How to tamp the sand without a vibratory plate. Criteria for selecting the device

Than to compact the sand-pillow under the foundation

In the previous article I already stopped on what kind of soil to fill in the strip of foundation. Now let’s talk about tamping.

The soil, which you will fill in the foundation’s grooves, will be loosened. Untreated soil (builders say “in the mainland”) is 1.2 times denser.And if you don’t tamp it, then the soil will slowly sag over time and its bearing capacity will be higher.

And if it is not compacted, then the soil will gradually sag over time. Which means there will be cracks between the floor and the wall. And if you are very unlucky, the floor plate can also burst.

The “self-builders” have three types of compaction of the ground:

Flooding with water

Flushing with water is a long operation, although not physically demanding if you have easy access to water. You take a hose, turn on the water and pour water all over the foundation map. Do not water like flowers and trees, but rather pour!

There should be a lot of water, a lot. Because the water droplets find the tiniest crevices and go along them, taking the tiniest grains of sand with them. And so you tamp the soil in its natural form, but this process is very long.

But you have to do it without bigotry, otherwise you will wash out the foundation.

After tamping, you have to let the soil dry for a few days. Then you can lay the next layer up to 10 cm. And then you pour it in again.

Tamping the soil

There is a simple device for tamping soil is a pair of knocked down boards with a handle on top and a board underneath to increase the area. You take a rammer like this, lift it up and hit the ground with force.

Hand tamping from the round timber

Often builders say that this is only chasing the earth in different directions, and the earth is not tamped, as it were. Responsibly declare: It is compacted and compacted well. You will not ram more than 5-10 cm of soil, but a roller will not ram more than 20 cm.

Such a hand rammer is suitable only for soft soil such as loam or clay. For rubble it will not be enough, better to use a vibratory plate.

Well, physically it is very difficult to compact more than 5-10 minutes or 2-5 m2.

There are also vibratory plates that cost a lot of money. Now there are a lot of companies on the rental of expensive construction equipment, so that to rent such a plate for a day is not a problem at all. They only need a passport with residence permit as a pledge, yes 1,2. 1,5 thousand. And gasoline (or electricity).

Electric rammer is easier, but it always needs a wire, which is very inconvenient. And they are weaker if they work from 220 V. I met a 380 V “slap-leg”, which is very even decent tamping.

Gasoline rammer requires gasoline and is capricious at startup. But they ram such plates very well. The impact force is about 80 kg/cm2, which is very decent.

Compaction with gasoline rammer

With the vibratory plate 3 to 5 passes each way for a layer. It breaks through the same 10 cm, but it is significantly better and faster than a manual rammer.

Mixed method

You can do a mixed method of pouring and tamping: first you pour, then tamp the wet ground. After tamping it down, you can pour some more water in. And the next day pour another layer and repeat pouring and compacting.

Take into account that too wet soil is very sticky to the plate. So don’t overdo it.

If you have poured too much water, then pour a layer of sand over it. Sand is not as sticky.

Where is it used??

A manual vibratory rammer is used for soil compaction to a depth of at least 60-70 cm. This device is able to compact not only the sand or soil, but also large crushed stone, so the device is used for crushed stone, for turf, for sand for foundation construction or when preparing the site for backhoe installation.

Vibratory ramming is often used in places where free space is extremely limited or there is a risk of damaging previously equipped communications:

  • partial repair of asphalt pavement;
  • equipping wells, manholes, and posts.
  • work on the construction of the tramway;
  • arrangement of the basement;
  • ramming soil along the walls of buildings;
  • laying underground utilities;
  • preparation of the soil surface for the organization of the foundation;
  • arrangement of pedestrian areas and sidewalks with tiles, paving stones;

On construction sites, the manual vibratory rammer is used in all cases where large-sized equipment due to its size cannot approach the work area. Manual vibratory rammer is used only for loose fractions: sand, earth, gravel, but is not used for compaction of soil containing a large percentage of clay impurities.

Poly Sand ISSUES! We Tested. HERE’S THE RESULTS

tamp, sand, vibratory, plate, criteria

Functions

If you have a question about what kind of sand is needed for the foundation pillow, it is paramount to understand what function is performed by this embankment.

The levelling function is only useful in situations which can be described as ideal. The ground is homogeneous, immobile and free of organic soil or clay. Consequently, the task of the sand is limited to leveling the trench bottom or the bottom of the excavation.

