Tools and equipment for installation work

.6. Mounting accessories and tools

The process of setting structures in the designed position regardless of mounting methods and techniques consists of slinging (gripping), lifting into the designed position, temporary fixation in the designed position, unslinging (slings removing), making the designed joint, returning the loading hook into the initial position. This set of interrelated operations for positioning a component to be assembled in its designed position is called an assembly cycle. To perform each of these operations, there are tools and appliances. These can be universal tools and devices applied for any structures that are installed using any methods and techniques as well as specialized tools and devices that are used only for certain structures.

Lifting tackle are critical rigging elements designed to attach the lifting object securely to the hook of the crane in a fixed position, and to allow the maneuvering intended by the technology without great physical effort. A distinction is made between flexible lifting devices (straps) and those with rigid elements (lifting beams). Both light and universal slings were described in the Handling section. For assembly work, you must also add balancing (or balancing) slings of various designs (Fig. 8.12а).

When the lifted elements cannot absorb the horizontal compressive forces of installation, it is necessary to reduce the angle of the sling branches by increasing the length of the suspension. It is not always possible because of limited lifting height of assembly crane hook and it is always inconvenient. In these cases beam, lattice and spatial beams are used (Fig. 9.12 b, c, d).

Both flexible and rigid slinging accessories must be equipped with grips, i.e. devices which are used to attach the ends of the sling to the component or structure to be assembled. The most common are loop grips, attached to the product with a steel mounting loop. These include hooks and carabiners fitted with locks to prevent spontaneous unhooking (Fig. 8.13).

a. balancing slings; cross beams; b. beam; c. lattice; d. universal; 1. beam, 2. truss, 3. block, 4. slings

b. carabiner with safety tube. 1. safety bar, 2. wire hanger, 3. hook, 4. hinge of assembled structure; 5. safety tube; 7. hinge of the mounted structure

Hingeless clamps are attached to the constructions without assembly loops, which saves a lot of metal. Hingeless grips (Fig. 8.14) are subdivided into supporting, which are connected by means of supporting parts (pins, fingers, slats inserted into the holes provided in the mounted structures); frictional (compressive and spacer), which hold the structure by friction forces; vacuum, which hold the element or structure by means of vacuum chambers. When mounting steel structures electromagnetic clamps are used.

a. cantilever, b. pincer, c. friction

With clamps can be local or distant de-stripping; the latter releases the installer from non-productive transitions and lifts for de-stripping. Clamps may be equipped with manual or mechanical (electromechanical, electromagnetic, pneumatic) drive.

For temporary fixation and alignment of parts, wedges, spreaders, conductors and clamps are used. Using chocks and spreaders small (up to 2 tons and up to 4 meters high) columns can be erected. The wedges are made of hardwood (oak, beech), concrete and steel. They are used for mounting reinforced concrete structures. Metal structures are assembled with the help of metal wedges. The use of wooden wedges when installing reinforced concrete structures makes it difficult to remove them after the joints. Only concrete and metal wedges can be left in the joints, but this is not profitable. In such cases it is better to use wedge inserts that can be easily removed and can be used when installing columns if the joints have different sizes. On each face of the columns at its width up to 400 mm one dowel is installed; if the width of the column is larger, two dowels are installed. When the concrete joint has reached 70 % of its design strength, remove the dowels. The use of inserts instead of wedges reduces the time needed for crane operations by about 15%.

To align and temporarily fix columns in sockets, conductors of various designs are used. There are conductors for mounting columns into the foundation sockets and on the underlying column. Single conductors (Fig. 8.15) are designed for simultaneous installation of one column, grouped. for simultaneous installation of several columns. In any case, the conductor consists of a device to fix the conductor to the foundation, underlying column or slab (clamps, clamps, rods), a device for temporary fixation of the column being mounted (usually split clamps), a device for moving the column along the building axes and decks (stationary or folding) to accommodate installers and welders, connected if necessary by ladders. if the conductors are tiered.

working platform with a railing, 2. mounted column,

device for temporary fastening of the column being assembled,

device for securing the conductor to the previously installed column,

device for displacement of the column in relation to horizontal axes

Conductors (Fig. 8.16. girder and truss mounting is a metal clamp fixed by bolts on the column consoles. After the girder or truss has been mounted on the bracket, it can be shifted if necessary by rotating the conductor bolts.

Clamps for mounting wall panels of large-panel buildings mounted on a metal pipe (rod-holder) on one or both ends. If the clamp is fixed to one end of the bar, such a device is called a clamp with a push-pull prop. The clamp is fixed to the installed panel and the other end of the push-pull prop is fixed to the slab. The push-pull prop is equipped with a coupling, by turning which you can change the length of the rod-holder and thereby move the top of the panel, setting it vertically. Wall and partition panels installed in parallel with each other are secured with clamps on both ends of the bar-holding bar. In this case, the verticality of the installation is checked using a plumb bail (Fig. 8.17).

Column, 2. Girder, 3. Clamping clamp, 4. Bolts for moving the mounted girder

In the process of placing a structure in its designed position, many devices are used to ensure safe work practices and facilitate access for the installers to the grips of the slinging and pulling devices, as well as to the joints:

Assembly tables. rolling and collapsible.

Ladders. step-ladders, lean-to and hinged ladders.

Cradles. suspended and on derricks.

