What a strip saw. How to do hand -dried on wood correctly

Rules for sharpening tape saw at home

Small width of the cut causes relatively low energy costs for cutting the material. And, finally, the ribbon saw can cut the workpiece of almost any thickness, while the geometry of the disc saw imposes restrictions on the thickness of the material cut by it. However, in order to use all these advantages, tape saws must be able to correctly prepare for work. The main preparatory operations include sharpening and wiring tape saws.

The material drank

Daws for wood are made of instrumental alloy steel having a hardness of 40-45 HRC. Domestic manufacturers use 9XF, B2F steel (for ribbon saw for metal) and others., foreign. Their own steel (C75, UDDEHOLM UHB 15, etc.). When hardening the teeth of such saws of high frequency currents, they can acquire hardness up to 64 HRC and above.

Saws for cutting carbon steels and non.Ferrous metals of small thickness are also made of instrumental steel with mandatory hardening teeth with high frequency currents. However, more often for cutting metal, bimetallic saws are used, in which the canvas is made of spring steel, and the strip on which teeth are cut, from high.Speed steel with high m tungsten and cobalt. After quenching, it acquires hardness up to 65-69 HRC. High.Speed steel is welded to the base of the saw by an electronic beam.

Bimetallic saws are able to cut thick metal from instrumental, stainless, heat.Resistant and other steels, titanium alloys and other metals.

Teeth with greater wear resistance are obtained by giving them with stellite (with chromium and cobalt with the additions of tungsten and/or molybdenum) or soldering plates from hard alloys to them. Such saws surpass in their cutting abilities bimetallic. They are used for cutting fiberglass, automings, cables, reinforced plastics, heat.Resistant alloys, graphite, aerated concrete, bricks and other difficult to process materials.

Geometry of tape saws

For sawing wood, three main types of teeth are used: for carpentry, for dividing saws, for sawing beams and logs.

The specific values ​​of the angle of sharpening of the strip saws are determined by manufacturers based on many factors. In general, such a dependence can be distinguished. The harder the wood, the smaller the front angle (γ).

Different shape of the tooth is also used for metal saws, depending on which metal they are designed. Daws with a constant step distinguish between two main forms.

Standard, designed for cutting thin.Walled metal with a short chip with front angle (γ) equal to 0 °.

A tooth with a positive front angle (γ) used in saws for cutting thick.Walled metal with long chips.

For thin-walled material, saws with a relatively small step are used (the number of teeth on an inch-from 4 to 18). Saws for cutting thick-walled material do not need a large number of teeth, their number is 1.25-6 teeth per inch.

To eliminate the effect of resonance, leading to the vibrations of the canvas, some saws are taken with a variable step, in which the distance between the teeth changes within the framework of a separate group. The size of the step is indicated by the largest and smallest values.

Divorce of strip saws

There are several types of wiring, the names of which may differ in different manufacturers. The main species are.

Standard, in which the teeth alternately bend in opposite directions.

The cleaning one after the bending of two teeth, the third does not get divorced, remaining in place.

It is mainly used for saws designed for cutting especially hard alloys and materials. Every third tooth has a trapezoidal shape, it remains in the center of the saw and serves to send the entire saw tape.

Wavy, the most complex, in which the teeth are bent with the variable value of the bending, forming a peculiar wave.

During the divorce, not the entire tooth is bent, but only part of it at a distance of 1/3-2/3 from the top. Pil manufacturers have their own recommendations on their saw divorce parameters, however, in general, the values ​​recommended by them are filed in the range of 0.3-0.7 mm.

The general rule is that the divorce of tape saws for cutting soft wood should be larger than that of saws for processing solid. But there should never be such a bend of teeth so that the unrequited wedge remains in the center.

During the divorce, its identity should be ensured for all teeth. The deviation should not exceed 0.1 mm. With uneven wiring, the saw may go towards a stronger divorce.

Divorce devices

Simple lever divorce device (model RU-05) is shown in the figure below.

The saw is installed in the groove of the device tooth opposite the probe of the arrow indicator, which serves to measure the divorce. Using a mobile scale, the indicator arrow is installed on zero.

When pressed on a divorce lever, the bolt (1) presses on the tooth, bending it and thereby carrying out its wiring. The indicator arrow shows the size of the wiring. The entrance or twisting of the bolt is set its required value, after which the bolt is stopped by a counter.Hawk (2).

Divorce is carried out through one tooth, after which the canvas is deployed, and the operation is repeated in relation to the rest of the teeth.

There are simpler devices for a divorce designed to divorce saws. Although they cannot provide high accuracy and require certain physical efforts, in extreme cases. You can use them.

Sharpening of tape saw

Different circles are used to sharpen tape saws depending on the hardness of the teeth. Electrorent, diamond or elborus (they are also borazone). Bake.Based corundum circles are used to sharpen instrumental steel saw. Sharpening of bimetallic chipped saws or other saws with teeth of high hardness requires an elboron or diamond circle.

The shape of the circle used is determined by the parameters of the saw and the method of sharpening. T.E. What kind of saw the tooth profile has and how the line is pulled. The circle can be specialized (to be identical to the tooth profile), flat, cup, plate. To select the granularity of the abrasive, in accordance with the sharpening stage, you can use the table in the article about the barnings for sharpening. The district speed should not exceed 20-25 m/s.