In case of organomineral soils (toa) under the future building, you can be sure of the mobility of the soil and reducing its carrying capacity. To avoid structural failure, large amounts of soil must be excavated until the organic layer is finished. After the organic soil has been dug out, fill in the large amounts of sand.

Compensation of deformation is the main task of the sand in its third functional purpose. Clay and other heaving soils underneath the footing of the house will have a big influence on the load distribution. Which, as you know, can lead to the complete destruction of the slabs or concrete strip.

How it is made

The cushion, which serves as a leveling function, usually does not exceed 200mm in thickness. Sand is poured once on the bottom of the trench and leveled. Then it is slightly moistened and carefully compacted. All other varieties of this necessary element directly depend on the size of the foundation footing. Their calculation is done individually in each case.

How to make a manual rammer

There are many options for making a rammer with your own hands. Some people make massive constructions entirely of iron, but in this case it will be necessary to weld. Others prefer to make do with improvised materials. Consider the best option for the manufacture of a hand rammer for compacting soil, sand and gravel.

You will need a standard square cross-section bar for 100. 150 mm. It should not be rotten or delaminated.

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Useful! Some people use round logs, but with the help of such rammers it is impossible to fully compact the foundation in the corners.

  • A steel plate no less than 2mm thick.
  • Cut a round bar about 450mm long (it will serve as a handle for your future tamping rammer). You can use an unnecessary shovel cutter for this.
  • Screws and joinery glue.

Making blanks

We will prepare the structure according to the drawing below.

After preparing everything you need, saw the ends of the bar at right angles, according to the dimensions. After that it is necessary to level the plane of the bottom face of a bar with a plane planer and chamfer the edges of the workpiece by about 5 mm.

To avoid getting numerous splinters in the process of work, it is recommended to sand and grind the surface of the bar.

We make a “shoe”

The next step in creating a ramming tool with your own hands is to make a metal “shoe” from a sheet of steel. For cutting the plate we use the following template.

Or, you can just set the bar with its lower end on a sheet of metal and trace it with a pencil.

  • Cut out the workpiece, as shown on the picture, using special metal scissors or an angle grinder.
  • Remove the metal burrs from the “shoe”. For this purpose it is most convenient to clamp the workpiece in a vice and remove surplus material with a file.
  • Without removing the “shoe” from the vice, drill the holes for the screws, according to the previously marked points.
  • Grind the surface with an emery machine.
  • Bend the wings of the workpiece and install the bar in the “shoe”. If the workpiece turned out to be slightly wider, it is necessary to hammer the “wings” with a hammer.
  • Place a drill bit in the holes for the screws and drill the wood at a slight inclination.
  • Secure the screws on all sides.

Let’s install the handle

Step back 100 mm from the upper edge of the bar and mark the center of the future handle. To do this, first measure the diameter of the shovel handle. Let’s assume it is 36 mm. To keep the handle without dangling, you should use a drill with a diameter a few mm less than the diameter of the handle. You should take into account that the outside of the hole in the bar will be slightly larger than the inside diameter, so in the process of work you should periodically insert the handle into the bar and check how tightly it sits.

If the handle does not fit into the hole, you should on no account try to hammer it in. Otherwise, the bar may crack and the manufacture of a rammer for earth, sand and gravel with their own hands will have to start over. It is much easier to plan the handle to the desired diameter.

Once the hole is ready, you need to apply glue to its walls and install the handle. You can remove the excess glue with a rag. To make sure that the handle sits tightly, it is necessary to fix it with a long screw, which should be screwed into one of the sides of the timber.

When the glue is strong enough, you can start using the tamper. Keep the homemade tool is best in a dry place, or you can pre-paint the workpiece so that it lasts longer. If necessary, the steel attachment can be easily replaced with a new one.

Tools for compacting

Made of metal, it weighs from 5 to 10 kg. Consists of a handle and a base (“foot”). a plate measuring approximately 20 x 25 cm or a channel (the smaller the dimensions of this part of the device, the greater the impact force). The handle of the tool can be either straight (tube-shaped) or T-shaped, with two handles on either side. If necessary, a manual tamping device with a channel can be made heavier by filling it with cement.

If there is a need to save money, it is not difficult to make the device yourself. Two variants of manufacture:

  • Make the handle from a heavy wooden bar about 1 m long and nail a “foot” from a strong board at the bottom.
  • To buy separately ready plate (costs about 1000) and to put it on a shovel cutter or a metal stick.

