If the worm is cut in half the halves. Do worms of mowed grass love?

Necromancy on planarias

Flat worms of planaria have long been known for their outstanding abilities for regeneration. If you cut the planaria in half, both halves usually turn into normal worms: a new tail grows at the front end, on the back. New head. Contrary to widespread opinion, rainworms do not have this ability, after cutting, they only survive the front part, and even then not always. If the planaria is cut into several parts, for example, into six:

then each piece of the worm turns into a small kurguisia planaria, the eyes and other organs grow on it:

The reasons for this amazing feature are known in general terms. There are many special cells in the planaria body. non.lastov (in fact, stem cells), which, if necessary, can turn into a cage of any type that only in the body of the planaria. When the planaria is injured, the non.strokes of the damaged part of the body begin to intensively share and turn into those cells that should be normal in this place. Several weeks pass, or even days, and the worm is again like a brand new.

Recently, three American biologists who studied the details of the planning regeneration mechanism made an amazing discovery. Scientists irradiated the planaria with a deadly dose of radiation of 6,000 are glad, and then transplanted the dying worm of a single non.storage from another individual. For some time the worm was dying, as it should be, but then he began to recover and two months later recovered completely:

The genetic examination of the recovered worm showed that all its cells are the descendants of the only non.stroke that was planted in a dying body. Thus, the only healthy cell was able to restore the whole body, gradually replacing all the cells killed by their descendants with its descendants. At the same time, one individual of the worm actually turned into another, this is perhaps the most perverted method of cloning from all known so far. Something like a highly scientific necromancy.

At the same time, other American biologists were analyzing the genetic implementation of the planaria regeneration algorithm, and partially restored this algorithm. During the experiment, they learned to reprogram the cut worms so that they grow an ass (middle picture) or instead of the ass head (right picture) instead of their heads:

To transfer these results to more developed animals, for example, mammals, is unlikely to succeed in the coming years. The more complicated the genetic program, the more difficult it is to properly start it at the wrong time. Here you can draw an analogy with a machine code. The more difficult the code, the more difficult it is to make it mobile (t.e. so that it works correctly after injecting into the address space of another process). However, the successes of biotechnology inspire. If the studies of low.level biological mechanisms continue at the same pace, it is possible that already in the next generation amputated human organs will not replace prostheses, but re.grow.

Martin Charrer

I know this statement from my childhood about rainworms. not about any worms.

This story is not true in accordance with the leadership of the worm farm. Two halves do not survive independently. Nevertheless, the head part can grow a certain fraction on its rear, if it is lost:

You may have heard that you can cut the rainworm in half, and both halves will grow. It is not true. If the rainworm is cut in half, it will usually die. Nevertheless, it is true that if a third or less of the back of the worm is chopped off, the rainworm can usually grow this part again. But the severed back will not grow up with a new head

This is also evidenced by the following sources:

What will happen if you cut the worm in the habit?

Almost everyone wants to know the answer to this question. Some types of worms can regenerate or grow a new tail if their tail is cut off. However, a worm cut too close to his head will experience difficulties when growing a new tail. Most worms do not restore their heads.

As a rule, we tell students that if you cut the worm in the half, you will most likely get two dead worms. However, if you are lucky, a new tail can grow with your head, so you will have one living worm and one piece of a dead worm.

Some worms have a natural reflex in which they push their tail when the tail is pulled. For example, when the bird catches the tail of the worm, the worm pushes or tears its tail from the rest of its body. Thus, the worm remains alive and safe, and the bird receives only part of the worm.

There is a common myth that has existed for a long time, that if you cut the worm in half, two halves will turn into worms. Of these, you get 2 worms out of 1. This is very unable to reality. It is true that if the worm loses part of his body, he will survive, but if you cut the worm into 2 parts, one half will definitely die. Half with a saddle (thicker pink part) will drown in the soil and survive. Not a good idea to cut worms in half or any other creature in this regard. This is very cruel. Therefore, please do not take this myth and leave the worms whole.

David Lebauer

Your answer is correct for rainworms, but the rainworms are not indicated in the question. Therefore, your answer is not the correct answer to the source question.