The next operation of the assembly cycle. the design joint and the protection of its parts from corrosion. Different fixtures are used. If the joints are concreted and the volume of concrete is large enough, for the supply of concrete and mortar known from the technology of concrete works using mortar and concrete pumps, air blowers, tipping buckets, mortar boxes. When welding embedded parts and reinforcement of reinforced concrete structures. portable welding transformers with the welding current of 500-1000 a. When welding reinforcement spigots with diameter over 20 mm. semi-automatic bath welding under a layer of flux at direct current (Fig. 8.18).

graphite mold with a clamp; 4. clay wrap

To ensure the reliability of field joints it is necessary to protect the metal parts of joints from corrosion. If there are cracks in the concrete of the joint, corrosion of the metal is more intense than in the open air. In addition, the corrosion products of the metal have a greater volume than the metal itself, which creates additional stresses, destroying concrete. Protect the metal joints from corrosion mainly by applying protective insulating coatings. paints, varnishes, metallization. The last method is the most preferable. The best material for plating is zinc. For zinc coating under construction site conditions, gas-flame units are used. They consist of a gas cylinder, a compressor, a tank with zinc powder and a spray gun, in the flame of which zinc powder is fed due to ejection. The powder is melted and sprayed in its molten form onto the surface to be protected.

When sealing the joints between the outside panels of large-panel buildings or between the hinged panels of industrial buildings, you perform sealing, eliminating penetration into the room of air and moisture. Since joints are periodically subjected to alternating deformations as a result of temperature influences, sealing should be performed with elastic elastic materials. For these purposes, use poroizol waterproofing, Vilaterm SM (made by extrusion based on high-pressure polyethylene foamed with physical gas forming agents, available in the form of profiles of circular solid section density 35 kg/cubic. m) and various mastics: isol, polyisobutylene UM-40 and UMS.50, thiokol U-30M.

All above mentioned equipment facilitating access to the joint, a special roller for pressing the tourniquet of foam rubber or woolen wool in the joint, a pneumatic syringe with a compressor for putting mastic compound in the joint gaps while gluing the foam rubber or on the outer surface of the expanded joint, thermostats to heat up and maintain a positive temperature of mastic casings in winter conditions, tools necessary for performing this operation.

Chapter 2. MECHANISMS, DEVICES AND TOOLS FOR MOUNTING AND ASSEMBLING WORKS

Organization of work of installation brigades is improved through the complex providing them with necessary tools and devices directly at the workplace by special mobile posts. The post is a metal structure designed for storage of various kinds of tools, devices, technical documentation, medical kit and other items necessary for the production process, as well as for a short-term rest of the team members and their warming in low air temperature. Outside the post there is a storage box for gas cutting and welding hoses.

The technical level of installation work and the labor productivity of installers is improved due to the widespread introduction into practice of means of small mechanization. tools and fixtures.

Manual machines play an important role in the complex of minor mechanization tools. Depending on the type of energy supplied to the motor, hand-held machines used for installation of technological equipment are divided into three groups: electrified, pneumatic, etc и hydraulic.

According to the nature of movement of the main working organ (spindle) handheld machines, regardless of the type of energy consumption can be divided into four groups: with rotational and circular movement of the working organ (drilling and grinding machines, nutrunners, circular and chain saws); percussive-rotational action (some types of nutrunners); with a return movement of the main working organ, which in turn are divided into tools percussive action (hammers), tools with a reciprocating movement (scissors, files) and tools with pressing.

Depending on the type of hand-held tool, productivity increases on average by a factor of 5 compared to a non-powered tool.

The following requirements are imposed on hand-held machines intended for installation work: minimum weight and sufficient power, reliability in work, safety, convenience and versatility (quick change of attachments and working tools).

When assembling technological equipment pneumatic and electrified manual machines are used most often. When choosing a tool in some cases, for example when working in explosive areas, preference should be given to pneumatic tools. Distinctive features of pneumatic tools in comparison with machines with electric drive are the following: 2-3 times less weight per unit of power, smaller size, which significantly improves operating conditions, creates less fatigue of the worker and contributes to increased productivity; can work for a long time without interruption, withstand considerable overloads. Disadvantage of pneumatic drive is low efficiency (0,15-0,25); operational costs are 7-8 times higher.

Chapter 3. MECHANISMS, TOOLS AND ACCESSORIES FOR MOUNTING WORKS

Various machines and mechanisms are used for installation of ventilation equipment and air ducts: forklifts, mobile elevators, truck and jib cranes on pneumatic and crawler tracks. The choice of machines and mechanisms is determined by the project and depends on the weight and overall dimensions of ventilation products, on the altitude to which they are lifted and on local conditions.

At installation of industrial ventilation systems in connection with the introduction of large-block installation of air ducts and ventilation equipment load-carrying capacity and the number of types of used lifting mechanisms of domestic and foreign manufacture have increased significantly.

Various lift trucks with lifting capacity up to Yt are used for moving cargo within the construction site and for installing ventilation systems. To lift and move ducts and equipment at installation of ventilation systems the most widely used self-propelled jib cranes including automobile, pneumatic-wheeled and tracked ones. These cranes have great mobility, so they can be quickly moved from one construction site to another, high efficiency, versatility, etc.

tools, equipment, installation, work

Crane capacity is the weight of the largest load the crane can carry. The crane lifting capacity includes the weight of all accessories attached to the load-carrying equipment.

Reach. the distance from the vertical axis passing through the load hook to the pivot point of the crane.

Boom length. the distance from the axis of the bottom pivot of the boom, by which it is attached to the rotary part of the crane, to the axis of the boom head unit.

Lift height is the greatest height to which a load can be lifted. In mechanisms with a boom for lifting loads, the height is not constant and depends on the reach and length of the boom. Lifting height is greatest at minimum outreach and lowest at maximum outreach.

