then they put semi.empty.

Types of rivets

Despite the fact that welding has become accessible even to a non.professional, riveting does not lose popularity. After all, not all metals can be cooked, and the weld is subject to corrosion. Therefore, new varieties of rivets are constantly appearing, so there is definitely no full list. Consider the main and more popular.

  • Classic or ordinary. Universal, used for all types of seams. You can distinguish in appearance. resemble fungi.
  • Semi.pipe (half.hollow rod). Require less effort during installation, but the strength also has a low. Used in compounds with a slight mechanical load.

These are the main types of rivets that are used in construction, engineering and in other areas. Each species has its subspecies that differ in the nuances.

Exhaust rivets

A few words let’s say separately about exhaust (embedded) rivets. They are used for the fastener and metal tiles. It is with them that most often you have to deal with the arrangement of the site. Consists of an exhaust rivet from the tubular case and a whole rod inserted inward. They are called composite, as they have two independent parts. Also, this fastener is reinforced. after installation, part of the rod remains inside, which increases the connection strength.

The length of the hull of the exhaust rivet should be greater than the thickness of the connected parts. It is inserted into the hole made in advance, after which the rivet captures the rod, pulls it through the hollow case. At the far end of the rod there is a ball that forms a closing head from the broken edge of the case. The excess rod is removed by the tool, but some of it remains inside, which makes such a connection quite strong.

As clear from the description, it is important to choose the right rivet size. Too short will not allow to form a normal bundle, which will loosen the connection. Too long case, give a large backlash, which is also not good. So when selecting this type of fastener, carefully see the recommended thickness. Ideally, if your connection is in the middle of the range.

Rivets for connecting loose and soft materials

For the connection of soft and plastic materials-plastic, wood-bearing plate-the above-listed metizes are not suitable. For them there is another type of similar fastener. It differs not so large and lower strength. But, when installing, a lesser effort is created so as not to destroy the materials.

There are the following types of rivets for connecting plastic or soft materials:

    Petal. When installed, the rivet case is opened on several petals. Large contact area of ​​such a closing head allows you to redistribute the load.

Such rivets can be placed on plastic, wood.fiber plate and other “non.metals”

There are also plastic rivets. They are usually made for furniture, sometimes for fixing decorative panels. Such rivets are more like screw. The lower part is cut into several petals, inside there is a thread along which the rod is screwed. As it twists, the rod extends the case, which is kept due to friction force.

Body repair without welding (rivets). theory

In this particular case, the state of my E21 is very far from the ideal, which allows me not to bother with the authenticity of individual details. There is no desire to repeat the plant. Let it be 323i. But there is a desire to create the most durable design, which we will talk about below.

Заклёпочное соединение — неразъёмное соединение деталей при помощи заклёпок. Обеспечивает высокую стойкость в условиях ударных и вибрационных нагрузок.

Недостатки заклёпочных соединений:

The complexity of the process. It is necessary to drill many holes, install rivets, flare them. These operations are performed manually by two locksmiths. Until the last quarter of the 20th century, thin boys capable of getting into a narrow compartment were specially hired in the USSR in aviation plants to hold the vehicle-support there.

Increased material intensity of the connection. The riveting seam weakens the main detail, so it should be thicker. The load is carried by rivets, so their cross section must correspond to the load.

The need for special measures for sealing. This is very important for aircraft construction and missile equipment, when assembling cesson tanks and passenger compartments. In cessoons tanks located in the wing of aircraft, as a rule, they hold fuel-aviation kerosene. Rubber sealant, resistant to kerosene, must close all riveting seams. Its weight can be tens of kilograms.

The process is accompanied by noise and vibration. This leads to a number of occupational diseases among collectors and causes deafness. Therefore, wherever you can, new cutting tools are being introduced.

Преимущества заклёпочных соединений1. Не позволяет распространяться усталостным трещинам, таким образом повышает надёжность всего изделия.2. Позволяет соединять неподдающиеся сварке материалы.

Недостатки в сравнении со сваркой:1. Трудоёмкость процесса. Однако кобальтовые свёрла делают сверление быстрым. А вот сварные швы зачищать крайне неприятно.

Повышенная материалоёмкость соединения – это просто не важно.

Необходимость специальных мер для герметизации – ну так и сварку потом шовником мазать.

stuck, aluminum, rivet, hammer, materials

Процесс сопровождается шумом и вибрацией – для вытяжных заклёпок не актуально. А ещё от сварки летят капли и можно обжечься.Преимущества в сравнении со сваркой:1. Не позволяет распространяться усталостным трещинам, таким образом повышает надёжность всего изделия. стойкость к вибрационным нагрузкам

Нет перегрева металла. Соединение более стойкое к коррозии само по себе никто не мешает заантикорить деталь непосредственно перед установкой с двух сторон, а стык посадить на кузовной клей-герметик.

