Sodium and lithium can be cut with a knife. What paint apply on a metal bulkhead?

Lesson “alkaline metals” (grade 9)

Type of lesson: lesson of generalization and systematization of knowledge.

Type of lesson: lesson. show “Life of wonderful elements”.

Summarize and systematize the acquired knowledge about alkaline metals.

To develop communicative communication skills, to develop monologic speech, acting skills, the ability to work with additional literature.

Develop a sense of responsibility for yourself and others; a sense of mutual assistance and mutual support.

Learning tools: a supporting abstract in the form of a butterfly (prepared in advance on the board), signs: the names of scientists and the dates of the opening of alkaline metals, the signs of alkaline metals, the image of the structure of their atoms, the formulas of various compounds of alkaline metals, magnets, sodium metal, water, phenolftalein, glass. test tube, funnel, matches, lifting table.

Preparation for the lesson: for this lesson. show are very carefully prepared by ninth grade students, where it is conducted according to the thematic plan, and several eleventh grade students. Everyone is studying the main material, as well as additional literature, looking for interesting information on a given topic, write messages. Students of the 11th grade adjust these messages. All together write the script and conduct a small rehearsal.

On the door of the chemistry cabinet is attached with the name:

«Студия ХИМ Т V » Передача «Час на ХИМ Т V »

Students also come up with commercials. In this lesson, means of prevention and treatment of colds were advertised.

All students are divided into six groups: in each group there are five students. according to the number of alkaline metals (four students of the ninth grade and one student of the eleventh grade), two leading are selected.

Conducting a lesson: students of the ninth and eleventh grade are at the same time, and spectators and speakers. Each group performs according to plan for studying substances. The group performs, the rest listen to it, make the necessary records on the board and, accordingly, in workbooks, the next group is being prepared during advertising.

Presenter 1: Good afternoon everyone! We are in the studio chem T V. We begin the show “Life of wonderful elements”. Opens a board on which a banner “Life of wonderful elements” is attached in advance.

Presenter 2: Today we have alkaline metals visiting! Meet! The studio includes a group of students. alkaline metals.

Presenter 1: Opens the second banner “alkaline metals.

Our show is dedicated to the life of wonderful alkaline metals. We will talk about where these elements live, what they look like, with whom they are friends, what their character is, why are they needed, how to get them, where to apply them.

Leading : Hello, alkaline metals!

Acrylic painting : differences of plastic and metal palette knife

Presenter 1: I ask you, introduce yourself!

Металлы поочерёдно называют себя и пишут свои химические знаки на доске. Учащиеся – зрители пишут в тетрадях.

Spectators: Dear metals! Why are you called alkaline?

Someone from metals : We will answer you a little later and show you that we are really alkaline.

Spectators: when and who opened you? Who called you that?

Щелочные металлы поочерёдно рассказывают о себе; показывают таблички с именами учёных и датами открытия, прикрепляют их на доску.

sodium, lithium, knife, apply, metal

Litius: My name comes from Greek Lithos – stone. In 1817, I was opened by the Swedish scientist and. Avessonon.

Sodium: in 1807, the English scientist g. Davy opened me and my friend potassium. My name comes from Hebrew Neter – Squirrel.

Potassium: As Sodium said, we were opened together. And my name comes from Arabic Gili – Potash. There is also a version. from Arabic native is a soda, it was alert. this is a crack.

Rubidy: My name is Latin. Rubidius. means Dark red, And also rubidium. name from characteristic lines Spectra; I was opened by German scientists R. Bunzen and Mr. Kirchhof in 1860.

Cesius: My name for Latin Caesins means Heavenly. blue. Rubidia and I were opened together.

Presenter 2: Tell us about your city in which you live (advertising).

A group of students talks about the position of alkaline metals in the periodic system of chemical elements d. And. Mendeleev.

Sodium: we live, like all chemical elements, in the large metropolis “Periodic system of chemical elements d. And. Mendeleev “.

