Hydraulic press with electric drive with your own hands
Hydraulic press with your own hands
Pressing makes it possible to perform almost all pressing operations needed in everyday life. Home-made presses are most often made self-contained, i.e.е. without a separate drive, reservoirs of working substance, pumping stations, etc. The choice of press design ultimately depends on the application and the operating pressure.
The easiest way to use a power unit built into the press is to use a car jack. it develops a force of up to 100 ton-force, and jacks for 10 ton-force are commonly used. The only operation that a jack press cannot handle is cold forging forming (crimping) the ends of rods.
The jack is used most often a hydraulic bottle jack (but see the. also below). In this case the hydraulic press can be made according to one of the following drawings. of frame-type constructive schemes (cf. fig.):
Basic constructional diagrams of homemade presses
- Item. А. jack is inverted, tightly fixed on the fixed upper crossbar and the punch is attached to the head of the jack operating rod. This is the simplest and at the same time the most reliable and vibration proof construction (about the role of vibrations in the press operation see the following). further). Disadvantages. if you need the jack for its intended purpose, it is quite difficult and time-consuming to dismantle it, and it is not very handy to swing the jack lever hanging upside down.
- Position. B. scheme with a movable table. Structurally more complicated, t.к. a movable traverse. table. is added. jack as always, it is easy to remove it, t.к. it may not be secured at all. Disadvantages. the worst vibration resistance; in addition, the technology of most pressing operations is designed that the punch presses on the workpiece or part from above, and if the opposite is true, it is difficult and may not work at all. But for repair and/or machine assembly work this is the best solution: if you need to squeeze a shaft which is hard stuck to a pulley or bearing, or press them on a shaft, its length is limited only by the height of the ceiling in the workshop. As a whole the hydraulic press with a mobile table from the jack is the best option for a garage or service station.
- Pos. B. with power block on movable traverse. The design is the most complex, but it is vibration proof, strong and durable.к. load on the weakest link. moving crosshead. is not point, but actually dispersed. The jack can also be loose, but if it twists and crashes, the consequences will be worse than if it falls off the base plate. The disadvantage. it is not quite convenient to swing the jack, which slowly creeps down.
Screw press with manual drive (pos. D) allows you to create up to a maximum force of 1.5-2.5 ton-force. In the work with metal is used when there is enough of such, in the trace. cases (see “The Bending Press”). also video):
When the pressing force of less than the specified values is sufficient:
As a small or mini-press for small not very demanding jobs:
Homemade press from a jack can be not only hydraulic. Many cars for sale are equipped with a rhombic screw jack. The force it gives no more than 2-2.5 tf, but is cheap (“new, good” can be purchased for 1300). The small force is not only a disadvantage: the frame of the screw jack press can be made from a wooden bar from 150×150, and it is also possible to adapt an electric drill as a drive, see. Fig.:
Homemade mechanical press with electric drive from a screw-type rhombic jack
If the maximum you need is to bend bars up to 8-10 mm, this press is enough for that. And an interesting fact: the author of this article 10 years ago happened to meet a worker who, working 3-4 hours on the first 2-3 days of the week, earned 20-25 thousand dollars per month. per month. At the time, the sum is not insignificant. How? Bought empty metal cans for half the purchase price of scrap metal, flattened them and handed over at a normal price. Most of the cans were beer cans, they were aluminum, and he was expensive. he complained, however, that the work was dirty. the bulk of the feedstock was delivered by homeless people.
Pressing and vibrations
Vibration of drawn metal during pressing is the bane of a large industry, and giant presses, like the one supplied by NKMZ to French Forjal from the USSR, are very complicated units because of it
But IPs and amateurs should also pay the most serious attention to the vibration resistance of the press. Scoring on a camshaft or half axle journal is a fatal defect
Hydraulic presses, equipped with an electric drive, can develop enormous forces, which is explained by the design of such equipment. The principle by which the electro-hydraulic press works is as follows.
- An electrically powered motor drives a hydraulic pump.