Не нужно специальных навыков. Заклепать способен любой, а вот сварить хорошо это не так просто.

Коррозионная стойкость и выбор материала заклёпок

Начнём издалека. Вопрос лишь в одном типе коррозии – гальваническом.Гальваническая коррозия представляет собой электрохимическую реакцию между двумя и более различными (или разнородными) металлами.

Процесс гальванической коррозии можно наглядно продемонстрировать на примере взаимного контакта изделий из Алюминия и Нержавеющей стали. Алюминий – более химически активный металл является в данном случае анодом, а менее активная нержавеющая сталь – катодом.

При взаимодействии между нержавеющей сталью и алюминием возникает большая разница потенциалов в соответствии с рядом напряжений в металлах. При этом, благодаря действующему на электрический элемент электролиту (жидкость), возникает электрический ток, и анод, в данном случае Алюминий, корродирует.

Чем дальше находятся в ряду напряжений металлы по отношению друг к другу, тем больше разность потенциалов и выше опасность коррозии

Гальваническая коррозия возникает в том случае, если имеет место один из следующих факторов:

Относительная влажность воздуха превышает 60%;Загрязненный воздух: большое количество металлических частиц;Металлы в винтовых соединениях, у которых большая разница потенциалов;Неправильное соотношение площадей поверхностей анода и катода.Рекомендации по противодействию гальванической коррозии:

Исключите возможность образования гальванического элемента

защищайте конструкции от действия влажности (удалите электролит)изолируйте металлы друг от друга, например, с помощью покрытияизолируйте металлы от электролита.

Избегайте соединения металлов, у которых большая разница потенциалов.

Материал из которого произведен крепеж должен быть более активным (анод), чем материал конструкции (катод).

Площадь поверхности конструкции(катода) больше площади поверхности крепежа(анода).

Выводы по выбору материала из этого крайне просты:

Пара сталь – нержавеющая сталь – очень плохая идея. Заклёпка останется, а вокруг будет гнить.2. Заклёпка должна быть окрашена3. Заклёпка должна быть изолирована от электролита (воды)4. Самый лучший материал заклёпки – окрашенная алюминиевая заклёпка с оцинкованным стальным сердечником. В данном случае цинк защищает алюминий, а алюминий изолирован от кузова краской.

Кстати о коррозии алюминияРяд испытаний показали, что коррозия алюминия сильно преувеличена. В атмосферной и влажной среде он не корродирует даже без краски. В морской среде корродирует около 30 лет.

А теперь представьте, у вас есть лонжерон:— изнутри покрыт кислотным или цинковым грунтом (на ваш выбор)— внутрь заложено 2 кг лучшего антикора в мире перед сборкой— нахлёст металла обработан кузовным клеем-герметиком сами заклёпки окунаем в него перед установкой— поверх герметика после высыхания наносится ещё один слой лучшего антикора в мире (это конечно по желанию)

Половой пост часть 2 или кузовной ремонт с минимальными затратами денег (и только их, но не времени)

Находясь не в состоянии потратить около 30 000 на вменяемый сварочный полуавтомат я задался вопросом, как еще можно скрепить кузовные элементы?

Вариантов скрепления кузовных деталей на самом деле достаточно много:1. Сварочный инвертор. Отказался от сварки кузовщины инвертором после нескольких безуспешных попыток сварить тонкий металл между собой, даже с электродом 2мм, и токе 40-50 ампер глазом не успеешь моргнуть как прожигаешь даже хороший металл насквозь, поэтому пришлось отбросить, в назидание будущим поколениям: сварочный инвертор ну никак не поможет вам в кузовном ремонте, если хотите варить кузовщину то берите полуавтомат, не тешьте себя напрасными надеждами что сможете набить руку и инвертором варить кузовщину.2. Точечная сварка — сложно реализуемый и не всегда доступный вариант сварки в гаражных условиях, можно сделать такой аппарат из инвертора, но на месте его использовать врядли получится. Да и не для всех условий сварки это подходит, например не сваришь встык, а можно варить только внахлест, опять же куча настроек длительности и силы импульса… не вариант3. Полуавтомат из инвертора — не тратьте время, вкратце мораль басни такова что инвертор это источник тока, а полуавтомат это источник напряжения, совсем разные принципы и идеологии сварочного процесса, даже если получится удержать дугу, то это будет нестабильный и неуниверсальный сварочный процесс4. Тиг сварка из инвертора — есть такие сварочники с функцией тиг, мой один из таких, вообще идея реализуемая, но в моем маленьком гараже держать баллон на 40 литров с аргоном ну совсем неохота, а с учетом стоимости горелки и редуктора и баллона (5 000 1500 2500 = 9 000), для сварки небольших объемов тонколистового металла вполне себе может заменить полуавтомат, но баллон :-((( вообще самый универсальный способ сварки, варить можно что угодно, но в скорости уступает полуавтомату конечно.5. Болтовое соединение — вполне себе неплохой способ соединения металлов, но минус его только в том что шляпки болтов будут выступать сильно далеко наружу, что может оказать негативное влияние на функциональность конечной заготовки. Зато есть огромный плюс в том что соединение получается разборным и обслуживаемым, но врядли это будет существенным аргументов в пользу этого метода для кузовного ремонта, так что от этого способа я тоже отказался6. Заклепки — ну и наконец способ, который я избрал в качестве рабочего для своего случая, это заклепки. Дешево (заклепочник 1500 сами клепки по 1-2 рубля за штуку сверла в среднем 60-70 за штуку на сотню отверстий). Из минусов только высокие трудо/времязатраты, а времени у меня хоть отбавляй, в сибири 10 месяцев в году зима а в остальное время идет дождь