The street is called the main elemental, house

Litius: We all live in a house because we all have only one (“backup”) external electron.

Potassium: we live on different floors, t.to. we have different radius. And we live in different apartments because General The number of electrons we all have different. Each metal received an apartment according to the number all electrons. My apartment is 9, on the fourth floor.

Litius: I live on the second floor, in the apartment

Sodium: my apartment 1, on the third floor.

Rubidy: I ​​was given an apartment on the fifth floor, 7.

Cesius: I live in an apartment 5, on the sixth floor. Students tell and at the same time show signs depicting the electronic structure of atoms of elements, students. viewers make notes in notebooks.

Spectators: how can you use the external electron?

Someone from metals: thanks to this electron, we are friends with very many chemical elements. But this friendship is manifested in different ways. Here, for example, lithium. He can give his electron with great difficulty. And cesium is very easy to part with him. Ask why? According to the periodical law. The law says: “The higher the element lives, the easier it gives its (” backup “) external electrons”.

Spectators: Tell me, where you can meet you? (advertising). A group of students talk about the finding of alkaline metals in nature.

Someone from metals: in the surrounding world we are not free.

Lithium: We, together with Rubidia and Cezia, are considered rare and light elements. We are considered rare not because in nature our share is small, but because we do not form large deposits, and are sprayed through the earth’s crust. I can still add about myself that in the earth’s crust there is 10 times more than silver.

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Alkaline metal is located in period 4?

Potassium. Potassium (k). alkaline metal, located under sodium and above rubidia, is the first element of the period 4. This is one of the most reactive elements in the periodic table, therefore it is usually found only in the compounds. It is soft enough so that it can be cut with a knife, and this is the second least dense element.

Propure all the raw metallic surfaces with a primer Benjamin Moore Direct to Metal (DTM), quarters will usually be enough. Apply two layers of finish layers with light grinding between them, using high.quality Benjamin Moore finish for external work with soft or weak brilliance. Shine will allow you to clean it from time to time.

Is it possible to install a metal roof on a plywood?

Applying the lining layer and lining sheet. For most metal roofs, a lining sheet is also required. To fix it, measure it, roll it out by faner, cut to the size of the roof with a roof or stationery knife and, finally, reliably, take it to the faner with the help of roofing nails 1/2 inches.

sodium metallic response. (b) metals are usually solid. This means that most metals are not easy to cut. But the metal sodium is soft and easily cut with a knife.

Is it possible to install a metal roof on a plywood?

Applying the lining layer and lining sheet. For most metal roofs, a lining sheet is also required. To fix it, measure it, roll it out by faner, cut to the size of the roof with a roof or stationery knife and, finally, reliably, take it to the faner with the help of roofing nails 1/2 inches.

sodium metallic response. (b) metals are usually solid. This means that most metals are not easy to cut. But the metal sodium is soft and easily cut with a knife.

When handling lithium, precautions are required

The high activity of lithium makes it both fire hazardous and corrosion agent, similar acid. Pure lithium causes chemical burns when contacting with an unprotected hand. Which requires medical care in case of prolonged exposure.

Like sodium, lithium can also explode in contact with water. Which is not surprising, given that both of them are considered alkaline metals. And even if it does not explode, contact of lithium with water will lead to the formation of poisonous gases.

Even unclean lithium has its dangers, especially in the form of dust, which can damage the tissue of the nose and throat. Long.term exposure to lithium dust can also cause the accumulation of fluid in the lungs. What can lead to edema of the lungs with death.

Lithium is produced in different countries of the world

Argentina, Bolivia and Chile are the main suppliers of lithium. Due to the fact that they account for 75% of world lithium reserves. This gave three countries the nickname “Lithium Triangle”. However, the Congo in Africa has recently become their main competitor. Opening in 2017 rich lithium ores with low impurities.