- The hydraulic pump maintains the pressure of the working fluid in the first chamber of the press.
- The piston of the first chamber transmits the pressure to the second cylinder of the electro-hydraulic press, where it increases the pressure many times over.
- The pressure exerted in the second chamber of the hydraulic cylinder is transmitted directly to the working device of the electro-hydraulic press.
Diagram of a frame-type hydraulic press (click to enlarge)
Thus, the magnitude of working pressure to be transmitted to the working body of an electro-hydraulic press depends on how different the areas of the pistons in its two cylinders are. The basis of the operation of the press, whose main working organ is a hydraulic pump, is based on Pascal’s law, which states that the force acting on an area is transmitted over the entire volume, and that it has an equal value in all directions.
Types and spheres of application
Both self-made and series produced hydraulic presses are classified according to several parameters:
The most powerful are considered to be hydraulic presses, which belong to the floor-type equipment. Floor-type hydraulic presses, which are notable for their considerable dimensions, are capable of generating pressure at a single point, the value of which can reach tens of megapascals. The scope of use of this type of equipment, which can be equipped with additional appliances, is wide enough. Floor hydraulic presses are needed for such technical tasks as:
- installation and removal of bushings, shafts, bearings;
- tube bending;
- Pressing of products made of various materials, including metal.
Certain models of floor-type electrohydraulic presses have the possibility of changing the height of the working table.
The 2135-1M electro-hydraulic press, 40 ton force
Tabletop hydraulic presses, apart from their small size, are also distinguished by their lower power. Pressure of such table- or workbench-mounted machines is rarely up to 20 tons. Compactness of table electrohydraulic presses makes them suitable for small automobile and domestic workshops.
An important parameter of electro-hydraulic presses, besides the force they are able to produce, is the height of their piston rod. This parameter particularly affects the size of parts that can be handled. If with table type presses this parameter can be up to 100 mm, then with floor-standing models it reaches a half meter.
Thanks to their versatility, electrohydraulic presses are used in many applications. Such areas of activity are, in particular, mechanical engineering, woodworking and the food industry. However, more often such equipment can be found at motor vehicle repair stations. Using it, you can successfully solve not only all the above-mentioned technical tasks, but also to straighten dents and other damage to the car body. Unlike pneumatic equipment, the use of which requires a rather complex pneumatic system, the hydraulic press with an electric drive is simple enough to connect to the electric power supply, and it will work properly.
Making a press at home
The main advantage of a homemade device is that its design can be immediately made according to the need to perform a particular task with a particular type of part. Before assembling the device, you need to prepare drawings of the hydraulic hand press with your own hands or print ready-made, taken from the Internet.
When creating a drawing and design you need to take into account such important details:
- You can use a removable or stationary hydraulic device to create pressure;
- Before the work, it is necessary to determine what the press will be used for;
- Depending on the effort, the reliability of the jack is selected;
- All parts must be dimensioned in the drawing without exception.
To create a hydraulic press may need skills in mechanics and work with drawings, so if you do not have such skills, you can ask a familiar specialist.
Important characteristics of the design
The device created by your own hands is not necessary to make with high technical data. Sufficient of such a design, which will develop the force of 10 to 20 tons. This parameter is determined based on the intended use for a specific task.
There are important design characteristics that must be taken into account, developing drawings of the jack press; the main ones are:
the hydraulic press operating cylinder used in the design, by means of which the main work is performed, may be built into the frame or located separately. Design features are determined by the characteristics of the selected equipment in the manufacture. To facilitate the assembly process is often used conventional oil car jack, which is used in the car service center for partial lifting of the car. Such a jack has in its design a ready-made manual pump. But you can also use other types of devices, for example, for pneumatic press to use a pump, tubes and cylinders of high pressure.
Developing a drawing and diagram of the press
Development of the drawing should begin after deciding on the schematic parameters, because on the principle of a conventional device can build a whole machine and assemble a large forge press. The press can work depending on the location of the hydraulic cylinder. There are two options for installing the jack:
- In the upper part. the pressure will be applied to the lower part of the base.
