Trimmer for grass how to assign a cardan shaft. Dismantling and assembly of the cardan

Methods of balancing a cardan shaft professionally and with your own hands

Two main types of balancing are currently used:

, providing high accuracy and requiring the use of special machines.

This type of balancing is used for parts made in the form of a disk and having the following diameter ratio (D) and length (L): DL.

Balancing of the crankshaft, which has an asymmetric (for example, V-shaped) execution or an odd number of cylinders, is distinguished by certain features, since the instant component of such shafts is quite high and is able to disrupt it from the support supports.

The installation of bushings-compensators with a massive mass for one gram is avoided, on connecting rod neck. In the absence of these parameters in special sections of the technical and operational documentation of the power unit, they are calculated discrete. There are individual methods for this.

The next moment, requiring a fairly clear understanding, is the definition of cases that cause the need to balance the crankshaft:

Carrying out the correction of deformed crankshafts.

Replacing the flywheel. It should be made a reservation that in this case, dynamic balancing is not always mandatory. In some cases, there is enough to carry out only a static.type balancing.

So, we consider it established that the balancing of non-granted crankshafts, a special case of which is a V-shaped crankshaft, requires the use of compensating bushings (often made by a special order), creating an imitation of the dynamic effects of a similar effect of connecting rod piston groups.

How to balance the cardan yourself

Based on the information received, it is clear that without special equipment there can be no talk of any precise balancing. Nevertheless, if a situation arises when it is necessary to carry out balancing, but there is no such workshop nearby, you can do this as a temporary measure:

The cardan is conditionally divided in the longitudinal plane into 6-8 parts;

Alternately, a load (15-30 g) is attached to each of the sectors, it can be a weight for wheel balancing;

The car is taken to a flat road and a check is carried out, during which it turns out, the vibration is eliminated, or it became even more;

After that, the load moves to another sector.

It is clear that this method will only remove the main imbalance and in no way claims to accuracy, but it will allow you to get rid of vibrations for some time and reach one hundred. Follow the balancing of rotating details and pleasant travels to all!

DIY cardan shaft balancing, project K1! )))

I decided to duplicate here, The beating of the cardan is tormented by many. Perhaps my experience will be useful to anyone))) After installing the distribution from the samurai, an injector appeared 60-70 km/h. Prommardan cut and balanced in a specialized service, the current forgot that it should be balanced with a spacer.

To make sure of his guesses, he simply unscrewed the rear cardan and while standing still dispersed the car to 65 km/h, vibrations appeared as when driving Give the next 5 tons.R.

For balancing, the toad simply strangled, decided to look for methods of independent balancing! If it doesn’t succeed, I always have time to give money for balancing If you are laziness of the progress engine, then greed calls for a new one))) there is a busy balancing of several successful experiments of the microbes website and a very clear film from Tyota, there is nothing complicated in principle, there is nothing complicated in this, there is nothing complicated. It is decided to visit the miracle yourself)))

So, for starters, we need to glorify the vibration force meter.

Yes, this will be our meter))) you can just glue the twig in the center, but how to store it later, because I will get a diforus to love somewhere, so I glued a nut into which a long bolt will be screwed into. Everything seems to be clear here, but how it will measure vibrations?It’s simple, download the program here:

And connect the connector to the microphone output, twist the settings, everything is simple and clear. The main thing during measurements is to measure from start to foot, then it will be possible to save the file with graph and text format, where they will be set in the numbers of vibrational strength.

Next, we screw the twig to the place of measurement, ideally to the handout, but there was little time and I put it on the Bolt of Protection. How in the Tayota film we make marks on the cardan and take measurements.

For convenience, I made a sign on which to draw a graph and successfully forgot it at home))) a file for building a beating schedule

This is too big a counterweight, on the industrial was used to use a nut for 8!

Well, on the basis of the data obtained, we are looking for a scene.

I never came up with how to calculate the weight of the imbalance, I just screwed the clamp for rubber hoses and slipped pieces of finely chopped electrode

As a result, I did not have to slip anything, I had to remove all the beats, I forgot to take a picture as always, but there everything was clear there I didn’t weld it, I just dragged it out more and more, while there were no accurate weights like Yegor.

A month has passed, the flight is normal! The result is 100% satisfied

I tried to lift the front cardan and realized that the vibrations when accelerating with an all.wheel drive of 20 km/h appear not from imbalance Owners of samurai distributions, you also have vibrations when accelerating at all.wheel drive?

This is how the microbovy forum from the forum microbovs Moskvich Microbovs is done on the Microbovy forum.Net/

DIY cardan balancing on Niva

DIY cardan shaft balancing

The imbalance of the cardan shaft is one of the most common causes of unpleasant vibration. It interferes with normal comfortable operation of the car, and ignoring the problem can lead to emergency situations. It will help to eliminate the defect in the work of the cardan. If you have certain skills, then you can conduct it yourself.

