Sawing with a disc saw at an angle. Methods of cutting metal products at an angle
How to handle board on a circular
For joiners, the board and timber are the most common blanks, of which in the future the production of crafts and wood products is carried out. And the first thing the material is subjected to is the sawing on the segments of the required length. At the same time, you should know how to spill the board evenly, because the incorrect performing this operation can ruin the workpiece or significantly affect the appearance, and not for the better. For joiners, the board and timber are the most common blanks, of which in the future the production of crafts and wood products is carried out. And the first thing the material is subjected to is the sawing on the segments of the required length. At the same time, you should know how to spill the board evenly, because the incorrect performing this operation can ruin the workpiece or significantly affect the appearance, and not for the better.
In large enterprises, the problem of how to flatten a beam or a board smoothly does not arise. Any serious production has high.precision equipment that performs this type of work. At home, you have to do what is at hand. At the same time, the tool or equipment still needs to be able to correctly use to saw off the board correctly, and the cut turned out without flaws.
Note that many enterprises selling boards and timber provide services for their cutting. And for this they use all the same specialized equipment, so the purchased material will be cut qualitatively. But to use such a service is not always possible, and it often happens that you need to cut only one blank.
How to handle a hand circular saw-xl-info.Ru
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Circular saw. high performance and ease of work
Circular saw is the best option for performing work. It has excellent performance and allows you to cut a considerable number of blanks in a relatively short time, and with high quality. In addition, such a saw allows you to perform a longitudinal cut of the material, but you need to know how to cut the board along exactly.
One of the most important criteria when choosing a circular is the maximum cut depth. There are devices on the market that saw materials with a thickness of 30 to 130 mm. That is, you can choose a machine for cutting only thin boards, and for sawing bars.
It is also worth paying attention to the cutting tool itself. Disks with a large number of teeth will provide a neat high.quality cut, the speed of cutting will be low. But the wheels with a small number of teeth will provide high performance of work, but the quality of the cut will be worse.
Now about how to cut evenly a circular saw. One of the conditions of high.quality work is a reliable fixation of the workpiece. If the material is weak, then with the cut, the board can “go”, and the cut will be uneven.
If the circular saw is manual, then all the work should be done on a workbench equipped with stops and guides for blanks. Such a device can be made independently, taking as a basis any table.
Before the cutting, it is important to correctly establish the depth of the saw. Some hand saws have an adjustable side guide, with which you can perform a longitudinal sawing of the material. If there is no such device, then use the same workbench.
convenient in terms of work is a table circular, which is already equipped with everything necessary. guides, fixators. Often such equipment allows you to make a cut of workpieces at an angle.
In the process of sawing, it is important not to exceed the effort on the tool, otherwise the cut quality will be low, the increased load on the saw will lead to a rapid blunt of the cutting disk.
Do not forget about safety measures when using such equipment. Work should only be performed after checking the health of the saw and the correctness of fixing the workpiece. Also, do not neglect protective means. masks, glasses.
How the device for the dissolution of the thick board should look like
In order to simplify the dissolution of thick boards, it is necessary to assemble the simplest product from a laminated wood-bearing plate. To make the home master understand how it looks, let’s try to describe it. If you look at the end of the device, it will be similar to the English “h”, where the distance between the lower legs should be equal to the width of the limit of the circular saw. It is on it that the device will be fixed.
The length of this device can be different, but it is best if it is equal to the mill of the circular saw. Well, on the step.by.step manufacture of this device, we will not stop. It is too simple to spend the time of a respected reader on this time.
The device is attached to the limit of the circular saw
What is the difference between the end saw and the circular?
This question often arises in those who think about the acquisition of a saw power tool. You should start with the fact that the endings are a subspecies of circular saws. The family of circulars is customary to divide into three groups: stationary (desktop) models, disk manual and, directly, end end.
At the saw tables, endings win, first of all, in matters of compact and mobility: the average weight of the end saw is about 16 kg, while its stationary analogue can reach this indicator to 100 or more kg. The second objective advantage is the safety of work. In general, on the saw table you can perform all the same sawing operations as with the end, but this turns out many times slower. in matters of convenience and speed of the trim, far ahead.