Proper selection of lifting equipment in combination with the use of various devices can provide a high degree of mechanization of mounting and rigging work. It is recommended to choose construction machines and mechanisms by reference books, catalogs or other literature. Taking into account the possibility of upgrading mechanisms, available construction equipment should be used, indicating the brands and specifications in the PPR.

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Tools for installation work

equip yourself. The choice of necessary tools for laying utilities is determined by the “work front” itself.

You have to deal with steel and cast iron pipes, with connecting elements and sealing the connections. Replacing a crane requires threading, and to repair a valve it (the valve) must first be dismantled. Since the most necessary. ready-made gaskets for the faucet. often at hand is not, it would be nice to get a simple device for their manufacture, as well as suitable material.

In other words, the need for tools for minor assembly work is almost completely covered by the usual locksmith set of tools, plus a few special devices. Let’s dwell on the completeness of the toolbox in more detail: what is required in the first place, what. secondly, what you can do without.

Pliers, a hammer, at least one file and a pair of screwdrivers must be in the economy of any self-respecting male individual.

If serious measures of laying utilities are planned, the purchase of a circular saw is justified

angle grinder. In all other cases a metal saw will successfully replace it.

If you want to install an additional outlet in a water pipe, you must, after closing the control valve, replace the straight part of the pipe with a T-piece, in which the branch with the valve is screwed. Threaded

joints are even preferable to welded joints, as they allow for future dismantling, and thread cutting is quite feasible even for beginners.

dies themselves can be different sizes and types, depending on the diameter and type of thread. A stamp is placed on the end of each strip to provide all of the information needed to

information. There are two things to consider. Thread designation and steel grade from which the strip is made. Recall that in the connections of pipelines threads are used cylindrical inch.

Letter L in the marking indicates that it is a strip with left-hand thread. The steel grade is important if you want to thread in high-strength stainless steel, in which case

World’s Coolest Tools & Equipment

Choose dies marked P18 (better). R18F2, letter

Ф indicates up to 2% vanadium as an alloying addition in the tool steel), and the more common strip from steel grade Р9 will also do.

The ratchet can be either slit or non-slit. Split dies allow for greater precision in the work. it is possible to thread in several passes instead of just one, each time adjusting the diameter with a screwdriver locking screw. For serious pipeline installation works split dies of corresponding diameters are a must, because they allow cutting threads with so called “run-out”, among others.

Round dies are used the most often, but another type is sometimes used for hand threading. sliding dies which are fixed in special oblique dies (have numbers from 1 to 6).

All threaded connections, as you know, require special tools for assembling and disassembling. We are talking about wrenches. If you still manage to unscrew the cap nut or the head of the crane with pliers (never do that), then you should use a manual screwdriver!), you will not be able to move the socket or the lock nut with this barbarian method.

A complete wrench set is limited to only three double-sided wrenches. 19 x 22, 17 x 19 and 14 x 17

The difference between the pipe wrench and the adjustable wrench lies in the intended use and therefore in the construction. It can be used not only to loosen components with faces (bolts, washers, etc.) but also to tighten them in the pipe system. п.), but also to reliably grip and rotate cylindrical parts. The pipe sliding wrench is designed for the connection of pipe threads and can therefore “hold” far greater threads than the pipe extension

The pipe spanner is much heavier than the adjustable wrench for locksmith work.

The sliding pipe wrench has the following design differences: Spring-loaded jaw with limited

movability, an adjusting nut fixed in a strong cage, and a secure stop thread on the movable jaw.

Working direction of the sliding pipe wrench. clockwise, with the pipe or part to be rotated securely wedged in by the jaws. During the wrench’s return stroke, the spring forces the jaws to open, allowing the wrench to slip back into its original position.

Lever wrench (also called a gas wrench). the other

universal tool. Suitable for couplings, pipes and for parts with edges (locknuts, valve heads). Like the sliding wrench, the toggle wrench uses the principle of jamming a part between the jaws to hold it in place. The diameter of the pipe that can be covered by a particular wrench can be found in the markings on it.

Of the measuring tools you will need a caliper. it combines a ruler and depth gauge and can measure both inside and outside diameters with reasonable accuracy.

One caliper with a length of 150 mm is sufficient. Look for the nonius when you buy it in a store. a specific graduation scale on the sliding jaw. The number of divisions of the nonius determines the accuracy of the measurement.

Calipers designed to measure with an accuracy of one tenth of a millimeter, with a nonius scale divided into ten parts. Scale length of 9 mm, t. е. to nine divisions of the bar (scale ruler). One graduation of the nonius is therefore exactly 0.1 mm shorter than one graduation of the ruler scale. Alignment of the first (not

counting the zero) stroke of nonius with the first stroke of the ruler gives the gap between the legs equal to 0.1 mm, coincidence of the second stroke of nonius with the second stroke of the ruler

The caliper, designed to measure to an accuracy of 0.02 mm, has a 12 mm long vernier scale divided into 25 parts. Thus the nonius scale

is 0.48 mm, and the possible accuracy of the measurement, which is the difference in the division price of the ruler

When replacing chrome-plated or nickel-plated cap nuts, tap heads, and taps, it is often necessary to use pipe tongs to unscrew them. To prevent the jaws from damaging the decoration, make removable spacers. It takes almost no time, but you can forget about scratches (and therefore corrosion) on the valve body forever. Any soft metal is good for the jawbone. aluminum, brass or sheet copper.