To compact the soil and bulk materials, including sand, in a confined space using “vibronogu. The engine of this device runs on gasoline or diesel fuel. At the base of the unit there is a plate “heel” with a width of 15 to 30 cm and a length of about 33 cm. Vibratory rammers also differ in power. The principle of operation is based on vertically directed force, like a hand-held tool, but the efficiency is much greater. This type of equipment is used on sites where the use of large-sized equipment is impossible: vibratory plates and vibratory rollers.

For works on a large area, provided there is a possibility of free movement, the rammer with the use of a vibratory plate is suitable. This machine consists of a motor, a basket with a central shaft, a “heel” or “shoe,” and a guide handle. The machine moves forward and backward, transmitting strong mechanical vibration (oscillation) to the sand particles, which causes compaction.

Types of equipment for soil and bulk materials with a slab base:

by weight. For sand, the lightest are suitable.

For the largest amount of work vibratory rollers are used. Their types:

  • with manual operation by means of a guide handle;
  • self-propelled with a cab for the operator single-shaft (on the back of the wheel);
  • with cabin two rollers;
  • trench with remote control.

The design of a quality vibratory roller allows compaction and at the edges of the site, that is, the use of additional equipment (hand or vibratory rammer) is not required.

per m2. If the area to be compacted is large, or if permanent work is involved, these rates must be compared with the cost of the equipment. In many cases, it is advisable to buy a device or rent it and do it yourself.

What tamp the sand under the tiles

In the process of laying paving slabs, a very important nuance is tamping the sand. Properly prepared base under the tiles. the key to its long life.

On how to ramp the sand under the tiles and what sand is paving tiles will look at later.

Paving tiles: the sphere of implementation and advantages of the material Can paving tile on the sand: methods of laying material What is the best sand for laying paving tiles How to ram sand under the tiles: Features of the installation of sand under the tile Paving tiles: the sphere of implementation and advantages of the material

The widespread distribution of paving tiles due to the practicality and durability of its implementation. This material, following the technology of its installation will serve you for many years.

tamp, sand, vibratory, plate, criteria

In addition, paving tiles are used in public construction. It is finished pavements in parks and gardens, areas in front of schools, hospitals, supermarkets. The covering made of tile is 10 times stronger, if concrete or asphalt coating.

There are a couple of options for paving tiles, depending on how it is produced. The first and most popular type of tiles. coatings made by means of vibrocompression unit. The production process consists in the preparation of the cement mortar, setting it into special molds that determine its size and thickness.

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Later on, the process of pressing the mortar directly begins, during which air bubbles are removed from the consistency and it receives the appropriate strength. At the end of the pressing process, the tiles are placed in a furnace and dried.

Later, it is cut into desired shapes and ready for sale. It is possible to produce tiles with their own hands by means of vibro press. Under these criteria, the last drying process in the furnace is not done. The material dries in the open air. If the tiles will be colored to match the color, the colorant is added directly at the moment of making the mortar. These tiles have a surface with a small roughness.

The 2nd type of tiles are made by vibrocasting. This material is more attractive aesthetically, due to the smoothness of the surface, for its production, not counting the cement mortar use different kinds of additives that increase the plasticity of the mortar and its performance characteristics.

In addition, in relation to the composition of the sidewalk tile is not unique:

  • Cement. for the production of which uses a solution of water, sand and cement;
  • Stone. made from pebbles, such as sandstone, granite, etc.д.

On its own part, in correlation with the method of treatment, tiles are not unique pounded and cut tiles. The first option is cheaper, but the least convenient to use. On such tiles is not easy to walk and it is not safe to drive by car. The cut tiles have smooth edges and are easy to install, forming an even surface.

Among the advantages of implementing paving tiles as a finishing material, we note:

Excellent performance. such tiles, with proper care, constant sprinkling of sand in the gaps between the tiles, will serve you for a couple of decades.

The possibility of partial dismantling or replacement of the crushed material. As the work of laying utilities needs to be done, the tiles are simply removed and installed backwards. In the event that you need to replace a couple of tiles, it is quite easy to do.

Resistant to negative environmental factors. Paving tiles are resistant to temperature changes, moisture, sun, wind, etc.д. It is installed in different weather regions, regardless of the severity of their winters.

Easy installation of the material is completely realistic. The basic rule of how to install tiles. the correct preparation of the base for its installation.

The aesthetic appeal of the appearance. In today’s construction market can be purchased different in shape, color and texture paving tiles, which will be a real decoration of your site.

The ability to produce tiles with their own hands dramatically reduces its cost. Having on site vibropress, you have the opportunity to make tiles at home.

The only disadvantage of paving tiles is a very high cost, which in the process of its implementation pays off.

