PTO-driven potato mower for power tillers
Create a potato harvester for power tiller with your own hands
Design features and types
It is worth recalling at once that this mechanical device, as can be seen from the photo, to do the work, is hooked to the power tiller. Such a digger, made by hand, as shown in the video, is able to work the land plot not only near the house, but also in the field. To create it, you need metal staples and a welding machine. If the latter is not available, you can buy Robu welders in ingplast.ru
Many readers will say that you can buy such a potato digger in the sales outlet for agricultural machinery and equipment, and why make it with your own hands. Such a statement is correct, but not quite. Any experienced horticulturist will tell. a digger, designed in a home workshop will be more practical, because it will be designed under the already known characteristics of the soil, and will be made for the strength of a particular person. One more thing to add here is the price. The device, executed by your own hands, will cost much cheaper than buying it in the store.
Before you start the creative constructive work on the creation of a potato digger, remember, it is adapted to work on soils with medium and low density criterion. In order to build machines adapted to work on heavy soils, it is necessary to have a deep knowledge of physics and mechanics.
Digger for potatoes, adapted to the power tiller, as shown in the photo, there are such types:
- Rattle or vibrating mechanism. it mainly consists of a ploughshare and a vibrating screen. The principle of operation of this type of potato harvester, which functions with the help of a power tiller, is simple. The soil is undermined together with the potatoes by the share. Then the immovable transporter screen leaves the tubers on its surface, and the soil is shaken off, like through a sieve, back. This model is effective in operation, but rather difficult to produce.
- The conveyor system for digging potatoes. it can work without problems, for example, on a motorcycle tractor such as the “Neva. By design, the transporter digger consists of a ploughshare and moving transporter, which has a special hitch device to support the tubers on the platform and clear the ground. Transporter design for digging potatoes has more practicality than the vibrating type of potato digger. But it is not reasonable to use this type of device on soils with a slight degree of density.
- The winged type. this is the simplest mechanism, which can easily be adapted to any model of mini tractor, such as the “Neva”. It has no movable parts. As shown in the video, the soil with the tubers is trimmed with a knife. Then the cuttings fall on the surface of the special bars, where the soil is poured back and the fruits are placed cleanly on top of the soil. This digger is effective on the soil with a low degree of density, where it is not practical to apply other varieties of devices.
Before you begin to design such a device, first of all, you need to determine exactly the density of the soil, on which it will be used. It is worth remembering that where a transporter design with a lancet type can be ideally used, it will be difficult to work.
Blueprints of homemade and factory potato diggers
For a small farm, so that it is convenient to harvest potatoes, you need to make a small-sized device. It should be convenient in operation and easy to hitch to a single-axle tractor.
The construction of potato harvester: 1. welded frame, 2. knife, 3. conveyor, 4. pulley, 5. connecting rod, 6. pulley of angular gearbox. 7. belt, 8. stand, 9. adapter, 10. support wheel, 11. spring tensioner.
In order to make the device under consideration, it is necessary to have:
- Steel channel.
- Coulter bars made of high quality alloy steel, at least 5 mm thick. It can be made using a saw from a circulating machine.
- Metal corners, size 40 and 63 mm.
- Steel bars. It takes at least 8 of them to make a device like the one shown in the photo.
To make a device for digging potatoes of the vibrating type requires, first of all, to make a frame. It should be easily docked, for example, with a mini tractor “Neva” or other modifications.
In general, as shown in the video, such a device consists of the following nodes:
To design such a unit, you need to make accurate calculations and create drawings based on them. Without following this rule, the process of making with your own hands will be difficult.
The stages of making a potato digger of the screen type
As can be seen from the video before starting work, it is required to prepare the following tools:
Also, to make the device, you need to prepare bolts and nuts.
- stage. making the frame. To do this, as shown in the photo, a square-shaped tube is sawed into four parts. Two pieces should be. 1200 mm, and two. 800 mm. Pipe size. 4040 mm. Prepared parts are connected by welding into a rectangle.