For fixing pipe supports and other similar works, you will need an electric drill and a set of drills of different diameters. The most convenient drill medium (in terms of power) class: it is equipped with an additional handle and allows you to make holes up to 25 mm. That’s enough in most cases.

For walls of solid material, you need special drill bits. It makes no sense to buy expensive, fully tungsten carbide drill bits, but to buy at least a few drills with a hardened working part or pobedite insertion is necessary.

Also come across a puncher, a set of screws (preferably galvanized and with a straightforward slot under the flat screwdriver) and a set of dowels.

When sealing cracks in cast iron pipes, before filling the gap with putty, you need to grind it. You need a scraper for that. narrow-angled or triangular. It is good, if it has a tungsten carbide insert (alloy grade BK6 or T15K6), but will do as well as usual, from carbon instrument steel U12, U12A or U10A, or from chromium steel grades XG, EHS. The last two, because of the higher cost of the material, it is not advisable to make them yourself.

Installation of the pipe network. complex operation. Traditionally, plumbing is made of steel pipes. In order for the work with steel pipes to be successful, as well as to reduce labor and time costs as much as possible, the above set of tools will have to be seriously supplemented. In addition to the three above mentioned double sided wrenches one more wrench should be added. 2 4 x 2 7 (or two single-sided

with an appropriate socket wrench).

One 5-3 0 mm gas spanner is not enough either. For installation of large diameter pipes, lever pipe wrenches and 4 (with minimum and maximum

sizes from 20 mm to 63 mm and from 25 mm to 90 mm, respectively).

Alternatively, a set of one lever spanner and one ring spanner (suitable for pipes with a diameter of between 15 and 75 mm) are also possible. This set is sufficient for most applications. The lever pipe wrench is designed for pipe diameters from 3 0 to 12 0 mm.

about pipes. Steel pipes are available in standard lengths from 1.5 to 12 m. In practice, this means that you will have to work on them to assemble the pipe. It is necessary to cut the pipes into pieces of required length, machine the ends and deburr the cutoffs, and make “strings” out of the individual pieces. It is clear that the bench vice is no longer suitable here.

A pipe clamp mounted on a solid base is needed to securely hold pipes during threading and similar operations. The design and principle of the simplest clamp are clear from fig. 68, а.

cutting and bending pipes: a. pipe clamp

There are also more complex clamps, for example with a hinged top (allows you to enter the pipe from the side). However, since in most cases the end of the pipe to be worked must protrude from the clamp by a minimum length anyway, such side “loading” is of no practical importance.

clearly show up if you have to repeatedly cut through larger diameters.

Structurally, the pipe cutter is a solid steel casing, designed to encompass pipes of large cross-section (up to 100 mm). Disc cutters made of very hard, high-carbon tool steel are clamped in the toolholder.

the position of the picks with respect to each other can be adjusted: usually, one or two picks are positioned on top of each other

movable part of the cage, which by means of a threaded rod moves in the plane of the cut. In the simplest (but no less effective) models of pipe cutters the feed rod also serves as a handle.

No metal saw, no other, not even the most advanced one, makes such a clean and even cut as the pipe cutter. In addition to the high quality of the end result, it noticeably reduces the time required to cut a pipe of “serious” diameter. And the effort required when using a pipe cutter is much lower than the work would require an ordinary hacksaw. Not only do they have to be cut or joined when working with steel pipes. Laying communications, you will find that you can not always be limited to the connection of different sections at right angles. In practice it is almost never possible

to avoid that individual sections overlap.

In order for one pipe could bend another, while remaining generally in the same plane as the first, at the point of intersection at the bend section should be appropriate bend (in the language of professionals, it is called a bracket).

In addition to intersections, there is often a need to wrap the pipe in the opposite direction (the so-called kalach) or change the position of a section of the pipeline, without changing its direction. bend them with a “duck”.

In addition, when the faucet is at the end of the pipe section, the connection is often made not by cutting in, but by turning the pipe, simply by bringing it to the place of installation. This allows you to do without angles, saving, in addition, the time for threading.

Special devices are available to mechanise and make bending of pipes more accurate. Tube benders (Fig. 68, в).

The most important advantage of a pipe bender is that its rollers also serve as a “calibrating” device, helping to maintain the correct bend radius depending on the pipe diameter. Otherwise a breach of the clearance, a deformation of the wall or even a tear would be almost inevitable.

Just like pipe cutters, pipe benders can be stationary or handheld. As a rule, they are equipped with a set of pattern rollers with corresponding support rollers for different pipe diameters. The stationary bender shown in this figure is called a Volnov bending machine and allows almost all types of bends to be made on pipes of different diameters.

The fixing clamp reliably ensures the immobility of the bent pipe, the long handle serves as a good lever and helps, without applying titanic efforts, to bend almost any pipe to the desired angle, even the thickest. Support roller and roller-template are assembled in a single unit, which facilitates “adjustment” of the device and speeds up the work.

Another important advantage of the pipe bender is that it works equally well with long pipes and shortest pipe segments. Thus, the above-mentioned “rolls” and “ducks” can be manufactured as separate structural elements of the future pipeline, which significantly simplifies its installation.

for temporary plugging of pipe ends, for

Connecting pipes of different diameters and devices

As already mentioned, a threaded joint should always be preferred to a welded one. Connection of pipes on the thread allows for the future replacement and repair of individual sections without dismantling the entire network (which in some cases is impossible), in addition, the connection on the thread available to almost anyone, while welding work requires not only expensive equipment, but also appropriate skills. Thus,

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Connecting fittings (aka. fittings) are extremely important elements of the pipeline.