Martin Charrer

@ David: The question only says “worm” and therefore is not definite. Earthworm. The most common worm that normal people face (at least where I came from), and therefore this statement is most likely concerns the rainworm. I at least specially heard the same statement about this. Also a show that there is at least one type of worm that cannot be cut in this way shows that the general statement (“cut the worm”, which means mainly “cutting any worm”) does not correspond to reality. Therefore, my answer is the correct answer to the original (vague) question.

David Lebauer

But the approval is also often made correctly about the planaria. In addition, rainworms can be charismatic megafauna among worms, but people face them, and in fact contain much more diverse and plentiful worms that are not rainworms, on our bodies.

Martin Charrer

@ David: I have no problem with Kevin’s answer, adopted instead of my. In the end, he has some scientific sources. It is great to have two answers that relate to the question from two different sides.

David Lebauer

I fully agree that your answer is valid and useful, although it requires paraphrasing the question

Why Do Earthworms Come Out After It Rains?

Kevin Katkart

There are worms with extraordinary regenerative abilities.

For example, many types of flat worms belong to the category of “planaries”, which are well known that they are able to regenerate on two individuals when cutting in half.

The best general.purpose link on this topic, which I can find. This is a page written by Dr. Wolfgang Sifart.

The diagram on this page shows some possible regeneration for this type. He can also regenerate if cut in the transverse direction.

For a more stringent reference, various studies of the causes of this effect were generalized in an article published in the annual review of cellular and development biology. An illustrative quote from this article:

When the planaria is amputated in the transverse direction, two fragments are formed that are able to regenerate (Pallas 1774; Johnson 1822, 1825). The term polarity was used to describe the fact that the wound facing forward regenerates the head, and the wound, turning back, regenerates the tail (Morgan 1901). “Something in the very part determines that the head should develop on the front surface of the cut, and the tail. on the back of the cut. It is something”. This is what we call polarity “.

Indeed, he can not only regenerate his head, but in some cases he can accidentally create a head with his head at every end!

Secondly, some small fragments, for example, from animals Dugesia Tigrina, sometimes regenerate two-headed animals (Yanus heads) (Morgan 1898, 1904A) or, for example, from animals D. Lugubris, two.high animals (Morgan 1904D)

As for how they look, perhaps this image from Wikipedia, showing one of the two.headed, will give you an idea.

Sklivvz

It seems to me that this article does not reinforce your claim. For example, it is mentioned that flat worms have a “head”. Will the tail develop your head? This is mentioned in this article? Can you add literal quote?

Why Do Worms Come Out When it Rains (onto the Concrete Pavement)

Sam I am

This is a really great answer! I found this video that describes the Planaria regeneration laboratory and tells how the new growth looks different depending on the color. Feel free to add it to your answer if you want.

David Lebauer

I really like historical links; It would be great to refer directly, although the review is enough.

Will the worm cut in half survive, like two worms?

(Information in this response was taken and united from the answer of Kevin Katkart and Martin Sharrer’s response.)

Most people immediately interpret this question as the question of the most familiar type of worm, EarthWorm. So interpreted that this is a non.true city legend. However, the legend is based on the fact that some other “less traditional” types of worms are really restored. Therefore, I will turn to both.

Most often this myth of rainworms. not about worms.

This story is not true in accordance with the leadership of the worm farm. Two halves do not survive independently. Nevertheless, the head part can grow a certain fraction on its rear, if it is lost:

You may have heard that you can cut the rainworm in half, and both halves will grow. It is not true. If the rainworm is cut in half, it will usually die. Nevertheless, it is true that if a third or less of the back of the worm is chopped off, the rainworm can usually grow this part again. but the severed back will not grow up with a new head

This is also evidenced by the following sources:

Almost everyone wants to know the answer to this question. Some types of worms can regenerate or grow a new tail if their tail is cut off. However, a worm cut too close to his head will experience difficulties when growing a new tail. Most worms do not restore their heads.

As a rule, we tell students that if you cut the worm in the half, you will most likely get two dead worms. However, if you are lucky, a new tail can grow with your head, so you will have one living worm and one piece of a dead worm.

Some worms have a natural reflex in which they push their tail when the tail is pulled. For example, when the bird catches the tail of the worm, the worm pushes or tears its tail from the rest of its body. Thus, the worm remains alive and safe, and the bird receives only part of the worm.