The causes of an imbalance

They can contribute to the violation of the functioning of the shaft:

  • natural wear of the part with long constant operation;
  • non.compliance with the technical regulations for the use and maintenance of the machine;
  • manufacturing defects;
  • mechanical damage that occurs when interacting with a solid object and t.D.

A sign that the disbalance state of the shaft has arisen is an increase in the level of vibration of the cardan when moving to the discomfort in the car in the car and passenger.

How to carry out balancing with your own hands?

Below is the old but effective method of restoration of the cardan. Its deficiency lies in large time costs. To carry out manipulation, you will need a convenient observation pit or overpass, weights with different weights. The latter can be replaced with pieces of welding electrodes.

  • Conditionally divide the pipe across by 4 identical segments. The number of parts can be increased depending on the strength of shaking and a large amount of free time.
  • On the first piece of the cardan, you need to attach a lead weight with an approximate weight of 30g. Thus, so that it is reliably fixed on the surface with the ability to easily remove it. Typically, to ensure such fixing, a metal clamp is used, a solid adhesive tape (island or tape), a soft screed, wire, etc.D. If the electrodes are attached instead of the cargo, then more than two pieces are attached at the same time. Their number varies with a decrease in the total mass.
  • Make a test. To do this, you need to go on a smooth road and check the degree of vibration. If it has become less noticeable, then the right segment of the cardan for balancing is selected.
  • In the event that the level of the car’s trembling remains at the same level, the weight should be fixed on the next part of the shaft marked at the beginning of the procedure.

It is necessary to repeat these stages of work until the segment of the cardan is discovered in which vibration manifests itself in a minimum degree. Next, you need to choose the optimal weight of the weight in which the shaking disappears completely. This is ideal, however, with independent balancing, you can allow the residual slightly tangible trembling of the car.

The final stage in the shaft balancing in this way is the hard durable attachment of the cargo to the cardan. The best attachment option is to use electric welding. If this is not possible, then the substance “Cold welding” will become an alternative. Undesirable, but often used method. reliable delaying weights with a metal clamp.

Other shaft balancing methods

Want to really forget about shaking in a car and save your time? Order a cardan balancing service in the company “DNS-Cardan” at a democratic price.

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Leave your phone number and our specialist will contact you in the near future.

Recommendations for the removal and maintenance of cardan shafts on Niva Chevrolet with your own hands

During movement, the position of the bridges relative to the distribution box is constantly changing. Therefore, to transmit efforts between inconspicuous axes, the distance between which is constantly changing, a cardan transmission is used.

Front and rear cardans VAZ 2121 differ only in length. Two types of nodes can be installed on the car: with crosses or cries.

The first design of the design consists of a tubular shaft, forks with crosses. Swling connection, which provides a change in length, is compacted by the oil seals.

In the cardan with CV joints, it is made using hinges of equal angular velocities. They are installed at its ends instead of crosses, protected by anthers.

Interesting! Caps provide smooth rotation of the node with large angles of bending. Therefore, more and new VAZ 2121 Chevrolet are installed by CVA cardans.

Theoretically, the Motor resource of the cardan shaft on the CVAs is much higher than the service life of the part with the crosses. However, when the anthers rupture from the hinge of equal angular velocities, lubrication flows and sand clogs into the bearings. Therefore, with the regular operation of the VAZ 2121 in conditions of hard off.road crosses are more preferable.

Note! Both types of details have the same flanges for attaching to the bridge and handout. Therefore, when repairing the drive, you can equally use nodes with crosses or with aid.

A similar gear also connects the handout with the checkpoint VAZ 2121 Chevrolet. In this case, an intermediate shaft with a channation is used at one end and slots on the other.

Front and rear drives VAZ 2123

Regardless of the design of the shafts, there are three signs of a malfunction:

  • vibration while driving. The cause may be worn.out crosses (shrimp) or shaft deformation;
  • knock when starting from a place, speed of speed or engine braking. This happens with the wear of the Crosses or the Crosses;
  • Lubricant leakage from under the anthers of the hinge of equal angular velocities or a slotted joint.

You can check the condition of the nodes yourself. For this you need:

  • put a car on a pit or overpass;
  • make sure that there is no lubricant leakage;
  • Take a tight hand behind the cardan near the hinge;
  • With sharp movements, shake the knot in the direction of the perpendicular axis of rotation.

If there is a leakage of oil or play, it is necessary to remove the faulty node and replace it with new. In some cases, repairs are possible. replacement of spurs, crosses, balancing.

How to remove cardan mechanisms with your own hands?