How to ram properly?

For the framework of the construction foundation to be strong, the pad of sand must be perfectly flat and very dense. This effect is achieved due to the fact that when properly performed compacting the substrate is guaranteed to have the necessary shrinkage. Whether it’s true or not, after completing the work the result should be checked. Control the quality of work is carried out with a rope pendulum or level.

In order to perform correctly and with high quality tamping sand with a vibratory plate, the following important nuances should be observed:

  • The vibratory plate will show its effectiveness if the thickness of the sand layer does not exceed the index equal to 0.6 m;
  • Before starting the work, the sand layer is soaked evenly with water, but this must be done evenly and without excesses;
  • On the working surface it is necessary to make 5-7 passes in the opposite direction.

For the arrangement of garden paths, before the construction of the garage, before installing the foundation of a country house it is not uncommon to prepare a sand cushion by hand. Tamping the sand can be performed by vibratory plate or manually. Self-preparation of the surface will cost much cheaper than hired professionals.

Consider how to manually compact the sand.

  • You can buy ready-made or make yourself a device for hand ramming of T-shaped type. the horizontal plate is made approximately 30×30 cm in size and its weight must be at least 15-20 kg. For the convenience of work, 2 handles are attached to the handle bar on the sides. these grips are needed so that the device can be lifted with both hands at once. If the design for compacting turned out to be too light, it is additionally weighted with metal or cement.
  • Using a self-made tool on the working surface of the sand mixture apply uniform and repeated blows. Use these blows to remove voids and air, and compact the sand fractions together. Tamping is performed layer by layer. when 1 layer is tamped, the next portion of sand is poured on top of it.

The process of tamping the sand. not such a difficult, but quite responsible stage in the construction. On the quality of its implementation depends on the success of the entire further work, so it needs to approach it carefully and conscientiously.

The following video shows tamping the sand.

Safety at work

Consolidation of soil with a vibratory plate should be carried out with observance of safety rules. Among the many recommendations we can distinguish the following basic rules.

  • Wear suitable protective clothing and safety shoes, eyeglasses, ear defenders, head protection.
  • Before operating the machine, check that there is no external damage: if this is found, it must be repaired beforehand.
  • it is forbidden to leave the operating equipment unattended with the operator behind it and moving quickly behind the machine.
  • Every 40 minutes you should take a break of about 10 minutes to avoid operator fatigue.
  • Further acceleration of the machine by additional effort is not possible.
  • If you have to work on a slope (when the angle is not greater than normal) the operator should stand on top of the machine, moving from the top to the bottom.
  • Do not operate the machine near explosive or flammable sources of material.
  • When tilting the vibratory plate, first turn it off and then back to the working position.
  • The machine should be deployed with one hand.
  • To avoid injury, keep your feet and hands away from the working sole of the machine.
  • If you encounter an obstacle, stop the machine and then clear the obstacle and any faults caused by it.
  • From the edges of trenches, pits, ravines, and other depressions one must be at a minimum permissible distance, and better still.
  • It is strictly forbidden to make people work in the state of alcohol, narcotics, psychotropic influence.

Keep in mind that the higher is the center of gravity of the vibrating equipment (and the smaller is the support area), the easier it can tip over.it is very dangerous for the operator

Also use extreme caution when operating equipment that does not have a soft start function

The use of a vibratory plate is required for all construction work involving compaction of loose soils. To get a good result, one must take into account the characteristics of the rammed material. The maximum depth of the cast layer should correspond to the thickness that can tamp the working block. In any case, safety must be the first priority. Failure to follow simple rules, coupled with negligence can lead to serious injury.

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To give the structure maximum stability, it is necessary to thoroughly compact the sand at the base of the foundation. this will protect the structure from water and shrinkage.

Such a pillow can be made of concrete or crushed stone, but most builders choose sand.

High-quality compaction of sand. the key to a solid foundation.

Before you start compacting, the thickness of the future pillow, which will be needed for the foundation of the building is determined. The layer of sand can vary from 10 to 30 mm, but this factor depends entirely on the weight of the future building. the greater the weight, the thicker the layer should be. If the sand base is intended for the road or plot, the thickness should be about 150 mm.

Methods of compaction of soil and sand

Creating a dense sand layer is one of the main tasks of the stage of the preparation of substrates for screed or foundation structures, it is important to use the right methods and tools for compression of the air and particles. per 1 m2. Choosing a particular method determines the purpose of the layer, the captured area and budget.