They can be made of steel or ductile iron. The latter have thicker bumps on the edges and cast iron couplings. even longitudinal ribs. Fundamental importance difference in the material does not have, however, buying a set of T-pieces, couplings and other fittings, should be aware that steel fittings can be made in any semi-workshop. Many people go to the nearest flea market for reasons of economy, where you can also find durable second-hand cast iron fittings. Note the quality: sections with

The threads are allowed to be torn off only if their total length does not exceed 10% of the total length of the thread. The ends of the fittings should be straight and strictly perpendicular to the axis of the product, and the threads. clean, free of rips and burrs.

To connect pipes of the same diameter you need a straight coupling, pipes of different cross-sections are connected by a transition

couplings. Angles are needed to change the direction of the pipeline, and crosses and tees are used to make branches. A piece of pipe with a short thread on one end and a long. on the other end is called a fitting. It is used in conjunction with two couplings and a locknut for those connections that may require disassembly. Do not forget to stock up on a few

Blanking plugs, they are needed if your network

They will be necessary if the pipeline network will include additional apparatus in the future, the continuation of certain sections, etc. д.

than once and more than twice when assembling pipes, it is necessary to thread the fittings. But if the wrong thread is cut, it can destroy several hours of work. it is good if the pipe section was not measured exactly in place. Otherwise, because of these two or three centimeters, which “stole” the screwed thread, you will have to repeat the entire cycle of operations again: measure and cut a new piece of pipe, bend

To secure against such troubles a special screwdriver with guide flange is needed. with a cylindrical protrusion, the inner diameter of which corresponds to the outer diameter of the pipe. Prevents tilting at the most critical moment when the first thread is being threaded.

If pipes of different diameter are to be handled, this type of collar is needed in several cases. In an improved model of this wrench a flange does not simply slide on the pipe when threading but screws onto a special sleeve which in its turn is secured to the pipe with set screws in advance.

Another useful tool for threading. ratchet. differs from usual strip locking tool in that instead of two handles it has one handle fixed to cage with slow reverse travel. Even the most inaccessible places can be threaded with this screwdriver.

Working with sewer pipes, you may well have to shorten some pipe on the spot. Chop a cast iron sewage pipe with a chisel. For pipes made of gray cast iron, covered with bitumen, an ordinary chisel is suitable, and the pipes that have a layer of particularly hard white cast iron on the outer surface, start cutting with a chisel with a carbide insert.

Fittings for sewer pipes is not difficult to buy. Unlike plumbing connections, the need for sewer fittings occurs only once. when laying it. Therefore, the stock of connecting elements should not be done; it is better to buy everything you need just before the work, depending on the material from which your pipes will be made (cast iron, plastic, ceramic, asbestos cement). If in the future there will be a need for an elbow, a branch or a tee, you can always find it in stores.

So far we have talked mostly about the installation of pipes. But, besides the assembly and installation of new pipe networks, it may be necessary to dismantle the old one. Wrenches alone are not enough to dismantle rusted joints. And if the knot was mounted on the paint for safety all efforts will be futile.

A blowtorch can be used to break a jammed connection. When heated, the paint and remaining sealant will burn off and the socket or angle will slide out of place easily. The possible applications of a blowtorch are not limited to this, so it is certainly advisable to have one in the household.

Soldering lamp design so many that there is no sense to describe each of them separately, because the principle of all the lamps is the same. the air pumped into the fuel reservoir is pushed together with the fuel vapors into the tee where the working mixture is regulated by the stopcock and pressurized to the burner nozzle.

To preheat the burner and

ignition of the working mixture under the burner can be a special cup, which burns a certain amount of fuel. The tank also has a valve to release excess air.

In spite of the simplicity of the device the lamp must be properly maintained and handled. Above all, you should not fill the kerosene lamp with gasoline. it can cause an explosion. Also, do not fill the tank more than three-quarters full.

When heating up the burner, make sure that the stop cock is closed at this time and when the work is finished, do not forget to release the pressure. If the tank does not have a safety escape valve, do not inflate too much. If the lamp is gasoline-powered, pour fuel through a funnel with a fine mesh to ensure proper operation. The condition of the nozzle should also be checked. do not forget to regularly clean its hole.

The measuring tool should be supplemented with a folding meter, a tape measure, as well as a special ruler with a level (to control the correct slope of the pipes).

Horizontal sections of the sewer network, as well as the pipelines of the water heating system (without

The sliding plates must be laid with a certain slope. A ruler with a level, which is not difficult to make yourself, will help to comply with this slope. The slope may be different for each case, measured in millimeters per meter of pipeline length.

The device is a bar with a set level (filled with water and sealed glass tube with an air bubble in it). The plate sliding in the slot is secured with a bolt and can be pulled out to different lengths: from 3 to 10 mm.

The tools and equipment described are needed to feel fully armed. Having supplemented this set with a pair of wide caulk or chasers (used for sealing joints in sewer pipes), you can consider yourself prepared to carry out any work on the pipes.

Tools, appliances and equipment for installation work

Mounting aids include load-carrying aids and aids for alignment and temporary fixation of assembled structures.

Load-carrying equipment is the connecting link between the working body of the lifting and transporting machine and the load during its movement. Load-carrying equipment are: with flexible suspension and with a rigid suspension; with manual, automatic and remote control. By interaction with the lifted load load, load-carrying equipment is subdivided into supporting, clamping, drawing and scooping.

Load-carrying equipment is designed for reliable connection of a load to the operating device of a lifting machine. They consist of various combinations of grips, connecting elements, and control mechanisms.