The development of stocks has lasted over the years, and the first commercial export should begin in 2023. In addition to the previously mentioned countries, both China and the United States also have their own large domestic production of lithium.

Methods of production

However, the complexity increases depending on the raw materials. over, the brine is the simplest source for lithium cleaning. This is due to the fact that lithium already exists in the form of salt in the brine. The brine is just necessary to evaporate in the sun, after which the salt is sifted in their composition.

On the contrary, lithium ores should be checked. To separate lithium salt from silicates and other compounds in ores. After the extraction of lithium salt is completed, it is mixed with potassium salt and subjected to electrical processing. This process produces not only pure lithium, but also pure potassium and chloride.

Open development remains the most effective way to extract ore. But this is due to damage to the landscape. This deprives animals of the habitat, on which their survival depends. The need to pump out water so that it does not flood the mine. Also pollutes natural reservoirs with heavy metals, such as antimony, arsenic and magnesium.

Calcium compounds, also called lime, are the main by.product of lithium extraction. Depending on other ores and deposits in the mine, other by.products may include sulfuric acid and even uranium.

Chemical properties

Lithium belongs to the alkaline group of metals, but it stably behaves in the air and practically does not interact with oxygen, even with dry. Due to the unusual properties of lithium-unlike other alkaline metals-it is not stored in kerosene fluid. In addition, due to low density, he would stay afloat. It is worth storing lithium in paraffin, petrolay ether, gas line or mineral oil in hermetic tin packaging.

In wet air, lithium can enter into slow reactions with nitrogen and other gases, which are part of the air. In this case,: Li₃n, Lioh and Li₂co₃. nitride, hydroxide and carbonate, respectively.

Other chemical properties of lithium

When heated with oxygen, lithium burns with the formation of li₂o lithium oxide.

Lithium and its salt are stained with a flame in a karmin-red color.

Such a qualitative reaction to lithium was established by Leopold Gmelin in 1818.

At temperatures from 100 to 300 ° C, a dense oxide film forms on the surface of the lithium, which protects the metal from further oxidation. Litius easily reacts with halogen (except iodine).

Lithium reacts calmly with water: the reaction is not accompanied by a fire or explosion.

Lithium interacts with alcohols, forming alcohol.

When heated, reacts with gray, silicon, iodine, hydrogen with the formation of sulfide, silicide, iodide and lithium hydride.

The reaction is quite calm. If lithium. like all alkaline metals. lower into the water, alkali will begin to form and hydrogen, and the metal will swim on the surface and literally melt before our eyes. The reaction of lithium dissolution in water is accompanied by a characteristic hiss.

Alkali formed in the solution. Lioh lithium hydroxide. It is a white crystals and is a rather strong basis:

Lithium reaction and sulfuric acid

If you add a small lithium plate to concentrated sulfuric acid, you will get lithium sulfate, hydrogen sulfide and water.

sodium, lithium, knife, apply, metal

Attention! Do not try to repeat this experience yourself! Here you will find safe experiments that can be carried out at home.

The reaction itself is dangerous, especially at home, since lithium instantly lights up with a bright flame:

With diluted sulfuric acid, lithium interacts with the formation of lithium and hydrogen sulfate.

Lithium reaction with nitric acid

If you lower a piece of lithium into diluted nitrogen acid, lithium nitrate, ammonium nitrate and water are formed: water:

With concentrated nitric acid, lithium reacts differently. Reaction products will be lithium nitrate, water and nitrogen dioxide:

Reaction with hydrochloric acid

sodium, lithium, knife, apply, metal

With hydrochloric acid, lithium reacts like other metals. lithium chloride is formed and hydrogen is released:

It is worth noting that the reaction of lithium and other alkaline metals with acids is ambiguous, since the solutions of acids contain water with which lithium actively interacts with the formation of lithium hydroxide, which reacts with acids with the formation of salt and water.