The design of the strip saw

The strip saw belongs to the category of cutting tools and is an integral part of specialized wood processing equipment. It is a closed tape, on the outer edge of which the teeth are located.

For manufacture, special varieties of steel are used. 9XF, B2F or C75. In the process of production, the teeth are processed with high.Frequency currents. This increases their hardness. It is this fact that affects the divorce of the cutting edges and maintainability. Often, several types of steel are used in the manufacture. The main tape is made from the spring, and the cutting part is made of steel with a large molfram or cobalt.

Features of the use of tape saws for wood:

  • Wood requirements. The harder it is, the faster the blade will be dull;
  • Installation conditions. The tension indicator is necessarily observed. If it is less than the required, there will be sagging. With strong tension, the likelihood of a canvas will increase;
  • Periodic sharpening. This will require a special machine.

The execution of the last paragraph will increase the life of the tape structure. However, making sharpening independently problematic. It is necessary to choose the correct wiring, observe the angle of processing of the blades.

When buying a used saw, you need to pay attention to the presence of repair welds on the canvas. They indicate frequent tools of the tool.

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The material drank

Ribbon saws are made from different materials. Depending on what material they are intended for.

Daws for wood are made of instrumental alloy steel having a hardness of 40-45 HRC. Domestic manufacturers use 9XF, B2F steel (for ribbon saw for metal) and others., foreign. Their own steel (C75, UDDEHOLM UHB 15, etc.). When hardening the teeth of such saws of high frequency currents, they can acquire hardness up to 64 HRC and above.

Saws for cutting carbon steels and non.Ferrous metals of small thickness are also made of instrumental steel with mandatory hardening teeth with high frequency currents. However, more often for cutting metal, bimetallic saws are used, in which the canvas is made of spring steel, and the strip on which teeth are cut, from high.Speed steel with high m tungsten and cobalt. After quenching, it acquires hardness up to 65-69 HRC. High.Speed steel is welded to the base of the saw by an electronic beam.

Manufacture of bimetallic tape saw

Bimetallic saws are able to cut thick metal from instrumental, stainless, heat.Resistant and other steels, titanium alloys and other metals.

Teeth with greater wear resistance are obtained by giving them with stellite (with chromium and cobalt with the additions of tungsten and/or molybdenum) or soldering plates from hard alloys to them. Such saws surpass in their cutting abilities bimetallic. They are used for cutting fiberglass, automings, cables, reinforced plastics, heat.Resistant alloys, graphite, aerated concrete, bricks and other difficult to process materials.

Ribbon saw with carbide

Preparation of the device for work

During the constant use of the tool, it is inevitable to lower the quality of the cutting edge. It is blunting, and the width of dentist is reduced. Based on this, the sharpening of the saw on wood and its wiring are the necessary components of the maintenance of the tape.Saw machine.

It should be noted that the wiring of the teeth should be carried out before they are sharpened, and not vice versa.

Warring the tool

Wiring is the process of bending the cloves on the sides. This operation is needed so that the saw blade does not clamp in the workpiece, as well as to reduce friction during operation.

  • With the classic method, cloves bend left-right in strict priority.
  • With the cleaning method, each third of the teeth remains in the original position. It is optimal for devices designed for cutting especially solid varieties of wood.
  • With wavy wiring, each tooth has its own separate bending. In this case, the profile of the canvas acquires the type of wave. This method is most complex.

Note! When carrying out the wiring, not the entire clove should bend, but only a third or two.Thirds from the top. Producer companies advise to carry out the operation so that the bending range will fit in 0.3-0.7 millimeters. Work is done using a specialized diluting tool.

Sharpening of the saw

Before sharpening a saw disk or a strip tool, keep in mind that more than 80% of the incidents with damage to devices (including their gap) occur due to non.Compliance with the norms of work.

  • The need for the operation is determined visually. In this case, you should pay attention to the condition of the cloves and the quality of the walls of the cut (for example, their increased roughness).
  • Circles for the point of tape tools are elected based on the degree of hardness of cloves. Corundine discs are needed to work with instrumental steel devices. Bimetallic sharpening saws on borazon or diamond circles.
  • The shape of the sandpaper for tape devices must be selected, starting from their parameters. Culled circles cups, profile, plate, flat.
  • Before the operation, it is necessary to turn the saw and let it hang in this position for about 10-12 hours.

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Sharpage of the saw on wood should take into account the following provisions.

  • Removing metal in the profile of the teeth should be uniform.
  • Excessive pressure of the sharpening device must be suppressed. He can lead to anneal.
  • The profile of the canvas and the height of the teeth should remain unchanged.
  • Liquid cooling must be ensured during the operation.
  • Zausenets on the teeth should not arise.

Pay attention! Theoretical instructions for sharpening tape saws on wood notify that it should be carried out either on the front side of the teeth, or both on the back and front. In real life, most experts and amateur masters perform the operation only on the back side, t.To. This is more convenient.

Taking methods

In the photo automatic full.Profile sharpening.