Work is performed on a pit, lift or overpass. You will need to replace the details:

DIY cardan shaft balancing, video

The most unpleasant thing in technology is a parasitic vibration. Vibration is not only unpleasant in itself, but can also destroy the most durable and complex node completely imperceptibly. No wonder the balancing of the crankshafts, wheels, flywheels with clutch assembly pay so much attention. A mass of beneficial energy is consumed for vibration. In this regard, the cardan shaft is no exception.

Cardan balancing in the garage

The higher the angular velocity of the part, the greater the likelihood of obtaining its imbalance, and the vibration can only be eliminated and exclusively on complex balancing machines.

over, the more overall detail, the more difficult the equipment should be.

Balance of a cardan shaft with our own hands of a video of the attempts of which we presented below, as a rule, gives the results only psychological, but by no means real.

The fact is that it is possible to eliminate the balance of the cardan gear only if you accurately hang the place and weight of the imbalance, and the cardan should balanced exclusively in the collection with the crosses.

In the conditions of the garage and without balancing equipment, this is possible only with the installed cardan on the car. Technologically this is unrealistic to do.

The liquidation of an imbalance itself is a matter of five minutes, but the main thing is to calculate the exact place, the reason and eliminate it.

What is an imbalance and how to eliminate it

The main sources of vibrations in the car are large details that have high angular speed, namely: a cardan shaft, a hydrotransformer of an automatic gearbox, a wheel, a crankshaft and a flywheel with a clutch assembly. If the center of the mass of the part does not coincide with the longitudinal axis along which the part rotates, an imbalance inevitably occurs. From the point of view of physics, the imbalance is a work of the weight of the part to a lot of eccentricity.

Balancing of the cardan shaft is the only effective method of removing the imbalance. To eliminate it, it is necessary to attach a load equal by weight to the cardan, but the opposite of the sign to the eccentricity.

At the same time, it is very important to observe the coincidence of the axes and the location of suspensions during balancing with axes and suspension points in real working conditions.

In cases with those details in which the length is much smaller than the axis of the rotation (wheel, flywheel), it is enough to hang the part for only one point, which greatly simplifies work on balancing.

It should also be borne in mind that the rolling resistance at the suspension point should be minimal and the accuracy of determining the place and imbalance module often depends on this. The part simply rotates and stops in the place where the imbalance point is below. It remains to simply mark this point and install the corrective load, and then repeat the operation.

Features of cardan transmission balancing

In the case of a cardan shaft, we are dealing with a part, the length of which significantly exceeds the diameter, and the imbalance can have the same module, but a different direction vector.

This is called the moment imbalance and it is calculated only with the help of equipment for balancing a cardan shaft.

Such vibrations are treated only with the help of dynamic balancing, which requires calculating and eliminating several imbalances at once.

The imbalance of the cardan can occur not only due to its damage, but also in some other cases:

  • factory marriage (different thickness of the pipe wall of the cardan, poor.quality and non.unreasonable fixation of the lap);
  • the occurrence of gaps in the elements of the cardan transmission;
  • curvature of the shaft itself;
  • wear of Schlitsov.

In addition, in most cases, the dynamic balancing of the new cardan is necessary, and also after each repair, perform the balancing of the cardan shaft of this operation in special centers depends on the car model, and the approximate cost of the work is given in the table.

How to balance the cardan yourself

Based on the information received, it is clear that without special equipment there can be no talk of any precise balancing. Nevertheless, if a situation arises when it is necessary to carry out balancing, but there is no such workshop nearby, you can do this as a temporary measure:

  • The cardan is conditionally divided in the longitudinal plane into 6-8 parts;
  • Alternately, a load (15-30 g) is attached to each of the sectors, it can be a weight for wheel balancing;
  • The car is taken to a flat road and a check is carried out, during which it turns out, the vibration is eliminated, or it became even more;
  • After that, the load moves to another sector.

It is clear that this method will only remove the main imbalance and in no way claims to accuracy, but it will allow you to get rid of vibrations for some time and reach one hundred. Follow the balancing of rotating details and pleasant travels to all!

Balancing of the cardan shaft

There are several possible causes of negative change. First of all, this may be due to the initial improper compliance with the exact sizes of individual parts

The entire design of the cardan shaft is several elements located on one axis. In this regard, it is very important that this detail is always in a state of balance.

If this condition is violated, the remaining components of the automotive transmission will experience a serious load.

In the future, an imbalance can entail a failure of not only a cardan transmission, but also other machine aggregates.

The main causes and signs of imbalance

There are a number of reasons that can cause the appearance of an imbalance of the shaft. So, the main of them can be attributed:

  • a defect in one of the components of the cardan, admitted at the time of its manufacture;
  • various kinds of damage that arose as a result of blows, clashes, entering the hole, etc.D.;
  • cardan wear;
  • low.quality repair made in the past;
  • When assembling the cardan, technological gaps were not observed, etc.D.