- Stage. Fixing the lintels. From the video you can see that they are necessary for the installation of vertical control rods. Fix this element approximately a quarter of the base length of the frame. At the other end are mounted the two elements for mounting the wheels. Such element must be made of two tubes with diameter of 30 mm and length of 150 mm.
- Stage. installing the uprights of vertical type. On the side where the lintels are mounted, at a distance of 5 mm from the edge of the frame, two squares of size 3030 mm and a length of 500 mm are mounted vertically. After that, at a distance of 200 mm long posts of 40 mm are installed. Then you need to give me more 400 mm distance and fix the stands 300 mm long. Join the uprights together with a 0.4 mm strip.
- stage. making the frame. Firstly, two fixing holes are prepared on the metal sheet 400400mm thick, 0.3mm thick, and at the bottom of the uprights. The workpiece is firmly attached to the uprights. The same piece is attached to the other side. Another square piece of sheet metal 700700700 mm and 0.4 mm thick is welded butt-welded to the first element, and then bent into the desired cone configuration using a sledgehammer.
- stage. the construction of the grid. For this purpose a rod with diameter of 10 mm is attached to the frame from below, and the other end goes out of the frame perimeter in the direction of the draw-gear, which can be the model “Neva”.
Fan potato diggers
The easiest to manufacture, also commercially available, but in most cases require some modifications.
It is immediately obvious that they are based on the same planter, and it is the same one that digs deeper than the level of tubers, loosens and unfolds the soil. And here is a fan, welded to the back of the hoe, that feeds the dug up potatoes. Its role is performed by metal bars, welded at a distance of 3. 4 cm from each other, diverging and bent at the top.
The depth is adjusted by the depth wheels, and the crossbar serves as a footstool, a person standing on it provides the required depth to the device by his/her own weight.
It is this scheme of the fan potato harvester that seems to us the most productive. The process of digging itself can be seen here:
The same shape, angle of attack and other nuances you will have to finalize yourself, taking into account your soils, power and driving qualities of the motor-block, on which you plan to install the potato digger, and even the varieties of potatoes, forming tubers at different depths.
A variation of such a digger without a fan, designed to work with two people:
Vibrating version with their own hands
Digger of screen (or vibrating) type has moving parts, which significantly complicates the design, so the mechanism requires precise manufacturing. However, this type of device performs well on hard and wet soil, undercutting it well. You need to know how to make a potato digger with your own hands without the use of outside help to save money.
- Form a frame. Sawing the pipe into 4 parts. It is desirable to use workpieces with a square cross-section. it is easier to join them. You need two pieces with a length of 120 cm, and two pieces with a length of 80 cm. The cross section of the pipe is 4 x 4 cm. Connect the parts by welding into a rectangle.
- Install the crosspieces that will serve as a base for the control rods. On one side, mount the elements for a quarter of the frame base length, and on the other side, mount two blanks for mounting the wheels. You’ll need two tubes 3 cm in diameter and 15 cm long.
- Install the uprights vertically. On the side where the bridges are located, at a distance of 5 mm from the edge of the frame, fix two 50 cm long plates. At a distance of 20 cm from them mount the posts with a length of 4 cm. Then at a distance of another 40 cm they put 30 cm long columns.
- The frame is made of a sheet of metal. It must be 40 cm by 40 cm and at least 3 mm thick. Then billets are fastened rigidly to the uprights from underneath. A second 70cm x 70cm, 4mm thick work piece is welded butt-welded to the first work piece, then shaped like a cone using a sledgehammer.
- The grid is made of metal bars with a diameter of 1 cm. At the bottom they are attached to the frame, and the other end extends beyond the perimeter of the frame. You’ll need 10 to 15 bars. For extra rigidity you should weld two bars across the structure.
- Wheels are installed in a pre-prepared place.
The fabrication work is not complicated. Of those that require special skills, you only need to know how to work with welding. Blueprints and dimensions of a screen homemade digger may vary depending on the model of a mini-tractor MTZ or power tiller. For the latter, you should make such a device, which will not interfere with the control. Do not forget about the weight. managing a bulky mechanism will be very tiring.