There is a common myth that has existed for a long time, that if you cut the worm in half, the two halves will turn into worms. of them, 2 out of 1 out of 1. This is very unable to reality. It is true that if the worm loses part of his body, he will survive, but if you cut the worm into 2 parts, one half will definitely die. Half with a saddle (thicker pink part) will drown in the soil and survive. Not a good idea to cut worms in half or any other creature in this regard is very cruel. therefore, please do not take this myth and leave the worms whole.

There are worms with extraordinary regenerative abilities.

For example, many types of flat worms belong to the category of “planaries”, which are well known that they are able to regenerate on two individuals when cutting in half.

The best general.purpose link on this topic that I can find is a page written by Dr. Wolfgang Sephart.

The diagram on this page shows some possible regeneration for this type. He can also regenerate if cut in the transverse direction.

For a more stringent reference, various studies of the causes of this effect were generalized in an article published in the annual review of cellular and development biology. An illustrative quote from this article:

When the planaria is amputated in the transverse direction, two fragments are formed that are able to regenerate (Pallas 1774; Johnson 1822, 1825). The term polarity was used to describe the fact that the wound facing forward regenerates the head, and the wound, turning back, regenerates the tail (Morgan 1901). “Something in the part itself determines that the head should develop on the front surface of the cut, and the tail on the posterior surface of the cut. This “something” is what we call polarity “.

Indeed, he can not only regenerate his head, but in some cases he can accidentally create a head with his head at every end!

worm, half, halves, worms, grass

Secondly, some small fragments, for example, from animals Dugesia Tigrina, sometimes regenerate two-headed animals (Yanus heads) (Morgan 1898, 1904A) or, for example, from animals D. Lugubris, two.high animals (Morgan 1904D)

As for how they look, perhaps this image from Wikipedia, showing one of the two.headed, will give you an idea.

The rainworm is head

Earthlings or rain of Chervi [1] (lat. Lumbricina). subdivision of low.shaped worms from the detachment Haplotaxida. They live on all continents, except Antarctica, but only a few species initially had a wide range: the distribution of a number of representatives occurred due to human introduction [2]. The most famous European earthen worms belong to the family Lumbricidae.

Structure

The body length of representatives of different species varies from 2 cm (genus Dichogaster) up to 3 m (MEGASCOLIDES AUSTRALIS) [2]. The number of segments is also variable: from 80 to 300 [1]. When moving, the rainworms rest on short bristles located on each segment, except for the front. The number of bristles changes from 8 to several dozen (in some tropical species) [1].

The circulatory system of the worms is closed, well developed, the blood has red color. There are two main blood vessels in the rainworm: the dorsal, according to which the blood moves from the back of the body to the front, and the abdominal, in which the blood moves from the front of the body to the back. These two vessels are connected by ring vessels in each segregic, some of them, called “hearts”, can be reduced, ensuring the movement of blood. The vessels are branched into small capillaries [3]. Breathing is carried out through the skin rich in sensitive cells, which is covered with protective mucus. The mucus is saturated with a colossal number of enzymes that are antiseptics. The nervous system of rainworms consists of a weakly developed brain (two nerve nodes) and abdominal chain. Have a developed ability to regenerate.

Rainworms are hermaphrodites, each sexually mature individual has a female and male sexual system (synchronous hermaphroditism). They propagate sexually using cross fertilization. Propagation occurs through a belt, inside which the eggs are fertilized and develop. The belt occupies several front segments of the worm, standing out relative to the rest of the body. The exit from the belt of small worms occurs after 2-4 weeks in the form of a cocoon, and after 3-4 months they grow to the size of adults [1].

Applied value

Charles Darwin in 1882 indicated the value of rainworms during the formation of the soil in the process of soil formation [4]. Earthworms create minks in the soil (at least 60-80 cm deep, large species. up to 8 m), contributing to its aeration, moisturizing and mixing. Worms move through the soil, pushing particles or swallowing them. During the rain, earthen worms come to the surface, as they have skin breathing and begin to suffer from a lack of oxygen in waterlogged soil.