In addition, sometimes balancing is required even for the new cardan. This is explained by the fact that far from always at the manufacturer they make high-quality balancing of the shaft.

The main feature indicating the unbalancing of the cardan transmission is the occurrence of a characteristic vibration. over, it increases in proportion to the increasing speed of the car.

What types of balancing exist?

There are several types of balancing:

1) Static. is usually used to identify and eliminate the imbalance of the rotor without taking into account the forces that arose in the process of rotation. This species is not suitable for the cardan, as it is produced in one plane of correction.

2) instant. the main factor that caused an imbalance is identified and eliminated here. Instant balancing is carried out in two correction planes.

3) dynamic. combines elements of static and instant balancing. This species is most suitable for eliminating the imbalance of cardan gear.

In addition, it should be noted that when working a balancing stand, it is difficult to determine which method is used. However, it is known that for cardan shafts, dynamic balancing is used.

Cardan balancing in car service

If an imbalance occurs, it is recommended to immediately contact a car service, since you can carry out high.quality balancing only using special equipment.

So, the whole process can conditionally be divided into several stages:

Stage 1. first the cardan shaft is dismantled from the car;

cardan, shaft, dismantling, assembly

Stage 2. then it is installed on a special stand designed for dynamic balancing. This device consists of several sensors and control surfaces. In the case of an imbalance, the shaft in the process of rotation will concern these parts.

Stage 3. analysis of all curvatures and disorders of geometry is carried out. The results obtained are displayed on a special screen.

Stage 4. repair work is carried out.

There are several ways to eliminate cardan transmission imbalance. The main ones include:

1 method-special parts are welded to the surface of the cardan, the so-called plates-balancers. The place of their installation, as well as the weight are calculated using a computer.

2 method. balancing is carried out by using a lathe. This method is usually used when there is a significant deformation of the cardan. In this case, a certain part of the metal from the shaft surface is removed. This reduces its strength, and also helps to increase the load that occurs during operation.

Procedure for temporary balancing

cardan, shaft, dismantling, assembly

Undoubtedly, the best option for eliminating the imbalance of cardan transmission is the appeal to these professionals. However, sometimes due to some circumstances, the driver does not have the opportunity to immediately appear in the car service. In this case, you can use a temporary balancing made with your own hands.

So, the elimination of the cardan imbalance at home is carried out as follows:

1) First of all, the cardan shaft should be visually divided into several parts (the larger their number, the better the balancing will be).

2) Next, you need to take a metal load with a weighing 30-40 grams and fix it in one of the intended parts.

3) then you should go on a flat road and determine the vibration decreased or increased. This procedure will have to be done several times, clinging the load to one part of the shaft, then to the other.

4) after the optimal location of the cargo is detected, you should begin to determine the right weight of the cargo. To do this, it is necessary to alternately suspend the chosen section of the cardan, metal objects with various mass.

5) After choosing the exact weight and location of the load, you should choose a metal plate with a similar mass and weld it to the cardan.

Thus, the process of eliminating the imbalance of the cardan with your own hands is a rather long and laborious. In addition, it is impossible without special equipment to absolutely accurately calculate the place and mass of balancing cargo. In this regard, the balancing of the cardan at home will always be inferior to a similar procedure performed within the walls of the car service.

Today, in addition to an impressive list of repair work, the specialists of Intercardance Service also have high.quality cardan balancing. We have the latest equipment for this, as well as competent and experienced masters.

Why choose it is us?

When choosing a car service, first of all, the client is interested in the question of whether the specialists of this institution will be able to solve its problem at the highest level. And we are glad to tell you that we have sufficient personnel and technical potential, which we are ready to direct to the high.quality restoration of your car.

Causes and signs

Back to our cardans! The causes of the malfunction and imbalance of these devices can be many. The most basic: wear and tear, factory marriage, mechanical deformations that arose during strikes. Another reason is too large gaps between the elements of which it consists.

If you, for example, repaired a cardan or put a new. There is also a need to make balancing when installing the former shaft.

What are the signs that the cardan shaft “caught an imbalance”? The main thing is to increase the level of vibration when the machine moves to a well.tangible driver and passengers. A well.distinguishable rumble that accompanies the body can also appear additionally.