You can prepare the tool for work using special sharpening devices (for example, machines with different in material and shape in circles) or manually. Before you properly sharpen the saw on the tree, you should study the main methods of conducting this operation.

The first method is full.Profile sharpening.

  • It is the highest quality, the operation is carried out on the automatic machine.
  • The elbore emery selected exactly in shape passes the entire surface of the interdental cavity at the same time with the accompanying planes of neighboring teeth in one motion.
  • The creation of angles at the tops of the teeth is completely excluded.
  • The relative minus of such a drag is the need to have at your disposal the corresponding number of circles for paintings with different profiles.
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The second method is the sharpening of the faces of the teeth.

You can do this manually and using a professional machine.

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  • Having chosen the machine, it is necessary to decide on the applied circle. As a rule, it is flat. Specialized sharpening devices should only be resorted to when there is a lot of such work.
  • In domestic conditions, sharpening is best done with your own hands. On ordinary mechanical emery or with the help of engraver. When carrying out the operation, do not forget about personal protection and use gloves, mask or special glasses.

The correct process of sharpening the tool

It is proved by practice that over 80 percent of cases of tool breakdown occurs due to improper sharpening of tape saws. The need for sharpening is determined by eye. As of the state of the walls,

Sharped circles for strip saws are selected depending on the hardness of the tooth. For sharpening tools of instrumental steel, a corundum circle is used. Bimetallic saws are pulled by a diamond or borazon abrasive. The shape of the tool for the tool should be determined based on the saw parameters. It can be cup, profile, plate and flat.

Before applying the saw in the work, it is necessary to hold it out for about eleven hours in a suspended verified state.

  • It is necessary to evenly remove the metal on the tooth profile;
  • Exclude an excessive pressure of the circle (this can lead to tooth damage);
  • Mandatory use of coolant;
  • Ensure the safety of tooth geometry;
  • Inappropriation of the formation of burrs.

The standard instruction states that the sharpening of the tool should be carried out either along the front face of the tooth, either on the back and the front. In practice, many people’s craftsmen, and professionals are sharpened exclusively on the rear face. So, in their opinion, this is more convenient.

This tool is quite unpretentious in terms of sharpening

, Despite a lot of requirements and rules. Sharpening can be done both manually and using a special sharpening device; apply circles different in material and form for processing, and t.D.

Before sharpening the tool, you need to familiarize yourself with the main types of this operation. You can also watch video on the Internet.

Types of sharpening

If you have neither engraver nor a machine, then you can sharpen the instrument with a grandfather’s ordinary method. Using a supra

With diligent and regular performance, the skill of manual quality sharpening will appear very quickly.

  • When sharpening the tool on the machine, before starting sharpening, you need to make sure that the location of the sharpening disk is about the saw.
  • It is necessary to remove such a layer of metal from the sinuses in order to guarantee to eliminate all microcracks.
  • If the saw was operated without quality maintenance, the layer of metal removed for one sharpening, the layer of metal, must be increased, it is necessary to increase.
  • As a standard, always use a new tool for checking sharpening results.
  • The shape of the cutting part of the saw is a verified and developed parameter for years. Therefore, to display your parameters and hopes for a good quality of work is not worth.
  • Subject to the rules of operation and the requirements of the manufacturer, the strip saw will last you until its width decreases to 65 percent of the original grip. The width decreases during the reinforcing of the teeth.
  • It is imperative to remove the burrs in the process of sharpening the tool, otherwise this will lead to the formation of microcracks in the process of cutting the materials.
  • After the work is completed, the tool must be immediately cleaned of sawdust and resin, and before sharpening it is necessary to carefully inspect the saw. Otherwise, click on the sharpening disk, which will lead to improper sharpening of the strip saw.

Proper divorce and sharpening of a strip saw.