Also, rainworms are intermediate hosts of pulmin helminths and some bird parasites.

Small individuals are used as a live bait in amateur fishing.

Vermulture

Breeding earthen worms (vermiculture) allows you to process various types of organic waste into high.quality environmentally friendly fertilizer. biohumus. In addition, thanks to the fertility of worms, you can increase their biomass for use as fodder additives to the diet of agricultural animals and poultry. For breeding worms, compost from various organic waste is prepared: manure, chicken, straw, sawdust, fallen leaves, weeds, branches of trees and bushes, processing industry waste, vegetable stores, etc. D. After the conditions of the environment lead to optimal in compost, the worms are settled in compost. After 2-3 months, a selection of multiplying worms from the resulting biohumus is made.

For the first time, the practice of using some epigular species of earthen worms was proposed in the United States to obtain compost, the pioneers in this area were George Sheffield Oliver and Thomas Barrett [5]. The latter conducted research on his farm EarthMaster Farms from 1937 to 1950 and played an important role in the conviction of colleagues in the value and potential importance of rainworms in agricultural technology [ source? ].

Meaning for humans

In Western Europe, washed rainworms or powder from dried worms were put on wounds for their healing, tincture on powder was used with tuberculosis and cancer, a decoction was treated with a decoction of ears, worms cooked in wine. inflated with oil. fought with rheumatism. German doctor Stal (1734) prescribed powder from dried worms during epilepsy. Powder was also used in Chinese traditional medicine as part of a drug to get rid of atherosclerosis. And in Russian folk medicine, liquid, which has expired from advanced and warm.up rainworms, buried in the eyes during cataract [6].

Large types of rainworms are eaten by Australian Aborigines and some peoples of Africa.

In Japan, it was believed that if you urinate on the rainworm, then because of this it may swell a causal place [7].

Whether two worms from two parts of one will grow?

Rainworms have the ability to regenerate the lost segments, but this ability varies between species and depends on the degree of damage.

Stefenson (1930) devoted to this topic the head of his monograph, while g. E. Gates spent 20 years, studying the regeneration of various species, but “since there was a little interest”, Gates (1972) published only some of his conclusions, which nevertheless showed that theoretically it is possible to grow two whole worms from the bifurcated instance. Gates reports included:

  • Eisenia Fetida (Savigny, 1826) with the regeneration of the head in the front direction, possible at each intake level up to 23/24 inclusive, while the tails were regenerated at any level for 20/21, t. e. Two worms can grow from one [8].
  • Lumbricus Terrestris Linnaeus, 1758, replacing the front segments back in 13/14 and 16/17, but the regeneration of the tail was not detected.
  • Perionyx Excavatus Perrier, 1872, easily regenerated the lost parts of the body, in the front direction from 17/18 and in the back to 20/21.
  • Lampito Mauritii Kinberg, 1867 with regeneration in the front direction at all levels up to 25/26 and tail regeneration from 30/31. It was believed that the regeneration of the head was caused by internal amputation caused by infection with Sarcophaga SP larvae.
  • Criodrilus Lacuum Hoffmeister, 1845, also has the ability to regenerate with the restoration of the “head”, starting with 40/41 [9].

The life of a rainworm. Structure

The body length of representatives of different species varies from 2 cm (genus dichogaster) to 3 m (Megascolids australis). The number of segments is also variable: from 80 to 300. When moving, the rainworms rest on short bristles located on each segment, except for the front. The number of bristles changes from 8 to several dozen (in some tropical species).

The circulatory system of the worms is closed, well developed, the blood has red color. There are two main blood vessels in the rainworm: the dorsal, according to which the blood moves from the back of the body to the front, and the abdominal, in which the blood moves from the front of the body to the back. These two vessels are connected by ring vessels in each segregic, some of them, called “hearts”, can be reduced, ensuring the movement of blood. Vessels branch into small capillaries. Breathing is carried out through the skin rich in sensitive cells, which is covered with protective mucus. The mucus is saturated with a colossal number of enzymes that are antiseptics. The nervous system of rainworms consists of a weakly developed brain (two nerve nodes) and abdominal chain. Have a developed ability to regenerate.