  • Identification of the production defect of this part during the operation of the car. This does not happen often, however, not a single manufacturer is insured from even a small amount of marriage. So, for example, in the company BMW, an officially laid share of marriage is 0.5%, this figure is twice as much on a vase;
  • when replacing a cardan shaft caused by its breakdown;
  • violation of the technological gaps between the components of the cardan during its assembly and installation on the car (balancing is first carried out at the stand, after which the element is disassembled and the balancing is carried out by car);
  • If the installation of the cardan shaft was not carried out in accordance with the technological requirements, its centering may be violated. In this case, the cardan is removed and again sent to the balancing stand, after which it is re.installed on the machine;
  • The most common reason that the cardan begins to beat is its mechanical damage on the road. Being under the bottom of the car, the cardan can easily receive a blow to the stone flying from under the wheel, as a result of which its centering is violated;
  • Theoretically, a violation of the balance of this part may become a consequence of corrosion, which has changed the geometry of any component of the cardan, or even banal pollution. However, in this case, the imbalance will not be so large as to noticeably affect the quality of the work of this mechanism.

Important! Determine that the cardan shaft requires balancing, you can by vibration that occurs in the chassis of the car when moving. over, if the degree of this vibration increases in proportion to the increase in the speed of the machine, then with a high degree of probability we can say that the guilt of this is the cardan. Support of vibration with a characteristic hum will be another confirmation.

The degree of imbalance and, most importantly, its cause can only show the diagnosis of this element. If the violation of the centering is quite large and it is caused by mechanical damage or a serious wear of any of the components of the cardan shaft, it must be replaced.

Details: replacing the salon filter with Hyundai Accent

Back to our cardans! The causes of the malfunction and imbalance of these devices can be many. The most basic: wear and tear, factory marriage, mechanical deformations that arose during strikes. Another reason is too large gaps between the elements of which it consists.

Causes and signs

Back to our cardans! The causes of the malfunction and imbalance of these devices can be many. The most basic: wear and tear, factory marriage, mechanical deformations that arose during strikes. Another reason is too large gaps between the elements of which it consists.

If you, for example, repaired a cardan or put a new. There is also a need to make balancing when installing the former shaft.

What are the signs that the cardan shaft “caught an imbalance”? The main thing is to increase the level of vibration when the machine moves to a well.tangible driver and passengers. A well.distinguishable rumble that accompanies the body can also appear additionally.

Violation of the geometry of the shaft

The most durable components of the cardan are its cylinders made of steel that withstands significant loads. As a rule, such details are designed for mileage about half a million kilometers. But these elements can also be deformed, for example, in the course of overcoming a car of any irregularity or due to a breakdown of hinges located along their edges. Strong vibration when moving a car from below is a sure sign of malfunctions with the cardan.

Some “wizards” advise to equalize dents on the cardan using a sledgehammer. However, the quality of such work may not lead to an imminent breakdown of the crosses. Therefore, instead of a heavily deformed cardan, it is recommended to immediately install a new one, which is next, it is desirable. The price of this unit assembly starts at about 1300

How to put a cardan at home

We describe the process of balancing the cardan shaft with our own hands using the famous “grandfather” method. It is simple, but its implementation can take a lot of time. You will definitely need an observation pit on which you need to the car. You will also need several weights of different masses used in the balancing of the wheels. As an option, instead of weights, you can use slices of electrodes from welding.

Primitive weight for balancing a cardan at home

  • The length of the cardan shaft is conditionally divided into 4 equal parts in the transverse plane (there may be more parts, it all depends on the amplitude of the vibrations and the desire of the car owner to spend a lot of time and time on it).
  • To the surface of the first part of the cardan shaft is reliable, but with the possibility of further dismantling, the weights mentioned above are attached. To do this, you can use a metal clamp, plastic screed, tape or other similar device. Instead of a weight, you can use electrodes, which you can put several pieces under the clamp at once. As the mass decreases, their number is reduced (or vice versa with an increase add).
  • Next, testing is carried out. To do this, they go by car on a flat road and analyze whether vibration has decreased.
  • If nothing has changed, it is necessary to return to the garage, and outweigh the load to the next segment of the cardan shaft. Then repeat testing.

Clauses 2, 3 and 4 from the list given must be performed until you find a site on the cardan Val, on which the weight reduces vibration. Further, similarly experimentally, it is necessary to determine the mass of the weight. Ideally, with its correct selection, the vibration should disappear completely.

cardan, shaft, dismantling, assembly

The final balancing of Kardana with your own hands is the rigid fixation of the selected weight. To do this, it is advisable to use electric welding. If you do not have it, then in extreme cases you can use a popular remedy called “cold welding”, or tightly tighten with a metal clamp (for example, plumbing).

Balancing cardan shaft at home

There is another, although less effective diagnostic method. In accordance with it, it is necessary to dismantle the cardan shaft from the car. After that, you need to find or choose a flat surface (preferably perfect horizontal). Two steel corners or a channel are placed on it (their size is unimportant) at a distance of a little less than the length of the cardan shaft.