- In the lower part, the jack is located on the base and the pressure is applied upward by the main spindle.
When deciding on the scheme of the working process, it is necessary to rely on the fact that almost all
bottle-type jacks made in industry cannot be used upside down. Due to such features of this type of hydraulic cylinder, making a homemade device is often carried out according to the second scheme.
One of the main parts of the press, as well as self-made, is the frame. Developing the drawing, it is necessary to be responsible in preparing the structural parameters of this part, because the quality of the work process will depend on its strength, and the bed houses the jack and the workpiece on which the pressure will be exerted.
In the performance of work tasks will create pressure on the upper and lower parts of the body, so when calculating the scheme of the frame, you must choose materials with enough margin of strength to ensure the normal work process without the destruction of the bed.
After operation is complete, the jack piston rod must return to its original position. Therefore, when assembling it is necessary to use springs, the edges of which are fastened to the upper sliding part and the lower part of the base. The springs must be properly selected with respect to stiffness when designing, so they can effectively perform their function.
Location of the jack on the moving part
When assembling this type of structure, the part is placed on the lower part of the base and the springs, together with the jack, are attached to the mobile platform. Both jack placements involve the installation of a socket made from a piece of pipe with which the hydraulic cylinder rod will be in contact. When the jack is in a movable position, the height of the working area cannot be adjusted. The design is simplified and the use of the press is limited to the height of the working area.
Tools and workpieces
Before you begin assembly, prepare such tools and make sure they work:
Of particular importance is the preparation of the welding machine and working electrodes. If you have welding skills, the situation is simplified, otherwise you need to call someone who can prepare the device and do the necessary work. For finishing the press you will need a grinder. for cleaning burrs on metal profiles.
To assemble a homemade press, you will need:
- A channel with a thickness of at least 8 mm, a rectangular or square tube with a minimum size of 40×40 or an angle with a side width of 5 cm;
- A piece of steel plate with a thickness greater than 0.8 cm for use as the base of the device;
- Metal strip with a thickness of more than 1 cm for the installation of guides and stiffening ribs;
- A pipe for making a socket for the jack stem.
Presses with high pressure are used only in production, and for home works you can make a press, the pressure of which will be about 5 tons, so you need to determine the required force of the load and then choose the option of connecting the parts. They can be fastened by welding, but in the absence of such a possibility, the connection can be performed with bolts. When assembling, very important parameters are:
The pressure in the cylinder is obtained by using a manual or hydraulic pump. A hydraulic pump is very easy to work with, but in the absence of such a device, you can develop a homemade jack.
To obtain the necessary stiffness and strength of the press it is necessary to use stiffening ribs. Metal angle or square profile is used for this. the stability of the structure is achieved by welding the plate to the base. The metal plate is chosen from a thickness of 0.8 to 1.2 cm.
The design of the press: features of existing devices
To create a significant force on a certain area, the design of the hydraulic press is used, you can buy such a unit in specialized stores. Such a machine is an effective and simple device.
If you decide to make such a construction according to the drawings, it is necessary to understand what it consists of:
- The lower part or the base is necessary for the stability of the structure. It looks like a platform and is made of solid steel. Metal corners and channels are suitable for this;
- props are the vertical parts of the structure. The height of the elements is calculated as the sum of the length of its rod, the height of the jack and the thickness of the fixed stop. Racks are made of steel angles welded to the base;
- The fixed stop is fixed at the top of the columns. To make it, the same angle is used, as in the racks;
- the jack allows you to develop the necessary force. This element is attached to the movable stop. It is electrically or manually operated;
- the mobile end stop exerts the main pressure on the mechanism. May be made of angle bars or steel strips;
- The return device is used for moving the movable stop to the normal position. The springs are used, the degree and length of stretching, which is calculated depending on the parameters of the press.
How to make a simple construction can be seen in the video below:
When making a vacuum press with their own hands, it is worth considering that the device consists of a thermomodule, a table and a vacuum chamber. The last element is often rectangular in shape and made of rigid material.