Pros and cons of the transporter models
Many people find it attractive the simplicity of the model and the possibility of operating two eccentrics at the same time. The VIKING 585 is a heavy duty cultivator, but its cylinder block is subjected to wear and tear and must be repaired or replaced. Transporter models are more reliable in this regard. They have special gearboxes, allowing them to optimize their work. The design makes it easy to change the belt speed depending on the ground conditions. Instead of silent blocks, they are equipped with bearings, which also increases the reliability of the equipment.
If we compare the efficiency, there is no fundamental difference between the models. Transporter model can excel by the fact that after it the harvest remains on the ground. And the screen ones leave the crop in a slightly mixed form with the ground.
Characteristics of screen models
Their well-known representatives: KKM-1, KKM-3, “Poltavchanka”, KM-1 for MTZ motoblock.
KVM-3 potato harvester
The design consists of an active ploughshare and a screen. The maneuvering area of the equipment must be at least 60-70 cm. in width. The lemming undercuts the layer of soil, where the grid is embedded. Due to the vibrating motion, the soil is sieved and the harvest is separated. The vibration force is strong enough to sift through large, clumpy chunks of soil. After sifting, the crop remains on the surface of the ground.
- wide soil coverage. no crop residue in the soil;
- well separates the soil from the potatoes;
- can be used to dig out other crops: garlic, beets, carrots, etc.д.;
- easy to use;
- economical fuel consumption;
- optimal for working on large areas.
Pros and cons of fan potato harvesters
Fan models are a mechanism built like a shovel with the edges concave inward. Metal rods are welded to the edges. Digging is done with sharp ends. Has the following disadvantages and advantages.
- easy to mount on a single-axle tractor;
- Compatible with power tillers with a minimum engine power. For example, this is the Neva MB;
- reliable design;
- high productivity;
- simple design allows for customization in any region;
- affordable price.
- Fan models can work with a small piece of soil. It is usually up to 20 cm. in width and up to 15 cm. to depth;
- often damages potatoes;
- about 15% of the crop remains under the ground;
- single axle tractor with fan potato digger consumes a lot of fuel;
- the crop must be harvested by hand;
- is only able to work with light, loose soil.
Vibratory potato digger KKM-1 for power tiller
Potato digger KKM-1 for power tiller. designed for mechanized digging of potato tubers out of the ground, laying them on the surface for further manual collection. over, the machine can be used for harvesting onions, beets, garlic. This machine consists of an active ploughshare (knife) and a sieve (screen). possible to regulate.
(A potato digger for a mini-tractor or heavy power tiller SKOUT is an active attachment for thoroughly digging out potato tubers. Potato digger uses the rear belt power take-off shaft, making the progressive-rotational motion of the screen in relation to the undercutting blade. The single-row potato digger.
How it works?
A special formwork for a power tiller, designed for potato harvesting, can be bought ready-made in the store, but many craftsmen prefer to make it with their own hands. This device is referred to as an attachment, which is mounted directly on the machine with a special coupling. The design lifts the layer of soil and digs up the root crops, which can then be collected manually from the ground surface. Compared to digging potatoes by hand, this method saves quite a lot of time. The average productivity of diggers is 0,1-0,02 hectares per hour, this parameter is several times higher than the one for manual harvesting.
The potato digger can also be used for all other root crops like carrots, as well as beets, turnips, radishes and onions. Nevertheless, before you buy such a necessary mechanism, try to make sure that you will be able to hook it on your power tiller or cultivator. Be sure to take into account the power characteristics of this power tiller, as well as the peculiarities of the soil in which crops are grown.
Keep in mind that a digger is pretty expensive, so when choosing a model, you should take into account all of these parameters, otherwise you risk wasting your money.
Depending on design features, there are drum type shovels, fan type, rotary, mechanisms with cardan drive, with universal joint shaft, and gearbox type.