Grips of various designs are used to ensure safe conditions for loading and unloading and installation work, the convenience of slinging and unlashing, taking into account the specific characteristics of lifted elements. They are the part of the hoisting equipment that directly interacts with the load. This principle can be further subdivided into clamps (hook clamps), friction clamps, anchor clamps, supporting clamps and pull clamps.

Grips (Hooked Clamps) They hold the load by means of a hook hooked into the load hinge.

Jerk action clamps‘Hold the load by frictional forces between the load surface and the gripping elements. Friction grippers mount components, mainly columns of up to 10 tonnes. Lever clamps for installing wall blocks, also referred to as friction clamps.

Anchor clamps Hold the load by securing the embedded element in the load cavity. These include Beam, Wedge, and Pin Clamps.

Beam clamps are used when assembling floor panels. They have a hinged crossbar that is inserted with a load-bearing bar into the mounting hole of the structure. From above, the gripper’s position is secured by a nut or wedge.

The use of wedge clamps eliminates the need for mounting loops in reinforced concrete structures. The main part of the wedge clamps is the body with horizontally sliding distance elements and a spreading wedge shank (rod) which wedges the distance elements between the wedge and the load surface in the working position.

Pin-type clamps have a metal pin (finger) which is inserted into the rigging hole of the structure to be lifted and with its help, holds the structure securely.

Supporting clamps Hold a load by resting a part of its surface on a gripper element. These include pincer grippers, frame grippers and fork grippers. Pincer grippers are shear-like lever systems with curved free ends that reach around the element to be lifted (e.g., a wall block, crane beam).

tools, equipment, installation, work

Pulling grippers hold the load by means of suction or magnetic field. This includes vacuum and electromagnetic grippers.

According to the design, connecting elements are divided into flexible (ropes, rope strings, chains) and rigid (profiled steel).

Control mechanisms of lifting devices provide mechanization of slinging, unlooping and cargo orientation. Drives of control mechanisms are subdivided into automatic and manual. Control mechanisms allow for remote slinging, upsetting and orientation of cargo when mounting without lifting people onto the structure and using scaffolding aids. Hoisting is performed by pulling out the pin from the slinging hole of the structure being installed or by releasing the locking element of the gripper by tensioning a special cable, actuating an electric motor or an electromagnet.

The most common lifting devices are slings and beams.

Sling slings (Fig. 10.2) are used for slinging loads and consist of connecting elements (rope branches and links) and grips (hooks and carabiners).

Tools, devices and mechanisms for installation and assembly work

The technical level of erection works and labor productivity of the fitters increases owing to the wide implementation of the means of small-scale mechanization. tools and fixtures.

Handheld machines play an important role in the complex of means of small-scale mechanization. Depending on the type of energy supplied to the motor, hand-held machines used at installation of technological equipment are divided into three groups: electrified, pneumatic and hydraulic.

According to the nature of movement of the main working body (spindle), manual machines, regardless of the type of energy consumption can be divided into four groups: with rotary and circular movement of the working organ (drilling and grinding machines, nutrunners, circular saws, as well as chain saws and chisels); percussive-rotary action (some types of nutrunners); with reciprocating motion of the main working organ, which in turn are subdivided into tools with percussive action (hammers), tools with reciprocating motion (scissors, files) and compression action tools (press jaws, press scrapers); with a complex movement of the main working organ (some types of polishing tools).

The following requirements are imposed on hand tools designed for installation work: minimum weight and sufficient power, reliability in operation, safety, convenience and versatility (quick change of nozzles and working tools).

The following safety rules should be observed when working with tools. Only persons who have been trained and hold a valid license to operate power tools may work with them.

The following rules must be observed when working with pneumatic tools

Before connection, the hoses must be blown out and connected or disconnected only after the air supply has been stopped;

Air may be supplied only after the tool has been set in the operating position;

idle operation of the tool is allowed only for testing it before starting work and after repairs;

it is forbidden for workers to wrap hoses around themselves, to direct a stream of air at workers and to be blown around by compressed air;

To attach hoses to fittings and nipples, use tie-down clamps; it is forbidden to attach hoses with wire;

Connect hoses to the compressed air line only through the valves installed on the air diffusers or branches from the line; it is prohibited to include hoses directly into the line;

when not in use, hoses and power lines must be kept in a closed room at a positive temperature;

-hoses must not be heated with steam.

Workers with pneumatic tools must be equipped with soft gloves with double padding on palm.

Hand tools for assembling threaded joints. The main tools for the assembly of threaded connections are hand wrenches and screwdrivers. With the existing variety of configuration of the heads of threaded fasteners, it is customary to call screwdrivers tools, in which the part that enters the preparation of the screw (slot, socket), is a flat or cross-shaped blade.

According to the method of torque control, wrenches (screwdrivers) can be of several kinds: 1) torque wrenches, which have a scale and an arrow (or other device) which continuously indicates the torque applied to tighten the screw joint; 2) limit wrenches which are characterized by the fact that when a certain torque is applied to the screw joint, the torque is released (a variant of this kind are wrenches with adjustable torque); 3) wrenches which are not equipped with a torque limit.

According to the methods of manipulation during operation, wrenches are divided into: those that are repositioned during the process of tightening (tightening) of the threaded part; those that do not require repositioning or interception during the process of tightening of the threaded part.

See also  Tools and appliances for electrical installation work

By the device of head (shed) wrenches are subdivided on socket; with open shed; with adjustable shed; ring (with closed shed); horn; pipe (ring, lever, chain).