Correctly pull the strip saws to check the correctness of the tension of the tape saw, perform the test for vibration. Hakanson sawblades tape saws are low tension saws, t.E. Work with a tension of 35-50% less than competing carbon saws. Non.Resistant ribbons, which provides sufficient stability, reduces the effect of the effect of fatigue with constant bend by 70% or more, therefore, significantly extends their service life. Energy consumption is reduced by 20%. Silco saw tension force should be about 100-150 kg/cm2. In particular, saws 32-51 mm wide for tape saw saws should be pulled by a force of about 130-150 kg/cm2. To measure the tension of the strip saw on your machine, there should be some device (dynamometer, manometer, etc.P.). If you don’t have it. Use our tensometer. The tension force used also largely depends on the design of your machine or sawmill. To use tape saws to the maximum extent, if possible, always try to follow the recommendations below. BUT. For machines with mechanical tension. Remove the guide rollers. You cannot conduct this check if the canvas of the strip saw is limited in horizontal movement. Make sure that the surface of the saw wheels are good condition. If they are equipped with belts, belts should not be hard, curved, split or broken. On machines with an inaccurate hillock of wedge belts, replace them to a smaller size so that they are fitted tightly. This will reduce vibrations on your machine or sawmill by more than 80%. Install the canvas on the machine and pull with the effort recommended by other manufacturers for saws from other steels. Close the casing for security purposes. Run the car by putting the switch in the cutting mode at high speed. Stand in front of the machine, hand on the tension mechanism, eyes on the strip saw. Start to loosen the canvas very slowly without taking your eyes off it. You must reach a position where the canvas begins to vibrate. When you see that the canvas begins to vibrate. You have reached a zero position. Now start adding the tension by turning the tension screw by a quarter of turn. Slowly, until the saw stops vibrating and does not begin to function stably again. At this point, add another full turn of a stretch screw. Now your canvas is stretched correctly. Disconnect the machine and put your guides back in place. You are ready to work. Always remove the tension of the canvas in breaks between work. When you weaken the tension, remember that to completely relax the saw, just turn the screw at 8-10 full speeds. For tension, it will be enough for you to turn the screw in the opposite direction to the same number of revolutions. If you do these procedures, as indicated above, it will be enough for you to perform a test for vibration only once. B. For machines with hydraulic tension. Provide the above operations. In this case, reduce and increase the pressure with steps 10-12 kg. After you eliminate vibration, add another 25 kg. Remember the pressure on the manometer scale. Always remove the saw tension in between work the next time you use the tape again, use the installations you remember so as not to repeat the test for vibration. AT. For machines with pneumatic tension. Provide the above operations. At the same time, reduce and increase the pressure of 5 kg steps. After you eliminate vibration, add another 5 kg. Remember the pressure on the manometer scale. Always remove the saw tension in between work the next time you use the tape again, use the installations you remember so as not to repeat the test for vibration. Attention: if you do not test the vibration for our saws of special silicon steel, you will pull them and will not get the wear resistance and durability that our high.Plastic saws are capable of. 2. Selection of proper lubrication for the blade of a strip saw. Never use water as a lubricant for ribbon saws. Water is not lubricant and should not be used for many reasons. Not only is the water unacceptable as lubricants, it also causes rusting the canvas, causing corrosion, and inappropriate fan of the chips. This prematurely destroys the body of the tape, and the recesses between the teeth of the saw. Water is also wet tires or wedge belts. No need to lubricate the canvas if the resin does not stick on the saw canvas. If the sticking really occurs, we can offer you the following: to get the correct lubricant, mix high.Adhesive oil for chainsaws in half with kerosene or diesel fuel. Apply the resulting mixture using a sprayer on both sides of the canvas every four minutes during the operation of the machine. After lubrication, the noise from sawing is reduced by more than 50%. Do not apply grease until the noise begins to increase. You must lubricate both sides of the saw. The lubrication of the canvas increases the life of the tape by more than 30%. Economically using lubrication, you can saw a high.Grade forest without kidding it; We also believe that this extends the service life of rubber gaskets. 3. Always weaken the tension of the strip saw. When you finish the work, remove the tension from the saw. During operation, tape saws always heat up and lengthen, and then shortened during cooling during each cooling period. Therefore, the saws left on the pulleys in a stretched state overload themselves, and they are formed from two pulleys, which causes the appearance of cracks in the hollows between the teeth. When you leave the tape on the machine under the tension, you not only deform the rim and the surface of the belts (which makes them very rough), but also apply excessive voltage to bearings and shafts. Do you want to believe. You want not, you can sooner or later damage the geometry of the pulleys and significantly reduce their service life. You also destroy your rubber gaskets and wedge belts. 4. The choice of the correct divorce of the teeth. The divorce is correct if you have a mixture of 65-70% of sawdust and 30-35% of air in the space between the canvas and the wooden wood. A sign that you have chosen the correct divorce is to remove 80-85% of sawdust from a cut. If you have too much divorce of teeth for the existing thickness of wood, then in the puncture you will have too much air and not enough sawdust. You will have overly large losses on sawdust, and perhaps this will be accompanied by traces of the teeth on the surface of the board. If you have insufficient divorce, you will not learn a strong enough air flow to remove sawdust from cut. A sign of this is hot sawdust. This can cause the most destructive harm to the strip saw: working intervals will be short, the saw will fail prematurely. Sawdust should be cold to the touch, and not warm or hot. And finally, with insufficient divorce and improper angle of sharpening, the saw will cut out the wave on the board. A typical example: if you saw a 35 centimeter log, while the sawdust is warm to the touch, the feed rate is normal, long working intervals are withstanded, and at least 85% of wood dust is sucked out. The divorce of the teeth of the saw is correct. Then you take a 60 centimeter log. It would be logical to increase the divorce of teeth with an increase in the mass of the tree by 100%. In fact, in this case you must increase the wiring of teeth by about 20%. From our point of view, you cannot work with the same wiring of teeth with logs of different diameters, drill