According to the principle of operation, there are three types of potato diggers:
Rumble or vibratory
The digger of vibrating type is considered the most effective in comparison with all other types of equipment. It is made up of a special sieve as well as a drive and ploughshare. The working principle is quite simple: one of the main elements of the potato digger, the potato blade, goes deep into the ground and together with the potatoes picks up the upper layers of soil, which are then deposited on the table grid. Then, under the influence of light vibration the superfluous earth begins to flake off and “flow” through the slots back into the ground, and the roots themselves already clean fall out the back side of the machine.
This system allows up to 98% of all tubers to be removed from the ground. Mower blades go into the ground to a depth of 21-25 cm and capture a layer of soil 35-40 cm wide, thanks to such a mechanism can be processed quite a large area of crops at once. Even with heavy soils, after digging, absolutely all tubers remain on the ground, so the farmer doesn’t have to dig deep into the clods to find the rest.
With the vibrating potato puller, practically all tubers are dug up, but in one piece.
However, this scheme has its disadvantages. The cost of such shovel is very high, and besides, it is unprofitable to use it on small plots, as the expense of its purchase and fuel consumption is simply not repaid. Also, vibration is often transmitted from the mower to the single-axle tractor, and from there to the operator, which can cause a certain discomfort to the operator.
Simple or lancet
The simplest variant of the potato digger is universal lancet. It is a mechanism that visually resembles a shovel, to which the bars are attached. Due to the pointed edge of the device, it digs up the soil in between the rows, and the potatoes fall on the teeth of the device. Afterwards all residual soil is crumbled, and potatoes are thrown on the surface of the sown area.
Such a scheme has many advantages:
- the device is universal, that is why it can be mounted on the most different modifications of power tillers;
- the digger can even be used with small power tillers
- in the modern market there are several varieties of universal devices, which allows the farmer to choose the best option based on the structure and moisture of the soil, as well as the depth of potatoes;
- increased speed and productivity of the unit, having connected such a digger to a power tiller, it can even be included in the second or third gear;
- Universal modification is relatively inexpensive and therefore available to the majority of Russian dacha owners and garden owners.
The universal model also has its disadvantages:
- the digger is deepened into the ground by no more than 15 cm, and its width does not exceed 20 cm;
- after harvesting, at least 15-20% of all potatoes remain in the ground;
- sharp edges of the shovel often cut the tubers during their digging, however, with the manual method of assembly this indicator is much higher;
- crops can only be harvested in rows. the previous row must be dug up before digging.
Vibratory potato harrow for tillers (under PTO 18mm key and 14mm key ) Forza, Brait, Agrostar, Weima WM1100) and others
PAYMENT UPON RECEIPT POSSIBLE!Vibratory potato shovel (Under PTO 18mm key and 14mm key )
|Track width of support wheels (mm)||600|
|Power output (ha / h)||0,05. 0,2|
|Digging depth (mm)||200|
|Driven by engine of power tiller||PTO|
How the tiller works
The implement is adjusted at the beginning of the furrow. Set in parallel to one of them. The spray head sinks into the soil. Plough digs into soil and loosens it during travel. The bars sift the ground and release the root crops.
Adjustment of the head position depends on the type of soil and the power of your power tiller. For example, if you want to set the maximum depth of cultivation, and a power tiller has low power, then you are unlikely to be pleased with the result. a power tiller simply will not hold such a load.
Horse-drawn potato digger
There are still quite a few of them for sale on the Internet. They are imported mainly from Poland and converted to minitractors and tillers.
Besides, taking into account the high speed of such machines compared to the horse, besides the modification of the trailed device, they put a stopper-shield on its side, on which the dug potatoes are thrown. Otherwise it will have to be collected on the neighboring plots. The potatoes are lifted by the wedge-shaped tine just like in fan diggers, but the pulling unit, which pulls the tubers out of the ground, is driven by the grouser wheels. The higher the travel speed, the faster this potato ejector rotates.
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