This design has some features:
- The apparatus has only manual operation;
- affordable materials are used for the work;
- the speed of the work should not be inferior to the factory analogues.
The vacuum construction is assembled from these parts:
- The frame is made of a rail for the thermomodule and a profiled tube. To work you will need a welder and an electric drill;
- The vacuum table is made of a clamping frame, clamps and a tub;
- a water-ring pump is also needed.
A thermo-vacuum press is manufactured in a similar way.
Such machine as a baler is installed as a trailed mechanism for power tillers. It is used on small farmers’ fields and on large farms. After the crops are cut by a mower, the baler treats them. It forms rolls of stalks and then uses the machine to produce baled bales.
Here are the advantages of using such a machine
- the drying time is reduced and the loss of the hay is minimized;
- Labor costs are reduced several times;
- the quality of the hay is increased during storage;
- independent adjustment of the mounted device is possible.
The diagram shows a version of a round baler
the most common choice is a bale press. Spring tines enable the collection of the mass of grass. After that, each batch is rolled into bales. A mini-tractor can load up to 20 tons of straw in 20 days. Rolled structures have small dimensions.
The baler of the baler variety makes briquettes in the shape of a rectangle. The straw is picked up by the tines of the windrows and deposited in the baling chamber. The dimensions can be adjusted by the machine. The bales are securely packed and tied with twine. After that the block is thrown on the field.
You can also make a homemade version from walking beam and lumber. It makes a big box of planks and uses the horizontal method for loading hay. A pinion or screw jack is used as the baler. With such a device it is possible to knit bales of straw and press them.
A tabletop mechanical baler
The table baler can be operated either automatically or manually. Such equipment is often made of strong steel.
The manual press is used to process:
The mechanical press is used to press out bearings and bushings, punch and die small items. Such a machine allows to save time for manufacturing parts.
The device of the hydraulic manual apparatus produces the force by means of a hydraulic cylinder rod. This element contains liquid that is compressed under pressure. The unit is used for compressing, deforming and joining parts.
Hole punching variant is used for punching holes in sheets of different materials. Manual mechanical presses are needed for pressing tubular sleeves and cables.
Vibropress allows you to reduce the time of construction works, as well as reduce their cost. The device device assumes the presence of three drives: hydraulic, mechanical and pneumatic. The basis of the unit operation is the vibro-press technology.
Even with a manual and the necessary drawings, creating a vibro press with your own hands may not work. This can happen due to incorrect calculations, inaccurate set-up and low output.
Press with electric drive
Hydraulic press with electric drive has a simple structure. Most often it consists of a thick angle and a channel. All elements are connected by thick bolts.
Peculiarities of making a hydraulic press with your own hands
Homemade structure must perform the necessary list of tasks. A device that generates a force of 15-25 tons is sufficient. For its manufacture, you will need to prepare a working drawing of the hydraulic press with their own hands from the jack with the dimensions of all elements of the construction (such a scheme can be found on the Internet). It should take into account the type of tool, which can be stationary or removable, the dimensions of the product, the stroke of the piston and the design of the bed.
Depending on the type of installation, the hydraulic press can be table or floor standing
The work cylinder is placed separately or is built into the structure. It can be at the top or at the bottom. In the case of the first variant the pressure will be carried out on the lower surface of the base. If the operating element is located at the bottom of the machine bed, the pressure will be directed upward as a result of the main piston rod.
A jack is used as the hydraulic cylinder, which acts as the main working element. It should be taken into account that the tool can be presented in different versions. Therefore, when choosing a jack it is necessary to determine for what purposes the press will be used and take into account the maximum force of the device.
However, it should be remembered that an industrial bottle-type tool will not function in an inverted state. Therefore, before making a press from a jack, it is necessary to finish the product. The design should include a socket that will be in contact with the hydraulic cylinder rod. To make it, one must use a section of pipe.