forest and timber. You must sort timber. For every 20-25 cm increase in size, you must increase the wiring by about 18% depending on whether the wood is hard or soft, wet or dry. The only way to achieve the desired wiring. Carry out control cuts of a certain log. Increase wiring by 0.05-0.10 mm on each side until traces of teeth are visible. This means that you work when mixing air and sawdust in a ratio of 50/50. After that, reduce the wiring of the teeth by 0.75 mm on each side, and you will achieve the desired result. Very important: you must dilute only the upper third of the tooth, not the middle or lower. You do not need the cavity between the teeth to be filled completely when sawing. When you work with soft wood, whether it is wet or dry, the chips increase in volume by 4-7 times compared to its condition at the cellular level. Solid rocks of wood, wet or dry, increase in size only in 0.5-3 times, freed from the cellular structure. This means that if you saw 45 cm pine logs, you will need to dilute the teeth 20% more than when you work with the same oak logs. Always make teeth before pulling. It is necessary that the end of the tooth is located perpendicular to the tape canvas. Dilute the teeth 0.02-0.03 mm more than the required, and after sharpening, the divorce will be the way you need. It is important to know that there is a real formula for the correct divorce of teeth. For sawing logs on tape sawmills such as avant-garde-LP, we offer a series of “Silco” a 31, 38 wide, and 51 mm and tooth step 19, 22, 25 mm, respectively. The thickness of the canvas 1.07 mm. The teeth drank hardened and divorced by the company with an accuracy of 0.04 mm. Four types of wiring are provided (on both sides):. For dry hard.Faced breeds (oak, beech. ). 2.03 mm;. For moist solidolistic rocks.2.18 mm;. For dry coniferous and soft.Faced rocks.2.29 mm;. For wet coniferous and soft.Faced rocks.2.53 mm. 32 mm saw, step 19 mm soft wood soft wood with a large number of knots medium hard wood, hard wood is very hard, frozen wood recommended angle of sharpening 10 ° 8 ° 10 ° 8 ° Width width, mm wire to the side, mm wiring to the side. Mm 0-150 0.53 0.48 150-300 0.60 0.53 300-560 0.74 0.60 560-760 0.86 0.74 more than 760 0.96 0.86 saw 38 mm, step 22 mm soft wood soft wood with a large number of knots medium hard wood, hard wood is very hard, frozen wood recommended angle of sharpening 10 ° 8 ° 10 ° 8 ° Width width, mm wire to the side, mm wiring on side, mm 0-150 0.48 0.43 150-300 0.53 0.48 300-560 0.60 0.53 560-760 0.68 0.60 more than 760 0.78 0.68 saw 51 mm, step 25 mm soft wood soft wood with a large number of knots medium hard wood, solid wood is very hard, frozen wood recommended angle of sharpening 10 ° 8 ° 10 ° 8 ° Width width, mm wire to the side, mm wiring on side, mm 0-150 0.48 0.43 300-560 0.53 0.48 560-760 0.60 0.53 more than 760 0.68 0.60 5. There is only one way of pulling the tapeworm drainage. The stone should pass along the surface of the tooth down, around the base of the hollow between the teeth and up along the back of the tooth with one continuous movement. You do not need to touch the hollow itself. The space between the teeth (galllet). This is not a sawdust garbage. In fact, this is the second of the hardest part of the saw. A good gallet is like an inverted wing of the aircraft. The power flow of air, cooling of steel and the removal of sawdust depends on it. If you have the correct divorce of the teeth, the air is supplied along the log at the same speed as the saw, as a result of the sawdust, are sucked into a gall. Sawdust significantly cool it, passing around the inner and outer side of the next tooth. You need to ensure that the space between the teeth is filled by 40%, which will provide the desired degree of cooling and increase the operation of the saw. If you drag only the front and back of the tooth, you violate the integrity of the hollow, which will lead to a breakdown of the saw. So, you checked your indicator and accuracy of the divorce of teeth, which are actually divorced by 0.02-0.03 more than what you need. You twice checked the angle of feeding of the sharpening device, and it is exactly the one you need. Now you can start sharpening the saw. 6. The correct angle of sharpening. Thanks to deep galletes, we can use the reduced sharpening angles that transmit less heat to the tip of the tooth. The Silco ribbons series uses a tooth angle of 10 degrees, which is able to penetrate into most surface surfaces from medium hard to medium soft. If you work with very solid wood (for example, oak, nut, ash or frozen wood) saw, it may be raised in the process of sawing. This is called repulsion. The angle of inclination of the tooth should be reduced again to 8 °. You will notice that when the angle is switched from 10 ° to 8 °, the tooth takes a more perpendicular position, thus increases the penetrating factor. If the angle of inclination of the tip of the tooth increases from 10 ° to 12 °, this leads to a decrease in the penetrating ability in solid rocks. If you use an angle of inclination of 8 ° for soft wood saws can vibrate from overvoltage if the tree is not knotted. In the presence of solid knots, the angle of inclination should be 8 °. On the other hand, if when working with very hard wooden rocks, the angle of inclination is 12 ° tooth breaks down from a solid surface, because the end of the tooth is directed too much forward. The angle of inclination of the hook of 12 ° causes the effect of repulsion, which leads to raising the saw up. The saw tape is clamped in its movement, saws right across and at the end of the process is lowered. It also leads to overheating of the tape and its overstrain. After making sure that you put up the correct angle of inclination of the tooth, and the galllet mathematically corresponds to this inclination, you will achieve direct sawing. You must understand that the divorce of the teeth and setting the angle of inclination of the tooth are interconnected, they work together. We produce tape saws with four types of teeth divorce with a tooth tilt angle of 10 °. Whatever you saw, in 70% of cases this angle of inclination is ideal for work. Caution: you trust templates and measuring instruments on your machine machine. But they are hardly accurate. Cars wear out. Pins and guides, along which the back of the tape on the embankment is moving, wear out. The tape begins to slide at the corner, only at a corner of several degrees, and you are not able to notice it, but you feel that something is wrong as you just start working on a sharpened tape. To get an idea of ​​the degree of wear of your sharpening machine, think about the next. The saw tape with a length of 4000 mm will pass along the sharpening device at least twice with each sharpening. Six sawing rules. The angle of inclination of the teeth imprisoned 50 tapes. In general, this will be 400 m of the length of the ribbons, which rub the back side of the centering pin, spinning them. How will you find out if the angle of inclination of the tooth is correctly set? Using a transporter. Without it, you can assume that the angle of inclination is set correctly. We have analyzed over 4000 drank since 1992. And more than half of all problems came from the wrong assumption that the angle of sharpening was set correctly.