Torque wrenches are used directly for controlled tightening or for torque control when working with hand screwdrivers or wrenches.

Screwdrivers. The screwdrivers’ main requirements are: making firm contact of their tip with the fastener and transmitting the maximum possible force to it.

All screwdrivers can be divided into three kinds: traditional, special, and collapsible.

Traditional screwdrivers. Designed to work with only one type of fastener and consisting of a rod and handle firmly attached to its shank.

spline; 2. cross; 3. double cross; 4. inner hexagon 5. hexagon outside; 6. hexagon with centering pin; 7. star; 8. oval star; 9. star with centering pin; 10. external torque wrench; 11. spline star; 12. inner polyhedron; 13. internal square; 14. offset cross; 15. triple spline

The stem (“blade”) in cross-section may be round, quadrangular, or hexagonal. It is distinguished by three parts:

tip (length.8-10 mm) on which a working profile is formed that transmits the force to the fastener. The tip of the screwdriver to work with the profile “straight slot” can be expanding (“screwdriver mechanics”, fig. 2, a) or straight (“electrician’s screwdriver”, fig.2, б). The tips for “hex” and “star” profiles can be ball-shaped. It allows to hold the screwdriver at an angle to the fastener’s axis, which makes it easier to work in places with limited access;

pin body. the part between the tip and the lower edge of the handle, around which some screwdrivers have a hexagon (fig. 2, c) called the amplifier. It allows you to create extra force with an open-ended wrench. Many manufacturers make a through rod that goes all the way through the handle and comes out at its top end

This allows you to lightly tap on it to “pull” a rusted fastener or try to repair a damaged working profile of a fastener element;

the shank entering the handle has variously shaped projections or a hexagonal section for a secure connection to the handle.

a. with expanding tip; with tip at an angle to the fastener’s axis

Provide a comfortable and secure grip on the tool, preventing it from slipping even in an oily hand;

Have a rounded shape of the upper part so as not to create unpleasant feelings in the palm;

Diameter sufficient for significant working forces. It is also desirable for the handle to have sufficiently wide edges in the palm area;

have a section with a smaller diameter for precision work with little effort

has a cutting edge on its lower end to prevent the screwdriver from rolling off inclined surfaces;

Have high mechanical strength, temperature resistance (from.Wiring tools and solvents (up to 40 to 50 C), oil, gasoline, and solvents.

What tools and equipment are needed for electrical installation

Drill Bitumen Tape Indicator screwdriver Pencil Pliers Pliers Pliers Shovel Knife Knife Screwdrivers Pliers Peeler Gloves Ruler tape Electric tester Electric screwdriver Electric extension cord

Tools and appliances for electrical work. as essential for an electrician as a scalpel is for a surgeon. The quality and speed of electrical installations, cabling, fittings, and other electrical work depends largely on their functionality. Familiarize yourself with the tools you need for electrical work and purchase the necessary accessories.

Installation Devices and Tools

The process of setting structures in the designed position regardless of the methods and ways of installation consists of slinging (gripping), lifting into the designed position, temporary fixation in the designed position, unslinging (slings removing), making the designed joint, returning of the load hook into the initial position. This set of interrelated operations for positioning a unit to be assembled in its designed position is called the assembly cycle. Each of these activities can be accomplished by means of lifting equipment and tools. These can be universal tools and fixtures used for any structure mounted by any methods and techniques as well as specialized tools and fixtures used only for certain structures.

Slinging equipment. These are critical rigging elements designed to ensure that the component to be lifted is firmly connected to the hook of the installation machine in a suitable position, and can be manoeuvred as required by the process, without great physical effort. A distinction is made between flexible lifting devices (slings) and with rigid elements (beams). Lightweight and universal slings were discussed in the loading and unloading section. For assembly work, various designs of balancing (or counterbalancing) slings should be added (Fig. 8.12а).

When the elements to be lifted cannot absorb the horizontal compressive assembly forces, the slope angle of the sling lines must be decreased by increasing the length of the suspension of the structures. This is not always possible due to the limited lifting height of the crane hook and is always inconvenient. In these cases, beams, lattice and spatial traverses are used (Fig. 9.12 b, c, d).

tools, equipment, installation, work

Both flexible and rigid lifting accessories must be equipped with grips. To ensure the safety of the load, the ends of the sling must be attached to the workpiece or the structure to be assembled. Hinged grips, which are attached to the workpiece by means of a steel mounting loop, are the most common. These include hooks and carabiners fitted with locks to prevent spontaneous unhooking (fig. 8.13).

а. balance slings; beams b. beam; c. lattice; d.universal; 1. beam, 2. truss, 3. block, 4. slings

б. carabiner with safety tube. 1. safety strip, 2. wire bracket, 3. hook, 4. hinge of the assembled structure; 5. carabiner; 6. safety tube; 7. hinge of the installed structure

Hingeless clamps are attached to structures without mounting loops, which saves a lot of metal. Hingeless clamps (Fig. 8.14) are divided into supporting ones, which are connected by means of supporting elements (pins, fingers, slats inserted into holes of the installed structure); friction ones (compressive and expansion ones) that hold the structure by friction forces; vacuum ones that hold an element or structure by means of vacuum chambers. When installing steel structures use electromagnetic clamps.

With grips can be local or remote unslinging; the latter frees the installer from non-productive transitions and lifts to unslinging. Clamps can be equipped with manual or mechanical (electromechanical, electromagnetic, pneumatic) drive.