After that, the Cardan itself is laid on them. If it is bent or deformed, then its center of gravity is shifted. Accordingly, in this case, it will scroll and become in such a way that its heavier part will be below. This will be a clear indication of the car owner, in which plane it is necessary to look for the unbalancing. Further actions are similar to the previous method. That is, weights are attached to the cardan shaft and the places of their fastening and mass are calculated experimentally. Naturally, weights are attached on the opposite side from the one where the center of gravity of the shaft is shifted.

Another effective method is to use the frequency analyzer. It can be done with your own hands. However, a program is needed that imitates an electronic oscilloscope showing the frequency of the emerging fluctuations during the rotation of the cardan. You can say it from the Internet in the public domain.

So, to measure sound vibrations, you need a sensitive microphone in mechanical protection (foam rubber). If it is not, then you can make a device from the speaker of the middle diameter and a metal rod that will transmit sound vibrations (waves) to it. To do this, a nut is welded into the center of the speaker, into which a metal rod is inserted. A wire with a plug is soldered to the speaker’s outputs, which is connected to the input of the microphone in PC.

Further, the measurement procedure occurs according to the following algorithm:

  • The drive axis is hung out, giving the wheels to rotate freely.
  • The driver of the car “disperses” it to the speed at which vibration usually occurs (usually 60. 80 km/h, and gives a signal to a person who takes measurements.
  • If you use a sensitive microphone, then it is quite close to bring it to the place of applying the marks. If you have a speaker with a metal probe, then it must first be fixed to the place as close as possible to the marks applied. The result is fixed.
  • There are conditional four marks around the circle to the cardan shaft, every 90 degrees, and numbered them.
  • A test weight is attached to one of the marks (weighing 10. 30 grams) using a tape or clamp. You can also use the bolt connection of the clamp as a weight.
  • Next, measurements with weights are held at each of the four places in the sequence with numbering. That is, four measurements with the movement of cargo. The results of the amplitude of the oscillations are recorded on paper or computer.

The result of the experiments will be numerical voltage values ​​on the oscilloscope, which differ from each other in size. Next, it is necessary to build a circuit on a conditional scale, which would correspond to the numerical values. A circle with four directions corresponding to the location of the cargo is drawn. From the center on these axes on a conditional scale, segments are applied according to the received data. Then the segments 1-3 and 2-4 prandicular to them should be graphically divided in half. From the middle of the circle through the intersection point of the last segments, a beam is drawn to the intersection with the circle. This will be the location of the imbalance that needs to be compensated (see. picture).

Title of the second level

But the most common cause of violation is the deformation of all shafts due to their damage during operation, as well as mechanical or heat treatment. Shaft balancing the necessary thing.

Title of the third level

There are several possible causes of negative change. First of all, this may be due to the initial incorrect compliance with the exact sizes of individual parts of the cardan transmission during their production.

Heterogeneity or uneven density of the material from which the parts were made, can also ultimately serve as a quick unbalancing of the cardan.

The reasons also include the insufficient accuracy of the general centering of the joints of the parts, the presence of air gaps in nodal and detailed joints, and the mismatch of their axes when installing the cardan. It is necessary to make a shaft balancing.

Copyright © 2021. Copying materials from the site is prohibited.

Copyright © 2021. Copying materials from the site is prohibited.

Copyright © 2021. Copying materials from the site is prohibited.

The arrangement of the cardan shaft and the reasons for its unbalancing

The cardan shaft in the automotive industry has existed practically for more than a hundred years. For the first time, this type of transmission was installed on the auto development of LUS Renault in 1898. In the form in which the cardan exists now, it appeared in 1903 thanks to Clarence Spicer, who completed the design with a slotted sleeve.

Structurally cardan gear is quite simple and consists of:

  • Shaft, in the form of a hollow pipe and a fork at the end. At the other end, there may be the same fork (for a rigidly fixed element) or a connection of a connection, which allows to “lengthen” the shaft itself.
  • Krestin, thanks to which two conjugated shafts can rotate with changing angles relative to each other.
  • Suspension bearing, which is a support for the shaft, without preventing it from rotating.

With proper care and proper maintenance, this element of the transmission has an almost inexhaustible resource. Often, for the entire time of the car service, only crosses and suspension bearing need to be replaced in replacement. The pipe itself is not subjected to wear and does not need to be in repair. However, there may also be exceptions.