When preparing sandy and fine-grained soils before building homes, backfilling plate or strip footings, creating a rigid base layer when laying subfloors or installing pavers and barriers. Among the tasks are:

  • Protection of building structures against frost heave and removal of moisture from them.
  • Leveling the foundation and increasing its rigidity.
  • Prevent deformation of structures under the load of compression and bending, eliminating the risk of their destruction during shrinkage processes.
  • Creating a compact and stable layer separating the base or screed and the straight ground.
  • Elimination of voids and extrusion of air.

Overview of the methods used, the choice of the best option

Depending on the equipment and the direction of the forces applied, the following methods of preparation and compaction of sand foundation are distinguished:

  • Rolling by rollers or wheels of self-propelled or trailed construction machines in one or more passes.
  • By dropping with a crane plates weighing 1-2 tons.
  • Operation of a vibrating device.
  • Manual compacting with an extended joist or channel with an attached plate.

When compacting soils and sands by rolling, the desired effect is achieved due to the statistical pressure of rollers with different gripping width and weight from 10 to 25 tons for single-axle self-propelled varieties, up to 50 tons. for two-axle and up to 100. for trailed. Lighter models are used on loose patches, they allow 20-30 cm layer mowing in one pass. The heaviest and most productive equipment is used for compacting 40-50 cm with a width of up to 30 at a time.

The choice of the particular type of roller depends on the size of the area and the ease of access in addition to the layer thickness. Small self-propelled rollers are very manoeuvrable, heavy semi-trailers only work in conjunction with a tractor.

For optimum results, compacting is carried out in several passes, usually by a spiral ring pattern of movement and consecutive feeding of the missing material. The advantage is a high quality of sand foundation pads preparation with a thickness of 20 to 50 cm (impossible by hand), the disadvantage. the use of expensive equipment.

DIY Vibratory Sand Compactor

Tamping by the drop compactor method is selected when it is necessary to expel air from cohesive soils with voids or interlayers of dusty sand and clay. When it is implemented with a crane or escalator to a height of 1 to 2 meters are lifted and dropped solid plates weighing up to 2 meters. This load allows you to work the foundation to a depth of 2 m, the maximum effect is achieved when preparing round or rectangular foundations of the plate type. The tamping element remains attached to the crane arm or escalator, the process is continuous and fast.

The analogue of the previous method is a manual mode that is chosen when the thickness of the pillow is small or the area of the pillow is small. the tool is easiest to make yourself by ramming a thick board onto a wooden beam, welding or screwing a metal plate onto a channel, or a combination of these materials.

The output should be a heavy, but manually lifted expanded plate with a vertical handle. To enhance the effect it is recommended to reinforce the part of the foundation in contact with soil with cement or metal.

The advantages include independence from expensive equipment and the possibility of treatment of hard-to-reach areas, and the disadvantages are labor intensity, when ramming by hand it takes more time and effort.

The most popular and effective method is recognized the use of vibrating equipment: mechanical high-frequency vibrations aimed at the sand help make it as compressed and smooth as possible. For these purposes, equipment with different design and type of drive is selected, namely:

Vibratory rammers are compact and ergonomic tools, transferring influence from a gasoline or electric drive to a relatively wide heel. a flat strip of compacted rubber with a width of 15-30 cm and a length of up to 33 cm. Their power and size are different, but the principle remains the same. the impact is directed vertically. They are used on all construction sites, both in combination with rollers and plates, as well as on their own; their use is especially important when it is impossible to move large-sized equipment, for example, in trenches.

Vibratory plates that have a wider working platform and on the basis of weight and performance are divided into light, universal, heavy and extra heavy. Their range includes manual and remote models with electric, diesel, gasoline or hydraulic drive, each of which has its own advantages and disadvantages. Vibratory plates are suitable for universal use, but for soil, cushion or sand under a screed, the lightweight versions weighing in at 75 and 200 kg respectively are best.

Vibratory rollers that combine the pressure of the wheels and mechanical oscillation and are chosen primarily when it is necessary to ram large areas. Their functions depend on the model; the most advanced ones are good enough to work on edges and difficult areas without the use of vibratory rammers or plates.

The choice of drive directly influences the conditions of work and safety requirements. In the absence of connected power grids and a large area of processing layers of medium thickness, the best solution is to use a vibratory plate with a gasoline or diesel drive. If it is necessary to compact the soil and sand to a depth of 1 m and similar conditions, the same vibratory rammer is preferred. Use an electric vibratory plate or similar in enclosed spaces (e.g. when preparing screed floors) or when ventilation is restricted.

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