Light receptors

The rainworms have no eye (although some worms have), however, they have specialized photosensitive cells called “Hess Light Cells”. These photoreceptor cells have a central intracellular cavity (phagosoma) filled with microvors. In addition to microse, in the phagosoma there are several sensory cilia, independent of microse. Photoreceptors are distributed in most parts of the epidermis, but most concentrated on the back and side sides of the worm.

Epidermal receptors

These receptors are numerous and distributed throughout the epidermis. Each receptor has a slightly raised cuticle, which covers a group of tall, thin and column receptor cells. These cells carry small hair.shaped processes on their external ends, and their inner ends are associated with nerve fibers. Epidermal receptors have a tactile function. They are also concerned about temperature changes and respond to chemical stimuli. Rainworms are extremely sensitive to touch and mechanical vibration.

Taste and olfactory receptors

These receptors are located only in the epithelium of the buccal chamber, also respond to chemical stimuli (chemoreceptors).

Excretory system

The excretory system contains a pair of jade in each segment, except for the first three and last. There are three types of nephridia: integumentary, regulations and pharyngeal. Cover nephritis are attached to the inside of the body wall in all segments, except for the first two. Participation nephrididies are attached to both sides of the partition behind the 15th segment. Nephritis of the pharynx are attached to the fourth, fifth and sixth segments. Waste in the whole liquid from the anterior segment is addressed in the beating of cilia in nephrostoma. From there, it passes through the partition (wall) along the tube, which forms a series of loops intertwined by blood capillaries, which also transfer waste to the tubules of nephrostoma. Then excretory waste is excreted through the pores on the side of the worm.

Rainworm regeneration. Regeneration at the worm

With the metamer structure of the rainworm, its organs turn out to be very evenly distributed through individual segments of the body. In particular, each segment has its own nerve node, and the supra.gibbon node, or the “brain”, although it makes the movements of the whole body agreed together, but it is developed a little stronger than other nerve nodes, and therefore does not have such an exceptional value for the life of the animal, which the brain has in vertebrates.

Thus, if you cut the rainworm in the field, then neither the front nor the back half will lose its organs without which life should stop in them. The cut worm does not die, but each half of it restores the structure of the whole worm: on the front segment it regenerates the tail, and the front segments are formed in the back half. Ultimately, two from one cut worm is obtained.

The experiments showed that even segments taken from the middle of the body are capable of restoring lost parts, if only they were not too short. And in one kind of rainworm of a species that lives in reservoirs, this ability is especially reflected: this worm can be cut into 14 pieces and in this way there are 14 whole worms.

It turned out that this worm can spontaneously “tear” its body into parts, which then regenerate in whole animals. So, at the relatively high stage of the organization, some colchals, due to the metameric structure of the body, can occur as an asexual reproduction by dividing.

JOKE

Parents dig potatoes in the garden, the little son flutters in the ground. He asks:- Mom, and if the worm is cut with a shovel, then its halves will be friends? Not with you.

A physicist got to the hospital after a car accident.Lies and delights:- It’s good that in half. It’s good that in half. It’s good that in half.- What in half? The doctor asks.- It’s good that the kinetic energy of Em-WE-square in half.

Anti.crisis diet1. Frozen sausage, three on a grater, smear a loaf with mayonnaise and sprinkled sausage. Tasty and practical, and most importantly. Many: one sausage for 5-10 sandwiches.2. If hunger does not allow to sleep, quickly pour two glasses of boiling water and lie down. The brain will not immediately understand that the stomach has been deceived.3. If the black loaf is rubbed with garlic, it smells of sausage.four. If you freeze the egg, cut it in half and put in a frying pan, you get glazes with 2 yolks.5. Tea can be brewed seven times. On the eighth seagulls come up to look for a jadin on this.

The girl eats an apple. Mom says to her:- Daughter, look, don’t eat a worm!- Well, here! Let him look so that I don’t eat him.

How can you live in without working at all

If the lizard is torn off the tail, then another will grow. If the worm is cut in half, then both halves will live, as if nothing had happened. The latter is well known to fishermen.

That is, the point is that the lower the organization of the animal, the higher the level of survival. Read how Russians survive on the example of residents of the Chelyabinsk region.