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Myths and reality of tape sawing. Part 4.One

Work on tape.Saw machines, or, as they are more often called, tape sawmills, however, like on any other equipment, consists of two main parts. Organizational and technical. Very many neglect the first part, in vain thinking that all organizational issues can be resolved directly in the process of work. The result of such neglect is a barely breathing or closing production. In this article I will try to describe the problems that should be solved before the purchase of equipment.

We are often asked: on the strip sawmill of which manufacturer and in what configuration it is best to cut? It seems to many that our rich experience in communicating with hundreds of owners of sawmills and with almost all their manufacturers, knowledge of the problems that they face daily, will help give an accurate answer to this “simple” question. In fact, in the list of questions on sawing, this, although a very important issue should be in last place. Those who first bought a sawmill and only then thought how to organize work on it, usually this very work was organized for a very long time, and some could not establish production at all to receive 500-1,000, and not 50-100 from a sawn cubic meter The pilot. Over, most often they dump all the failures on the fact that they bought the wrong sawmill.

In order to get good profit when sawing the sawtropol with narrow (27-60 mm wide) tape saws, first you need to solve several basic issues. Over, without solving at least one of the issues listed below, it is better not to take up such a sawing in general, because otherwise you will receive a lot of problems and a continuous headache.

It is imperative to independently work as a driver and sharpener on the current sawmill. It is to work for 1-2 weeks, and not look at work for 1-2 hours. If you do not, then you can never understand the subtleties of production. As a result, the driver and sharpeners will bring many reasons why they cannot work better, and you will not be able to correctly assess the fidelity of their arguments, which means that you are unlikely to get the maximum profit.

Will you be able to be in production for almost 10-12 hours for at least the first year to control and debug the entire process of work? Do not think that this can be entrusted to your companion or even more hired master. Unfortunately, it is rare to trust a companion, and any hired masters most often deceive entrepreneurs. I know more than one example when, in poorly working industries without constant control of owners, hired masters live very well.

It is necessary to decide how the sawn iron will be cut: a) to order, cutting the necessary sizes of lumber from the pillar, that is, neophtimal, losing 10-15 % of the possible output each time, saving a little at storage expenses; b) with the optimal reveal of each logs, getting the maximum output of lumber, but at the same time partially sending finished products to the warehouse, with a delay in the sale of non.Waste sizes, that is, with a slight freezing in working capital, although in the end and as a result there is more profit.

Whether you yourself will first cut the pillar with the optimal output of lumber and train your assistant to work in such a way, or you already have an experienced driver who will work perfectly, and not just “drive cubes”. Almost all engineers receive a salary for sawn cubic meters of the sawtropol, and not for the wiped lumber obtained from this pillar. Therefore, it is more profitable for them to quickly cut thick boards, a beam and take another log. Large horses and large parts when cutting an unspeakable board usually go to waste. And this is the undertaken profit. Depending on how correctly the production is organized, the percentage of the output of finished products can range from 50 to 75 %.

To decide how the driver will receive saws: a) you will simply give them out as necessary, that is, the driver will not be interested in the long work of the saw and will be able to calmly tear them one after another, and you will only listen to their claims, that the rabble does not know how to listen Drink, and the sharpener is incorrectly sharpen the saw, and count your losses; b) interest everyone in a careful attitude to the saw and sawmill.

Here is an example. Payment to the workers is calculated as follows: for the cut of 1 m³ of the pilot, the driver receives 76, two assistants. 62 only 200 includes 850 if the saw was torn on a nail, the new one is issued free of charge. The sharpener receives an average salary (if serves several saws) from all driver. Thus, they are all interested in the saws work as long as possible. And now no one needs to follow them.

The drivers are more closely monitored by the work of the sawmills, since even its small dilutions (beating pulleys, walking of the saw on pulleys, a change in the correct installations of guide rollers, uneven supply of coolants, stealing cleansing scrapers, etc.) In addition to the formation of waves on lumber, they also lead to an accelerated gap of a saw, which is very unprofitable for them. And any malfunction is most easily eliminated at the beginning. There will be less marriage, and the subsequent possible large repair downtime are practically excluded. In order not to be large waste, you can use various fines systems. As practice shows, one or two times fined driver lead the cut much more competent. But all this works only when there are several brigades and driver in extreme cases, you can replace it with an assistant. When the driver works alone, it is very difficult to cope with him.