The most important requirement for the cardan is its balance regarding the axis of rotation. If the center of gravity is shifted to the side, then during the rotation of the shaft, centrifugal forces begin to act, the load on the fasteners is intensified, through which vibration is transmitted to the car body. This can begin at a certain speed and with its increase to intensify. The displacement of the center of gravity can occur in such cases:

  • When interfering in the design of the drive. its lengthening or shortening
  • With deformation of the cardan due to mechanical exposure, for example, a blow
  • With improper assembly of KV, when the installation marks were ignored
  • With significant backlash in needle bearings of the crosses or their failure
  • With serious gusts in an elastic coupling
  • With damage to the suspended bearing
  • With a significant wear of the slotting connection
  • When weakening the flange connection between the KV and the bridge gearbox

An incorrectly assembled cardan drive can be Suspension device, elastic coupling and crosses with bearings cost small money and you can independently replace them. Schlitz wear will entail the purchase of a new sq. But the vibration when bending the shaft and displacement of the center of gravity requires certain work.

However, having heard the vibration in the floor of the car, you do not need to immediately rush to change the cardan. There may be many reasons for this. Always repair or diagnostics should be carried out from simple to complex. It is possible that the rumble or vibrations are associated with the failure of the rubber pillow of the engine.

How to eliminate vibration

The new part takes place at the manufacturer of the balancing process on special high-precision equipment-balancer machines. To do this, the cardan shaft assembled on the stand of dynamic balancing. During rotation, the sensors take readings from the shaft and accurately determine the place of imbalance. Having fixed the load of the required mass on the diametrically opposite side of the surface of the pipe, it can be achieved that the center of gravity will return to the longitudinal axis.

You can get rid of vibration only by eliminating the imbalance of the cardan connection. The problem is that the transmission element is necessary to hang out, with all the crosses and slots, couplings and flange joints.

In the conditions of garage repair, this is almost impossible to do. Unless, turn the car to the side, disconnect the gearbox and the gearbox, after which to somehow fix all the parts of the cardan in one plane.

It is best to seek help at the maintenance station having a balancer installation. There, experts completely dismantle the cardan gear, test it on the machine and determine the place of imbalance. By the way, the problem does not have to be in one place. there may be several such unanimified points on the cardan. In this case, all points are balanced and the counterweights are fixed in each of these problem areas.

A similar service is expensive. In addition, the service center will have to pay for the removal and installation of the cardan. But, the cardan shaft, the balancing of which was made on a balancer machine, will continue to serve faithfully.

This is economically justified for those imported cars, spare parts for which cost very large money.

How to balancing a cardan shaft is carried out?

The most unpleasant thing that can happen to the cardan shaft is the wear of the slots, as well as their seats, in the case of a critical wear on the balancing of the cardan, there can be no question. There is only one way out. buying new parts with subsequent balancing.

Diagnostics is a more frequent phenomenon than balancing of the cardan shaft, most STOs only help to identify the problem, but do not solve it. Quite a lot of car manufacturers, along with the cardans, install various damping couplings on their cars, as well as elastic crowns and suspended supports that protect the shaft from wear and significantly extend its service life. Therefore, if vibration appears on such cars or a problem with a cardan shaft arises, then in most cases the only correct solution is to replace it.

Cardan balancing at home is impossible, and this should be understood. To solve the problem of imbalance is the power of a good workshop that specializes in providing this kind or frivolous trip to this issue will lead to even greater problems or additional embezzlement. If insurance couplings and various supports are installed on the car, it is necessary to monitor their condition and at the slightest shortcomings to seek help, otherwise you will have to change the entire cardan shaft, and in more severe cases, a bunch of concomitant parts (gearboxes, secondary shaft, etc. D.).

Temporary elimination of imbalance

The vibration that has arisen on the way cannot be ignored, so at the first signs, you should go to the stand for the balancing of the cardan shafts. While outside the city, there is no opportunity to get to one hundred with the necessary equipment. In this case, you should perform balancing with your own hands. The following sequence should be followed:

cardan, shaft, dismantling, assembly
  • Locate the car on the overpass or above the pit in the garage, as access to the cardan will be required.
  • Divide the cardan in half along the length.
  • Conditionally divide the cardan across into 4 parts. If the car owner has a large margin of time, then the cardan can be divided into 8 and even 16 parts.
  • Take a weight with a weight up to 30 grams. For these purposes, a piece of lead or a wheel balancer is suitable.
  • Numbue parts of the cardan and attach to the first section of the weight.
  • Go to an even section of the road and listen to vibrations.
  • Consistently testing the car, changing the position of the weight. In this case, it is necessary to detect a position in which the vibration is minimized.
  • Changing the weight of the weight, it is necessary to achieve the lack of vibration in the car interior. At the same time, the visual elimination of the rattle of the salon does not indicate the complete exclusion of parasitic loads on the cardan. At the first opportunity, it is required to balancing the cardan using special equipment, you need to visit one hundred.
  • Fix the weight by welding or glue.

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Having completed the balancing of the shaft, the car owner will protect the car from serious repair. The safety of movement will also increase, since the vibration transmitted to the salon significantly distracts and nerves the driver.

Professional balancing of the cardan

Since the length of the shaft significantly exceeds the thickness of the moment of the moment imbalance.