The main drawback of end saws is work with billets of limited width. Well, for obvious reasons, they are not suitable for the longitudinal sawing of wood. A stationary circular or manual disk saw is still indispensable here. At the same time, some trapping manufacturers decided not to give up, and tried to solve this problem by creating combined models that combine the capabilities of ending and sawing machine.
Of course, due to the limited size of the upper cover, such a hybrid is not able to fully replace the sawing table. Nevertheless, such equipment has established itself well in the household and home carpentry.
Does the farm need a end of the farm at all?
Summing up the introductory part of our conversation, let’s try to answer the most lively question: when it is generally advisable to buy this tool?
It is definitely worth it: when the carpentry is your active hobby and even more so business; When your work is associated with sawing a large number of chase products. laminate, lines, skirting boards, etc.D.; If you are engaged in the manufacture of baguette frames.
It will not be superfluous: in a private economy, if a permanent construction is your meaning of life, and you like to work with your hands.
There is no much sense: if the need for sawing occurs very rarely. In this case, it is more appropriate to purchase a manual disk saw for home and the most “folk” version of the power tool. And in order to ever install a cornice, skirting board or a platband will be enough for you simple.
Mechanical knock of a swivel type
To increase the accuracy of the saw, a rotary knock is used. It is used for processing blanks made of wood or plastic medium and small thickness. In the work, you can operate a hacksaw from 290-600 mm with a turn of 15-135 degrees. There are also models with the possibility of turning up to 180 degrees. Structurally, the device consists of a metal bed.
Instead of the side wall, a swivel structure is equipped, which involves fastening the canvas for the sawing in the guides of the rotary unit. The knock was supplemented with a shoe or a ray saw. The base of the stir has a special clamp for fixing the workpiece.
Among the existing models you can choose Fit Profi and Champion 180, stupor. The advantage of the design is the high accuracy of the work, as well as the long move of the saw, as a result of which the sawing speed increases. The cut depth will be higher, there is the possibility of processing parts of different lengths and thicknesses.
Device with wooden or plastic guides, in which magnets are built. Due to their presence, the canvas is attracted and fixed in the slots.
This is a compact device that provides the cut at a given angle with a minimum step. Compared to rotary structures, performance and quality of work is still lower.
The tools used
There are several ways to cut the pipe, for this they use a construction and industrial tool for processing metal. Of all types, only angular grinding grinding allows you to get curved surfaces without further processing with the closest location of the edges.
For individual use
The following tool is used to cut steel pipes in the household:
Hand pipelines. Allow you to cut round parts with the receipt of a flat right angle of cut due to the cutting edges of the rollers. There are several varieties of products of this type, consisting of single rollers or their series, fixed on the chain. In everyday life, such devices are quite rare and more suitable for professional work.
Corner grinder. It is a universal tool for cutting any metal parts with different angles, special metal disks are used for work, which during operation are quickly growing up. Thanks to this, you can definitely cut a curve fishing line for a trimmer for a small diameter disk.
Gas-burner. A quick and effective method of cutting metal surfaces with a hot flame with a stream of flame, the disadvantages include melted edges that complicate further welding. It is difficult to cut the product on a paper template with a gas burner, which will burn out, and if the fishing line is drawn for a trimmer, then in the flame stream it will practically not be visible.
Electric pipelines. To work with small diameters pipelines, compact electrical pipelines can be used, which, according to the principle of operation, resemble an angular grinder. The device is called the roller machine, during operation the part is installed on the bed and rotated on the roller guides, on top of its surface is cut out by an electric device. The main difference between the pipeline is in a metal disk, which has a special durable spraying for cutting metal.
For industrial use
In industry for transporting liquids and gases, large diameter pipelines are used, so units for cutting pipes have a large weight and overall dimensions. There are also manual pipelines of the rotary and clamp principle of action. In the first case, the cutting rollers are rotated on a round surface using a rearranged handle, in the second version, cutting is carried out with arched plates, which are gradually shifted during rotation.