По способу закрепления на детали заклепки бывают следующих видов1. под молоток — старый вариант, так клепают самолеты и корабли, в том числе космические, для установки такой заклепки сверлим отверстие, суем туда заклепку, упираем заклепку в какой нибудь твердый предмет и метким ударом молотка с обратной стороны расклепываем ее внутри детали2. резьбовые — сверлим отверстие, суем туда заклепку, закручиваем в заклепку специальный болт и крутим, пока заклепка не расклепается внутри детали,3. вытяжные — самый простой вариант, сверлим отверстие, суем туда заклепку, и расклепываем ее заклепочником.

Понятное дело что клепать UAZ молотковыми заклепками — уж сильно неоправданные трудозатраты, резьбовые отбрасываем потому как по сути это болтовое соединение, только вместо гайки выступает заклепка, остаются вытяжные.

Плюсы вытяжных заклепок:1. “самолетная” технология, проверенная и надежная, сами клепки не очень сильно выступают из детали2. прочность соизмеримая со сваркой (про прочность ниже)3. не деформируется клепаемая деталь4. ДЕШЕВО… очень5. можно соединять несколько слоев деталей6. можно соединять достаточно толстые детали

Минусы вытяжных заклепок:1. очень высокие трудозатраты2. очень высокие временные затраты3. негерметичное соединение, то есть между деталей надо предусмотреть нержавеющую прокладку, сами клепки надо промазывать герметиком или мастикой чтобы стали герметичными4. трудно клепать сложные формы, клепки лучше всего применять для крепления деталей внахлест, и это не всегда удобно, особенно в современных машинах, для крепления деталей встых подойдет только полуавтомат, для UAZ еще можно подклепать, но для современных машин можно клепать только то, что не видно глазу.

Материал вытяжных заклепок и их выбор1. говнолиновые — сделаны из слов продавцов леруа мерлена, касторамы, бауцентра продаются там же, состоят такие заклепки как правило из непонятной смеси непонятных металлов, обладают непредсказуемыми характеристиками, предсказуемо высокой ценой, годятся разве что для крепления унитаза к потолку, который закономерно упадет вам на голову когда вы захотите посрать. Образуют гальваническую пару с феррумом, сталью, железом если хотите. Выгнивают вместе с отверстием, при условии периодического взаимодействия с водой за 2-3 года.2. стандартные аллюминиевые (со стальным или аллюминиевым сердечником) — такие заклепки сделаны из сплава аллюминия, обладают предсказуемыми характеристиками, продаются в магазинах проф строительных материалов, или инструментальных магазинах. Также как и первый вариант плохо подходят для крепления железа т.к. гальванизируют с ним. Ими можно крепить неответственные соединения, которые если отвалятся то не жалко переклепать. Выдерживают самую низкую нагрузку. Клепаются самым обычным3. стальные — заклепки сделаны из обычной стали, сердечник стальной, выдерживают бОльшие нагрузки, чуть дороже чем люминиевые, требуют усиленного заклепочника, который стоит пару касарей.4. нержавейка — заклепки не ржавеют, гальванических пар не образуют, выдерживают нагрузки сравнимые со сваркой, требуют хорошего заклепочника, и стоят как космический корабль :-))) шутка, примерно по 4-5 за штуку, но они того стоят

Теперь о прочности вытяжных заклепок в цифрах, то есть килограммах

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