It is possible to calculate it only with the help of sensors, which equipped a machine for balancing cardan shafts.

The accuracy of the operations performed depends on the technical level of equipment and knowledge of the maintenance personnel. Therefore, carrying out balancing should only be trusted with proven one hundred.

Performing balancing is as follows:

  • The shaft is turning around its axis.
  • Sensors relate to the surface in control places.
  • The working element shifts.
  • The computer displays information about the imbalance in a specific section.
  • Special plates are applied in calculated places.
  • In particularly neglected cases, and during factory marriage, cutting of metal may be required.

Special equipment allows balancing in a short time. And the accuracy of such balancing will be an order of magnitude higher than the independent elimination of the imbalance.

During the operation of the car, it is important to listen to all extraneous noises and vibrations. The sooner the imbalance of the cardan shaft is detected and eliminated, the less consequences will be for an iron friend.

Technological repair method

If for such a thing it is not a pity for 5 thousand This will be the price of balancing the shaft in the workshop, we recommend going to specialists. Performing diagnostics in repair workshops involves the use of a special stand for dynamic balancing. For this, the cardan shaft is dismantled and installed on it. The device includes several sensors and the so.called control surfaces. If the shaft is unbalanced, then during rotation it will touch on its surface of the mentioned elements. This is how the geometry and its curvature are analyzed. All information is displayed on the monitor.

Performing repair work can be performed by various methods:

  • Installation of plates-balancers directly on the surface of the cardan shaft. over, their mass and installation site are precisely calculated by the computer program. And they are attached with the help of factory welding.
  • Balancing cardan shaft on a lathe. This method is used in case of significant damage to the geometry of the element. Indeed, at the same time, you often have to remove a certain layer of metal, which inevitably leads to a decrease in the shaft fortress and an increase in the load on it in normal operation modes.

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A similar machine for balancing cardan shafts can not be done with your own hands, since it is very complicated. However, without its use, high.quality and reliable balancing will not be able to perform.

Balancing (balancing) shaft

Vibration from the gloomy shortens the lining of the shaft coating, damages bearings and other parts of the machine, and also has a significant negative effect on the product.

Due to high rotation speeds, all shafts must be balanced to reduce vibration. If the weight of the shaft doubles, the centrifugal force doubles; But if the speed is doubled, the centrifugal force increases four times, which shows the importance of balancing at high speeds.

Balancing of the shaft is a change in the position of the center of gravity so that it is on the axis of rotation.

Static balancing. If the shaft, fixed without friction, remains at rest, regardless of the position in which its rotation was stopped, all local deviations are self.compensated, and they say that there is a static balance. If the shaft is not statically balanced, it is necessary to add a mass sufficient to reach the balance to its “light” side. This is usually done by drilling a hole and adding a lead to coating the shaft with rubber. Statistical balancing is used mainly for shafts working at a district speed of less than 180 m/min. However, shafts balanced for one speed are not necessarily in a state of balance at a different speed.

Dynamic balancing. Even if the shaft is statistically balanced, the center of gravity of one of its ends can be shifted from the center, and then it is necessary to make correction from the other side. This change cannot be discovered by simple static balancing and becomes noticeable when the rotation of the shaft. At the same time, the emerging fluctuations (this phenomenon is known as a dynamic or moment imbalance) require analysis to determine one end or both require balancing (counterweights).

In such a situation, each end can demand its own counterweight so that their amount gives a static balance. A flat area may appear on the surface of the rubber coating of an unbalanced crush shaft or a coating may be separated from the rod. The department can also occur if the upper shaft is unbalanced.

Kinematic balancing. Когда вал изготовлен из трубы, ее стенки могут иметь различную толщину вдоль поверхности вала, а также по окружности трубы. Когда такой вал статически и динамически сбалансирован, а затем приведен во вра­щение с большой скоростью, возникают локальные нарушения баланса вдоль по­верхности, при этом тяжелые участки оболочки удаляются от центра. Когда форма вала меняется под действием неравномерности распределения его массы, возникаю­щее состояние называют кинематическим дисбалансом. To avoid this problem, it is recommended to use the mechanically processed rod (both inside and outside), balanced at operating speed until the coating is installed.

Static imbalance is expressed in kilograms on the working surface, and a dynamic imbalance can be expressed in a kilogram-santyimeter and is a measure of one or more forces that cause vibration when rotating the shaft. Vibration is measured as linear movement at the ends of the shaft. The requirements for dynamic balancing should be expressed through the amplitude of the vibration at the ends of the shaft at a given speed, measured by the register of vibration meters. For shafts with a given dynamic balance, the minimum amplitude is 0.13 mm at the ends of the shaft, twice as much as in the center of the shaft at a given speed.

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