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To this discount, we can add a discount of your educational institution (it depends on how many your colleagues have passed the “Infoor” courses)

At the moment, additional accumulative discounts (from 2% to 25%) are provided 53.349 educational institutions. To find out which discount is valid for all employees of your educational institution, enter your personal account “Infourok”.

What is lithium?

Lithium is an alkaline metal with an atomic number 3 and a chemical symbol of LI. According to the theory of the Big Bang on the creation of the Earth, lithium, together with hydrogen and helium, are the main chemical elements produced at the very early stages of the creation of the world. The atomic weight of this element is 6.941, and the electronic configuration [he] 2s 1. In addition, it belongs to the block S, since it is included in group 1 of the periodical table, and the melting and boiling points of this element are 180.5 ° C and 1330 ° C, respectively. It has a silver-white color, and if you burn this metal, it gives a raspberry flame.

Metal lithium in water

This metal is very light and soft, it can even be cut with a knife. In addition, he can swim on water, which leads to an explosive chemical reaction. This metal has some unique properties that other alkaline metals do not have. For example, this is the only alkaline metal that can react with gaseous nitrogen, and with this reaction it forms lithium nitride. This is the lightest element among other elements of this group. over, it has the smallest density among solid metals.

What other alkaline metals are there?

Alkaline metals are chemical elements in group 1 of the periodic system of elements, with the exception of hydrogen. Thus, the members of this group, which fall into this category, are lithium, sodium, potassium, Rubidia, Cesium and France. The reason that we call them alkaline metals is that they form alkalis when dissolved in water, also called soluble hydroxides.

Periodic table of chemical elements (alkaline metals in blue)

Considering their electronic configuration, they have their external electron in orbitals; Therefore, they are in the block S of the periodical table. The most stable charged look that they form is a one.to.line cation.

Soft metal in the world

One of the most interesting chemical elements is mercury. This metal is constantly in a liquid aggregate state, therefore it is considered the most soft metal in the world. Why is the mercury liquid and other interesting facts about mercury read here.

Mercury is quite widely used in more than 1000 areas. for example, in devices, agriculture, mining, chemical industry, etc.

If we talk about metals, which are characteristic of which are constantly in a solid state, then here the three leaders are held by potassium, rubidium and cesium.

Cesium

In fact, this metal is so soft that it can be cut with an oil knife. In addition, cesium melts at a relatively low temperature of –28.4 degrees Celsius (83.12 degrees Fahrenheit).

This means that he will go into a liquid state, as soon as he finds himself in the hand of a person, since the temperature of the hand of a healthy individual is 36.6 degrees.

It is important to know that it is impossible to touch this metal with unprotected skin, since it is radioactive, and can seriously burn the skin, so you need to treat it with great care.

Opened by the German chemist Robert Bunzen in 1860, Cesius has atomic number 55. The name of the element comes from the Latin word “cesium”, which means heavenly. blue. However, this does not reflect the color of the metal, which in its pure form is pale golden.

Carbonate cesium

Gold, silver and copper, aluminum and other bent metals are also considered relatively soft, although much harder cesium.

General characteristics of cesium:

This element is used as a catalyst in chemical reactions. Since it is easily ionized by light, metal cesium is used in photocells and infrared detectors.

Cesia compounds are also used in specialized alkaline batteries designed to work at a minus temperature. Carbonate cesium is used in the production of special glass and glass wards.

The most accurate clock in the world is “atomic clock”, they measure time based on a very accurate vibration of electrons in the outer shell of the cesium atom. This watch is only 5 seconds every 300 years old!

Cesius-137 is radioactive, and can be used for radiation therapy for the treatment of certain types of cancer and sterilization of medications.

Space travel engineers found that cesium burning in space is becoming a very effective type of fuel. It has been established that it is 140 times more effective than any other fuel.

Only a few thousand kilograms of cesium are used annually. A number of minerals contain a significant amount of cesium, including mica, beryl, field spat, royalty and floor, from which it is usually mined.

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