Find a good mechanic in advance, that is, a person who will debug the work of the sawmill and will constantly monitor it, supporting in good condition.

Solve the problem of the preparation site of strip saws, given that any sawmill is only a device for stretching a saw with a set of service functions. The quality of the lumber obtained by sawing (the accuracy of the size, straightforwardness (without a wave) of the surface), and the productivity of the sawmill (the amount of lumber drafted per unit of time, that is, the actually profit) almost completely depend (with a adjusted sawmill) on the proper daily training of saws. There are two options: a) to find in advance a highly qualified sharpener that will be able to prepare saws on inexpensive low.Quality and morally obsolete and morally obsolete and divorce machines daily (most often). The result of such preparation is rapidly torn saws, low.Quality lumber (wave on the surface), small performance; b) you can buy immediately, having paid a little more, good sharpening and divorce machines, on which almost any person will be able to cook saws and make a sawing with maximum profit with a high.Quality daily. How to choose the right hot and divorce machine, was told in the previous issues of the magazine.

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Cutting and Drying Wood Cookies

Types of stripping ribbon saws

Like any other tool, the strip saw is worn after each cutting cycle. This is a natural and inevitable process. That is why each drain type saw needs regular and qualified maintenance. Wiring and sharpening. Such maintenance allows not only to maintain a cutting canvas in working condition, but also to significantly increase its life.

Increase the service life of the cutting canvas and significantly improve its functionality allows the correct wiring. The meaning of this operation is as follows: the cutting teeth of the saw bend in different directions, which allows reducing the friction force during cutting, as well as minimize the risk of closing the canvas with a processed part. Warring the strip saw can be performed according to three schemes, the choice of which depends on the type of material processed.

  • With the so.Called cleaning type of wiring, the teeth are bent in such a way that every third of them remains untouched. Such a scheme is used if the cutting canvas is used for the cut of particularly solid metals and alloys.
  • The classic type of wiring involves an alternate extension of each cutting tooth.
  • With wavy wiring, each cutting tooth is bent to a certain angle. It is clear that this type of wiring is the most difficult of all others.

To bend the teeth of the strip saw, special equipment is used to perform such a technological operation quickly and as accurately as possible. According to generally accepted standards, the maximum wiring of the teeth should not exceed 0.7 mm, but usually its value is in the range of 0.3–0.6 mm. It is important not only to choose the type of wiring, focusing on the characteristics of the material that has to be sawed, but also to perform it correctly, bending the teeth only by 1/3 or 2/3 of their heights.

After wiring, you can send a cutting canvas to a machine for sharpening tape saws. As statistics show, tape saws most often lose their functionality due to the fact that their sharpening was done incorrectly or untimely. The indicator that the strip saw needs wiring and further sharpening on the machine, is increased roughness of the surface of the saw. The need for such a procedure can also be determined by the appearance of cutting teeth.

The main elements of any sharpening machines are circles, the choice of which, first of all, depends on the hardness of the material used for the manufacture of cutting teeth. In order to sharpen hard materials, it is necessary to use the corresponding circles. So, for sharpening with bimetal.Type paintings, sharpeners consisting of borazon or diamond elements are chosen, and to put the saw made of instrumental steels in order, corundum circles are quite suitable.

strip, hand, wood, correctly

Tools for sharpening the ribbon.Type saws are chosen both in composition and in constructive performance. For different in design and the size of paintings in machines, circles of the following types can be used:

A set of Wood-Mizer devices for sharpening and wiring tape saws

According to the instructions, when sharpening a strip saw on the machine, you should monitor compliance with the following requirements.

  • There should not be burrs on the surface of the tooth when sharpening it.
  • The torching circle should remove the same layer of metal throughout the tooth profile.
  • In order to avoid overheating of the teeth, when they turn them on the machine, a special liquid should be used for cooling.
  • When sharpening, the profile and height of the processed teeth should not change.
  • Must be monitored by the pressure that the circle of the sharpening machine for the tooth is provided. If you neglect this requirement, the pressure can be too significant, which can lead to annealing of teeth.

To facilitate the process of sharpening, the canvas of the strip saw is pre.Twisted and in this state is suspended for 10-12 hours.

Sharpening of a tape type with his own hands has some features. In such cases, as a rule, the back surface of the teeth is sharpened, although if you use the manufacturer’s instructions or watch a thematic video, you can sharpen their front surface.

Forms of the cutting part and angle of sharpening

At the first stage, the type of tape saw is determined. The main indicator is the shape of the teeth. Depending on this parameter, they are divided into dividing, carpentry or designed for sawing logs. The original geometry and the angle of wiring are determined by the manufacturer. This data is recommended to be recognized at the stage of purchasing components. They are needed to determine the parameters of the machine.

For solid types of wood, the value of the front angle should be minimal. This provides optimal contact of the processing material with metal. If you plan to process soft varieties. To increase the processing speed, you can use models with a large value of the front angle.

The determining parameters for independent updating the cutting edge are:

  • The step of the tooth. This is the distance between the cutting elements of the structure. Frequent values ​​- 19, 22 and 25 mm;
  • Tooth height. The value from its base to the top;
  • Injection. The main meaning that you need to know for the formation of a cutting plane. For carpentry models, it is 35 °. In dividing saws, the angle is from 18 ° to 22 °. In structures for processing the beam-10 °.15 °;
  • Divorce. Determines the deviation of the tooth from the common plane of the canvas.