So that the process is quickly and simple, use a tool like a muffle. This is a template that has a P-shaped look. There are slots in its side walls in its side walls. They have a different angle of inclination.
There is another technique that allows you to smoothly glue the skirting board of the ceiling. It is possible to cut corners without. But still the use of such a tool greatly facilitates the work.
First you need to mark the plinth. If you need to create an external angle, the length is measured on the ceiling, the internal. along the wall. For fillets, a line of 45 and 90 degrees is used. Since these are a fairly small number of options for slots, it is quite possible to make a template yourself. This will require only a sheet of paper or cardboard.
Cutting under 90 degrees
In order to cut through a round pipeline or a rectangular metal pipeline across exactly, a sheet of ordinary paper is used. They are wrapped in the workpiece so that the edges of the paper sheet coincide, after which it is fixed on the parts with tape or glue. A corner grinder is drawn next to the edge of a paper sheet thin fishing line for a trimmer, after which it is gradually deepened to completely cut out.
In order to get branches of metal pipeline lines in the form of tees, a collar insert is used, for which it is necessary to cut the edge of a round pipe adjacent to the walls at a right angle. To implement the method, they come as follows:
- Cut the edges of the workpiece at right angles in the previously given way.
- On a round end surface by a marker, four equivalent points are noted, located at angles of 90 and 180 degrees to each other.
- Measure the size of the circle, the resulting diameter is divided into 3. The resulting distance is laid from two diametrically located points, after which these points are connected to two other smooth arcs, drawing a fishing line for a trimmer with a marker.
According to the markup, a cutter is carried out and semicircular segments are separated, after which the part is ready for welding. With small inaccuracies in the conjugation, it can be compacted with sledgehammer, putting on a round surface of another element.
Composition and features of the material
To understand how to correctly cut off the baseboard, you should deal with its composition. This will help to choose the right tool and cutting technology.
- Styrofoam. The price and strength of this material is the lowest. But since we create a decorative decoration of the ceiling, the strength is not particularly required.
- Ceiling plinth of polystyrene polystyrene. than ordinary foam. The most ordinary knife is used to cut such a material.
Tip: imprison the knife well before use. This will relieve the presence of torn edges in the site.
Wood. Here you have to make more efforts to process. For wood, use only a hacksaw.
Sharpening of the saw
Wood on wood is the most important tool in the hands of a specialist who should work properly and reliably, especially if the saw is properly sharpened. However, buying this product, the consumer is not always satisfied with its acuteness.
Saws for working with wood are often on sale stupid.
This applies to a greater extent large.toothed tools. Therefore, the issue of sharpening remains relevant for those who want to achieve efficient operation of the saw.
Drawing of teeth and cutting saw
Divorce of saw. deviation of the cutting edge of the teeth to the outside of the canvas.
This is done in order to prevent jamming of the canvas in the material. The wiring is made with a special device in different directions through one tooth alternately. The uniformity of wiring of teeth during operation by a saw changes and requires amendment.
When wiring, only the top of the tooth is bent, which is about 1/3 of its total height. see.
Spindle drive power factors
For example, a saw with a diameter of 550 mm of different manufacturers. saws 550 x 4.8/3.4, Z = 24 2 2 2, production of AKE, and saws 550 x 5.5/3.5, Z = 186, production of GASS. Consider the degree of influence of the number of teeth, the width of the drink, the aggregate state of wood of different species, the degree of blunting of the cutting edges of the teeth drank on the consumed power of the drive of the cutting mechanism and, as a result, on the actually achievable productivity of the equipment. As an initial lumber, we will take the pillar of three breeds: pine trees, larch and oak with a moisture content of 45–75% with an aggregate state of wood (melt and ice cream) and the influence of the degree of dullness of the saw blade (acute. dumb). Conditionally, we saw the blanks for glued window beams with a cross section of 30 x 100 mm (taking into account the academician), the core of the log on a beam with a cross section of 100 x 100 mm (excluding the academic); To increase the volumetric exit from the non.inferior part of the log, sawing a rail with a cross section of 30 x 50 mm, for example, for the production of skirting boards. For calculations, we take the speed of rotation of round saws installed one on the shaft of the asynchronous engine, 2940 about./min. To determine the maximum value of the installed electric motor of one of the saw spindles, we will carry out the calculations for the worst sawing conditions.