How to live and not work: the South Urals go to dugouts

Chelyabinsk, October 19 (new day. NR, Victor Eliseev). residents of the Chelyabinsk region found the opportunity to live and not work.

As the correspondent NDNews reports.ru, a fire inspector from the Sosnovsky district spoke about the “resourceful” South Urals. The real headache of the firewall employees of steel dugouts appearing on abandoned agricultural lands.

In dugouts growing on the ownerless land, they live whole families. The exhortations of district officials and supervisory authorities on Novoselov do not have any influence. Their remoteness of residential areas does not scare their remoteness, the absence of any infrastructure and communications, the inability to provide them with emergency assistance.

As a rule, it was not the absence of normal housing under the ground of such South Urals: they rent their apartment in Chelyabinsk and live on this permanent income in a new place. The fire inspector did not tell about how new residents of the Sosnovsky district provide themselves with nutrition in dugouts. But he expressed confidence that this phenomenon is not specifically Sosnovsky, and in other areas you can also find the South Ural “Radier”.

Note that such a practice is not new. A few years ago, among residents and St. Petersburg, it was fashionable to rent an apartment in one of the capitals and for money received from rent, to live, for example, in Thailand. Most South Urals did not have enough money for such an option until a sharp exchange rate of the dollar, so they preferred to “go into the ground”.

worm, half, halves, worms, grass

As far as I know Americans, for many of my friends, even a night in a tent is a real torture. It’s not worth talking about dugouts, no one just knows what it is.

I don’t think that Russians can be proud of this ability to survive. Thus, they bring themselves closer to the level of organization to lizards or even worms.

Why rainworms are twisted?

To protect themselves in very dry weather, the rainworms are buried deeper into a more humid layer of soil. Or they turn around in their tunnels and fall asleep.

Worms need underground darkness to which they are used to. Too much light can be fatal. The storage of the garbage bucket in a dark basement or garage is ideal for maintaining a healthy level of lighting. or hold the lid of the bin closed. For an outer bunker for worms, keep the lid closed, especially in daylight hours.

Which animal fart most strongly?

In the best possible way, the hippo can distinguish the daily flow of olfactory gases. Belonging to a group called chewing animals, which also includes the Myssis buffalo, the hippos chew the grass, and then the methane is distinguished. Thus, each long fart the hippo can potentially affect the climate.

Heartbeat: worms have not only one heart. There are five of them! But their hearts and circulatory system are not as complex as our. Perhaps because their blood should not enter many parts of the body. Movement: worms have two types of muscles under the skin.

Is it true that if you cut the rainworm in half, you will get two viable individuals?

Rain (earthen) worm. an invertebrate representative of a detachment of annelid worms living on all continents except Antarctica. The body of the animal consists of segments, their number varies from 80 to 300. Ringworm has different head and tailings. A circulatory and excretory system is located along the whole body, and breathing is carried out through the skin. It is because of the skin breathing that the worms crawl to the surface during and after the rain, since there is not enough oxygen in waterlogged soil.

Closer to the head end of the worm is a “belt”, which is incredible called clitelium-a thickening responsible for the propagation of the worm. The “belt” and the segments following it (from 9 to 15) play a key role in the regeneration of the animal. If, as a result of the injury, clitelium remains on the head end, then this part under favorable conditions is capable of regeneration and can grow a new tail. In this case, the second part of the cut animal is not capable of “growing” a new mouth. If the wound is delayed, then another tail will appear on the site of the head with the rotary hole and the body will die from hunger.

At the same time, it is important to note that there are among worms and those who are capable of real miracles of regeneration. These are flat worms and their representative. planaria. This is a water predatory animal that lives both in fresh and salted water, can grow its body from a fragment, which is only 1/300 from the size of an adult animal. Planarias can restore not only their entire body, but even memories. Scientists have found that as the new head grows, neurons “remember” everything that happened to them earlier.

planariaxavier japiot, cc by-sa 3.0, Via Wikimedia Commons

worm, half, halves, worms, grass

Thus, rainworms, unlike planaries, have a very limited ability to regenerate. Subject to the cut after the 15th segment, the head end can grow a tail for itself. But there can be no talk of any two independent individuals, since the tail ends in the case of separation from the head inevitably dies.

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