After performing work on the machine, these characteristics should ideally remain unchanged. For each model, the manufacturer determines the maximum deviation value. If it is achieved during operation, it is necessary to purchase a new model.

In order to eliminate resonance in some types of cutting tools, a variable step of the location of the teeth is made. This does not affect manual sharpening, but requires a thorough installation of parameters during automated.

Types of wiring. The nuances of the operation

Before you make a divorce on a strip saw, you should first determine the type of bending. In total, several types are used:

  • Classic divorce. It differs in that the teeth alternately bend in different directions. That is, one element bends to the left, the second. To the right;
  • Cleaning. Slightly different from the first option. Its essence is that two teeth are divorced in different directions, and the third remains unchanged. Divorce of tape sawmill in this way is done in the case of cutting a solid tree;
  • Wavy. The most difficult method in execution. Here, the size of the bending of each tooth is individual, which provides a wavy configuration of the cutting edge.

Before making a divorce on tape sawmills, several important nuances should be taken into account:

  • The size of the bend on all teeth should be the same (does not belong to the wavy method);
  • The cutting element should not bend at the base, but only in its parts;
  • The force should be applied to a strictly defined point.

Now about how to properly breed tape saws for saws. As already noted, this operation is performed on a special machine. The essence of the work is that the canvas is fixed in the bed. Then the indicator is calibrated. Next, the lever is installed, which will bend (the place of application is selected).

After installation work, the operator bends the tooth, while controlling the indicator the size of its bending. Then the tape moves in the bed and the operation is repeated, but with another cutting element.

The external manifestation of the fact that your saw is divorced correctly is that 80-85% of sawdust is thrown out of a sawdrop.

In the case when you divorced the saw too much, there is a lot of air and insufficient removal of the number of sawdust.

In the case of not before wiring the saw on the surface of the board, tightly pressed hot sawdust remains.

A saw that is divorced too much will cut with jerks, the diluted will not be enough to saw in waves.

Another very important point: only the upper third of the tooth should be diluted, only an acute corner should participate in the process of sawing at the very top of the tooth.

Sharpen a saw with a minimum metal removal (t.E. Clean the burrs) and then breed.

If there is a problem with sawing, then read 13 points below. This will help you.

At the entrance to the log, the saw makes up and saws exactly almost to the end of the log, after which it falls down. This phenomenon is called “squeezing”, t.E. The saw is squeezing. This is caused by too much angle of tooth sharpening. The angle of sharpening by a couple of degrees should be reduced.

At the entrance to the log, the saw makes up and the board turns out the curve “Like a saber”. This is caused, most likely by the fact that the angle of sharpening is too large, and the divorce is insufficient. Reduce the angle of sharpening of the tooth and increase the divorce. The saw “dives” down and the board turns out the curve “like a saber”. This is caused by insufficient sharpening angle and insufficient wiring at the same time. The angle of sharpening by a couple of degrees should be increased and the divorce increases.

There are too many sawdust on the board, and they are loose to the touch. Divorce is insufficient, it should be increased. Reduce the angle of sharpening.

Sawed it in a wave. If the saw is acute, then this occurs due to too small a divorce, the divorce should be increased.

Dumb, never rewinded saw cracks on the tooth hollows. This is due to the fact that the canvas is not divided enough for the work that they are trying to do, or by the fact that they continued to saw the canvas after it was swept away.

The saw is covered with cracks in the back. This is due to the fact that the rear stops of the guide rollers are too far from the back of the canvas.

Sawdust “roll” on the canvas on the canvas. It is caused by the fact that the saw is not divided enough and there is no enough air in the sawdust, the saw canvas rubs on the sawdust, heats up and wood dust is baked at the saw. Increase divorce.

Sawdust “roll” on the inner surface of the tooth, but this does not happen on the surface of the saw. This is due to the poor sharpening quality (too much supply or too large a metal removal and, as a result, poor surface quality on the tooth hollows), or too much an angle of tooth sharpening, or by the fact that they continued to saw the canvas after it has already become dull.

After sharpening, the canvas is covered with cracks on the cavities of the teeth. During the re.Plating, at a time it was removed too much metal as a result of which it will turn out to the heaps of the tooth.

Many problems are created by the fact that the sharpening stone is not often and neatly refuel.

Do not forget that whatever the perfect machine you use to saw wood, this is just the device “pulling” the saw through the log. The final result depends on 90% of the correctness of the saw and only 10% of the machine settings as a whole.

Do not forget that the sawing of an undesirable saw. This is the fastest way to break it.

Angle of sharpening. This is the angle of deviation of the end of the tooth from the vertical. The sharpening angle recommended for most cases is 10-12 degrees. For sawing solid and frozen wood, an angle of sharpening 8-10 degrees. For working with soft rocks 12-15 degrees.

Wrestling of teeth. This is an important factor affecting the characteristics of the blade. Remember that when sharpening teeth and reducing their height, the wiring is also reduced.

Sharpening parameters of a strip saw depending on the breed of the processed wood (given in the table.).

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