Knowing that for the sawing process with a good quality of sawing the surfaces of lumber of the lumber to the tooth (UZ) should be at least 0.3 mm, the average. 0.6 mm, the maximum. 1.0 mm, we can calculate the speed of saws for saws with 18 and 24 teeth according to the formula
Angle Iron Miter Cuts on a Metal Chop Saw
where: uz. feed on the tooth, mm, z. The number of teeth on the saw, pcs., n is the frequency of rotation of the saw in the propyle, about./min.
All calculations are made one spindle (according to the second similarly) and reduced to the table. one.
Table 1. The calculated values of the supply speed depending on the permissible supply to the tooth and the number of teeth on the saw with longitudinal sawing
Analyzing the data presented in the table. 1, we can conclude: with the same supply to the tooth and the same quality (roughness) of the resulting surface, it is advisable to use saws with 24 teeth, t. to. The feed rate can be higher than when using a saw with 18 teeth, and the productivity of a machine equipped with a saw with so many teeth is higher than a machine with a saw that has 18 teeth.
The power of the saw spindle drive is calculated by the formula, kW:
where αPopr is a correction factor for longitudinal sawing with round saws; Kt is the tabular value of the specific cutting force, J/cm 3; B. sawing width, mm; H. the height of the drink, m; I. the number of saws on the spindle, pcs.; U. feed speed, m/min.
The correction factor for longitudinal sawing with round saws is calculated by the formula
where αP is the correction coefficient on the rock (pine. 1.0; larch. 1.1; oak. 1.55); αW. correction coefficient for wood humidity, for raw wood (W = 45–75%). 1.0; αp. the correction coefficient for the blower of the tooth blades in the process of saw (0 h. 1.0, 3 hours. 1.8, 6 hours. 2.8); ασ is the correction coefficient by the cutting angle (for example, at σ = 75 ° α σ = 1.55, and at σ = 65 ° ασ = 1.16); αV. correction coefficient for cutting speed, which is 1.18 with VCR calculated by the formula, m/s:
where π = 3.14; D is the diameter of the saw, mm; n is the speed of rotation of the saw, about./m; VSR = 3.14 × 550 × 2940)/(60 × 1000) = 84.6 m/s; AH. correction coefficient taking into account the height of the cut, mm, with h = 100 mm AH = 1.2; αT. a correction coefficient for the aggregate state of wood (meltwood at plus ambient temperatures. 1.0, frozen. 2.0).
So, for meltwood of pine wood αPopr = 1.0 x 1.0 x 1.0 x 1.16 x 1.18 x 1.2 x 1.0 = 1.6; for frozen αPopr = 1.0 x 1.0 x 1.0 x 1.16 x 1.18 x 1.2 x 2.0 = 3.2;
for meltwood of larch wood αPopr = 1.1 x 1.0 x 1.0 x 1.16 x 1.18 x 1.2 x 1.0 = 1.8, for frozen αPopr = 1.1 x 1.0 x 1.0 x 1.16 x 1.18 x 1.2 x 2.0 = 3.6;
For meltwood of oak wood α.prus = 1.55 x 1.0 x 1.0 x 1.16 x 1.18 x 1.2 x 1.0 = 2.5, for frozen αPopr = 1.55 x 1.0 x 1.0 x 1.16 x 1.18 x 1.2 x 2.0 = 5.0.
B. the width of the cut, mm, is determined by the formula
where s is the thickness of the saw of the saw, mm, 2s¹. borrowing teeth to the side, mm.
For a saw of production ACE 550 x 4.8/3.4, z = 24 2 2 2: b = 3.4 2 x 0.7 = 4.8 mm.
For the production of GASS 550 x 5.5/3.5, Z = 24 6: B = 3.5 2 x 1.0 = 5.5 mm.