To temporarily fix and align the parts, wedges, spreaders, conductors and clamps are used. With the help of wedges and splices mount small (up to 2 tons and a height of 4 m) columns. Wedges are made of hardwood (oak, beech), concrete and steel. They are used for mounting reinforced concrete structures. Mounting

Metal structures are unbuckled with the help of metal wedges. Use of wooden wedges at installation of reinforced concrete structures makes it difficult to remove them after termination of the joints. Only concrete and metal wedges can be left in the joints, but it is not profitable. In such cases, it is better to use inventory wedge inserts that can be easily removed, and they can also be used when installing columns if the joints have different sizes. Each face of the column is fitted with one insert if its width is up to 400 mm; if the width of the column is wider, the opposite is true. Two dowels. After the concrete joint has reached 70% of its design strength, the dowels are removed. The use of inserts instead of wedges can reduce the crane operation time by about 15%.

To align and temporarily secure the columns in the saddles different shoring pieces are used. There are conductors for mounting the columns into the foundation sockets and onto the column below. Single conductors (Fig. 8.15) are designed for simultaneous installation of one column, group. for simultaneous installation of several columns. In any case, the conductor consists of a device to fix the conductor to the foundation, underlying column or slab (clamps, screw clamps, tie rods), a device to temporarily fix the column to be mounted (usually a clamp or tie rod). split clamps), devices for moving the column along the building axes and decks (stationary or hinged) to accommodate installers and welders, connected if necessary by ladders. If the conductors are multi-tiered.

The conductors (Fig. 8.16) for the installation of beams and trusses is a metal clamp that is bolted to the column bracket. Once installed on the girder or truss bracket, it can be shifted, if necessary, by turning the bolts of the conductor.

Clamps for mounting wall panels of large-panel buildings are fixed on a metal pipe (rod holder) at one or both ends. If the clamp is attached to one end of the boom, it is called a push-pull clamp. The clamp is attached to the installed panel, and the other end of the brace. on the slab. Suspension provided with a sleeve, by turning which you can change the length of the rod-holder and thereby move the top of the panel, setting it vertically. Boom. The wall and partition panels, which are set in parallel with each other, are fixed on both ends of the support rod with clamps. Here, the verticality of the installation is checked with a plumb line (Fig. 8.17).

column, 2. truss, 3. clamps, 4. Bolts for moving

In the process of placing a structure in its designed position, many devices are used to ensure the safe conduct of work and facilitate access for installers to the grips of the slinging and lifting devices, as well as to the joints:

Assembly tables. reeling and repositioning devices.

Stairs. stepladders, lean-to and hinged.

Cradles. suspended and on the building towers.

The next step in the assembly cycle. Design joint construction and corrosion protection of the components. Different devices are used. If the joints are concreted and the volume of concrete is large enough, concrete and mortar are delivered using familiar mortar pumps. as well as concrete pumps, pneumatic blowers, tipping buckets, mortar boxes. When welding embedded parts and reinforcement of reinforced concrete structures. Portable welding transformers with a welding current of 500-1000 A. When welding rebar joints with a diameter of more than 20 mm. semi-automatic bath welding under a layer of flux at direct current (Fig. 8.18).

Graphite mold with clamping force; 4. clay wrap

To ensure the reliability of butt welds it is necessary to protect the metal parts of the joints from corrosion. If there are cracks in the concrete, corrosion of the metal is more intense than in the open air. In addition, the corrosion products of the metal have a larger volume than the metal itself, which creates additional stresses that destroy the concrete. Protect the metal of the joint against corrosion, mainly by applying protective insulating coatings. paints, varnishes, metallization. The latter method is the most preferable. The best material for plating is zinc. For zinc coating under construction site conditions, gas-flame units are used, consisting of a gas cylinder, a compressor, a tank with zinc powder and a spray burner, in the flame of which zinc powder is supplied due to ejection. The powder is melted and in the melted form is sprayed on the surface to be protected.

When sealing the joints between the outside panels of large-panel buildings or between the hinged panels of industrial buildings, you perform sealing, eliminating penetration into the room of air and moisture. Since joints are periodically subjected to alternating deformations as a result of temperature effects, sealing

should be made with elastic elastic materials. For these purposes waterproofing poroizol, Vilaterm SM (made by extrusion based on high pressure polyethylene, foamed with physical gas formers, available as a round solid cross section of the density of 35 kg / cu. m) and various mastics: isol, polyisobutylene UM-40 and UMS.50, thiokol U-30M.

The devices needed to perform this operation. All previously mentioned devices which facilitate access to the joint, a special roller for pressing the tourniquet of foam rubber or wilaterum into the joint, pneumatic syringe with a compressor for applying mastic in the joint gaps when gluing foam rubber or on the outer surface of the expanded joint, thermostats to heat up and maintain a positive temperature of the mastic in winter conditions.

electric electric screwdriver

An electric electric electric screwdriver is one of the most common tools on the Russian market. It is bought not only for construction works, but also for domestic purposes.

The important specifications of batteries will be the capacity and voltage. The higher the capacity of the battery, which is measured in Ah, the more charge the equipment can store, and therefore work longer without recharging. The battery capacity of 1Ah indicated in the data sheet on the tool indicates that the battery can deliver a current of 1A per hour.

For drilling in bricks or concrete, the classic electric electric screwdriver can not be used. The appliance must have a built-in impact operation system for this, and if it does not, the electric electric electric screwdriver can be ruined.

If you have to work with wood, you need to use a special set of pliers with a spade on the tip. The largest size drill with an electric electric screwdriver can be 20 mm. The power of the device plays a special role. When working, the drill bit must be held at an exact 90 degree angle in relation to the place to be drilled.

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