The material for the frame should be chosen with sufficient strength to prevent damage to the frame while exerting the maximum possible force. After performing the task of processing the workpiece rod should return to its original position. To do this, it is necessary to choose springs correctly, based on their degree of stiffness, so they can effectively serve their purpose. Their edges are fixed to the movable upper and fixed lower parts of the base.
Material for the columns and the bed should be chosen with a margin of safety, it will prevent damage to the press when applying high pressure
Constructive design of a homemade press made of a jack
Before making a hydraulic press with your own hands, it is necessary to understand what components are included in its design.
The stability of the device requires a strong and reliable lower part, which acts as the base of the installation. It takes the form of a platform and is made of solid, thick steel. Metal channels and angles are mainly used for this.
As you can see from the diagram of the press, the vertical parts of the structure are legs. Elements are made of steel angles and welded to the foundation so that the right angle between the elements is ensured. Stand height is calculated as a sum of jack height, its rod length and thickness of the workpiece. A fixed stop is fixed at the top of the uprights. Angles are used for it.
To create the necessary force on the work surface a hydraulic jack is used. It will need to be mounted on a movable stop. The jack is actuated by means of a hand lever or an electric motor.
The height of the side racks should correspond to the sum of the thickness of the workpiece, the height of the jack itself and the length of its rod.
The sliding stop exerts pressure on the press mechanism. The element is made of steel strips or corners. A return device is used to move the stop to the normal position. It is represented by several springs. Their length and degree of tension are calculated based on the parameters of the press.
Typical differences of a garage press
Nowadays, all such presses used for production purposes are divided into models designed for processing metal structures, and devices for compression of plastic.
Pressing machines are also available in more general-purpose applications:
- Thus, manufacturers have taken care of creating a press for stamping and forging metals.
- There are also models for punching metal plates and giving them a specific shape similar to the castings.
- Presses are also made for stamping sheet metal or wood chips.
- There are even presses for parts assembly.
- And the ever-popular briquetting machines for scrap metal.
Depending on their internal characteristics, hydraulic presses are vertical, manually operated. A vertical, two-column frame-based system that operates either with a manual or foot control.
Can process over 150 tons of material at a time.
They are characterized by low power consumption. Bench top presses, the most compact of all, mounted on a workbench or simple table surface. Capable of supporting up to 20 tons, but with small dimensions of work pieces. Electro-hydraulic presses, operated by an electric motor. Can handle up to 45 tons of material. Completely automated, they do not require any operator intervention thanks to the electric drive. Pneumohydraulic is the most reliable models, allowing significant savings on equipment repair. can be used even in explosive and easily flammable environments. Loads more than 90 tons in weight.
Types and classification of hydraulic bending equipment
According to the industry standard КН-1-01, domestic bending equipment is marked with the letter И, followed by the designation of the type and working force of the equipment. For example, the mark I2730F indicates that this forging and stamping machine is a press brake with CNC (the letter F at the end of the marking), and the maximum working force (the last two digits) is 1000 kN.
In addition, industrial plate benders are classified:
- According to the type of bed: equipment is available with open C-type bed and with closed frame-type bed.
- According to the presence or absence of means of automatization of the process. Highly functional press brake with CNC, despite its higher cost, is much more profitable than a conventional driven bending machine, as it allows you to quickly program yourself to deform products with different shapes, which significantly reduces the non-productive downtime of the presses.
- By the design of the power cylinder hydraulic cylinder press can be with the lower arrangement of cylinders (pulling cylinders), and with the top (pushing cylinders). In terms of force distribution during deformation, presses with the upper arrangement of the power tools have a higher durability, since in this case the compressive stress prevails, the permissible level of which for steel is always higher than the compressive stress.
Drawing of the general view of a press with hydraulic drive
It should be noted that the production of press brakes (regardless of the type of drive) by their own hands is almost impossible, because it requires a very high equipment machine base and skilled performers. At the same time, production of punches and matrixes by hands is quite possible: the tool for bending has a fairly simple configuration, and, in addition, is produced for specific production needs.