H. the height of the cut, mm, NCCC. = 0.1 m; I. the number of saws on the spindle, pcs., I = 1 pc.; U. feed speed, m/min., The calculation data are given in the table. one.
Calculations of the saw drive power for lumber of different breeds, aggregate state, the maximum permissible supply speed and width of the cut (for GASS saw) during cutting angle of 65 ° and sharp saws (αP = 0 h):
Nras. = 1.6 x 31.5 x 5.5 x 0.1 x 1 x 52.9/60 = 24.4 kW at UZ = 1.0 mm;
Nras. = 1.6 x 31.5 x 5.5 x 0.1 x 1 x 31.7/60 = 14.6 kW at UZ = 0.6 mm;
Best Metal Cutting Blade? “Dry Cut” vs “Abrasive” vs “Diamond” Blade. Diablo, DeWalt, Makita
Nras. = 1.6 x 31.5 x 5.5 x 0.1 x 1 x 15.0 / 60 = 6.9 kW at UZ = 0.3 mm;
Nras. = 3.2 x 31.5 x 5.5 x 0.1 x 1 x 52.9/60 = 48.8 kW at UZ = 1.0 mm;
Nras. = 3.2 x 31.5 x 5.5 x 0.1 x 1 x 31.7/60 = 29.2 kW at UZ = 0.6 mm;
Nras. = 3.2 x 31.5 x 5.5 x 0.1 x 1 x 15.0 / 60 = 13.8 kW at UZ = 0.3 mm.
We calculate the power of the saw drive when sawing lumber with a thin saw (with all other identical conditions) pine (see. table. one).
Nras. = 1.6 x 31.5 x 4.8 x 0.1 x 1 x 52.9/60 = 21.3 kW at UZ = 1.0 mm.
Thus, the use when sawing high.quality thin round saws can not only reduce the falls of wood into sawdust, but also increase the productivity of equipment with an increase in the calculated output of finished products by at least 3-5 %, as in the above.mentioned calculated example.
Conclusions and recommendations
- the effectiveness of angular disk sawing of trunk lumber is higher than sawing using tape-pile and frame equipment;
- The cost of the tool for corner disk sawmills is higher than the tool for tape saws with narrow saws, so you need to take into account the quality of incoming raw materials, however, the specific expenses of the tool during round.pile sawing in terms of 1 m 3 lumber below (conclusions from personal experience and knowledge of the cost of equipment);
- On corner machines, it is recommended to cut logs with a diameter of 360 mm or more, for logs of smaller diameter it is better to use equipment for a collapse or brush-divorce cutting method;
- For the most effective sawing and achieving high performance on angular machines, as manufacturers indicate, 8–10 m 3 to the change of wiped lumber, especially pine, with a cross section of 30 x 100 mm, it is necessary that the installed power has at least 22 kW and the saw spindles, and when sawing hardwood or ice cream wood. 40-50 kW;
- When cutting the pilot on the main thick and wide lumber, including materials with a cross section of 200 x 200 mm, the productivity of the machine to the shift due to limiting a large section cut from the log and a reduction in the total number of sawdust can be more than with cuts of lumber to the boards of a small section. To increase the productivity of the equipment, mandatory mechanization of loading and unloading on the machine will require, including automation of all processes on equipment;
- As for the maximum volumetric output of lumber, it, as a rule, does not exceed 70% (and not at all 95%, as individual equipment manufacturers promise). Indeed, in the general balance of sawing raw materials, when it cut it into lumber, 6–7% falls on the Lesser (t. to. Specified lumber with allowances for dryer should be sawed, and when exported and with plus allowances of 1-3 mm per side), 12%. sawdust, lump waste (rails, slopes). another 8-10%. It is easy to calculate.
The maximum output of radial lumber from the total volumetric output does not exceed 60%at all, and only with the cutting of the 1st and 2nd varieties of the pilot with a diameter of at least 36 cm. In other words, the output of conditioning radial lumber during sawing on corner machines should not exceed 42% in the total volume of lumber, including short.term (up to 0.8 m long);