What are wood cutters for?
Variety of shank diameters
You have to choose the right shank to fit a certain collet. Its diameter can be measured in millimeters or inches. If the diameter is specified in millimeters, the most popular are 6, 8 and 12 mm. But among “inch” cutters, only two sizes are widespread. 1/4 and 1/2 inch.
You can try converting inches to millimeters, getting 6.35 and 12.7 mm, but they can’t replace 6 and 12 mm shanks. The enormous rotational speed of the mill does not allow even the slightest deviation, so that if you try to install the wrong cutter, the tool can fail. And this is only in the best case.
Types of blades for woodworking router bits
There are three types of blades on milling cutters with vertical, inclined and spiral arrangement. On the quality of the blades depends on the effectiveness of the milling equipment, so it is necessary to learn what materials are produced blades for the tools in question. They come in:
- High-speed steels are marked HM, and are used for soft wood
- Carbide are used for processing hard wood. They differ from high speed steels in that they have high technical properties, which adversely affects their cost
The type of steel used for the manufacture of certain types of cutters is indicated in the form of markings on the shank of the nozzle. Working with wood requires an appropriate approach, so if you have to do a lot of work, you need to buy a hand router and a set of nozzles in the form of wood cutters.
What it is?
In terms of design, the milling machine is extremely simple.
Can a simple NPC become self aware?. Wood Cutter
Its versatility is due to the capabilities of cutting tools and tooling.
When rotating axially at high speeds, the working edge comes into contact with the surface of the part and cuts off a layer of material of a certain thickness.
Using a variety of tools and techniques, milling contractors achieve high quality and precision results. The tool plunges into the workpiece and creates a notch that conforms to its configuration and dimensions.
The main advantage of the hand router is considered easy and safe processing of parts of large size and area. Stationary machines are designed to work with steel workpieces, but manual machines are designed for machining softer types of material:
Most router bits have several working surfaces and can perform their functions by feeding the workpiece in different directions. Stationary machines move the workpiece, hand routers themselves move over the surface of the workpiece, but the general principle does not change from this. The range of functions available in hand-held machines is much wider than in stationary machines. The arsenal of hand routers includes the following operations:
- edge treatment;
- Creation of grooves or ridges;
- creation of decorative elements, relief ornaments;
- copying parts of different shapes and configurations;
- production of slots for fitting elements, mechanisms, handles and other furniture accessories.
Important! This is by no means an exhaustive list of the possibilities of the hand tool. In skillful hands it turns into a multifunctional device, allowing to create products of complex configuration with high accuracy and purity of processing. The quality of work depends on the skill of the craftsman and on the availability of the necessary cutting tools.
To perform a particular operation, the appropriate cutting tool is installed in the chuck of the machine tool. Various designs of end mills are used for hand routers, representing a shank with a diameter of 6,8 or 12 mm, and the working part with cutting edges. There are different designs with specific capabilities. Let us have a look at types of milling cutters and their purpose.
Varieties of common cutting tool design
- prefabricated. Consists of a shank and a steel ingot to which the cutting edges are rigidly mounted. Provide high quality machining, practically maintenance-free. chipping or chipping away of the cutting edges from the base is a disadvantage. Can be used for the production of furniture facades;
- With replaceable edges. Designed for volume production where the cutting part dulls or fails quickly. The rest of the tool is quite serviceable, so it is reasonable to change the blade and continue working. Usually made with double-sided blades that are reversed as they fail. Complete replacement of the cutting part is also possible;
- Monolithic. This type of tool is made from a single piece. Have a high strength, resistance to stress, but the service life of such cutters is relatively short. They do not allow for overheating, high speeds or blunt edges quickly put the tool out of commission.
The vast majority of commercially available tools are prefabricated. They are inexpensive, with a high durability. Cutters with replaceable edges are less common, as they require some skill and experience. They are also much more expensive than prefabricated tools, limiting demand. Monolithic designs are used for machining of hard materials and require following certain rules, cutting modes. Sharpening such cutters is a difficult task and requires experience, so most home masters try not to use them.
By type of blade
Blade configuration is a factor that forms the cutting mode of the material. Cutters with straight edges work on the principle of knife shafts of planing machines, cut down a certain layer of material. Spiral edges cut into the surface, which provides a cleaner finish but reduces productivity. According to the type of metal the blades are:
The first type is designed for machining at high speeds. A special type of metal is used. high-speed steel that is made especially for tool production. The second type of blade is made for machining hard types of material. They are more fragile, the price of such tools is noticeably higher. The highest quality blades are almost impossible to sharpen by conventional means, but are able to cut the hardest materials. It is recommended to operate them at relatively low speeds.
What are wood router bits for?
If you have already bought your first hand router. time to complete it. A beginner woodworker will need a basic set of wood cutters, namely:
- A router-job cutter for creating table tops with round edges;
- semicircular fillet cutter for imitation of a fillet;
- groove straight cutter for making homemade devices of different shapes;
- The rebate router for forming recesses in the back wall;
- Cutter for frame strapping, which will be needed to cut the fasteners and joints;
- copy milling cutter for clean edge forming without subsequent grinding.
I’m sure you already know what cutters are used for (and if you don’t, check out our article “ Wood cutters: detailed classification ”). So, now is the time to understand how to distinguish good from bad, as well as when it is worth saving and when you can’t do it.
Choosing a cutter for a hand router, you should consider its characteristics according to such criteria:
Quality of the carbide
Shows itself in the life of the cutter and in the cleanliness of the work. Optimal hardness of the alloy is 58-62 HRC. You can check the monolithic cutter for the hardness of the alloy at home. Take a calibrated file and run it over the working part of the tool. High-quality carbide will not leave any visible marks on the surface of the cutter.
Angle of attack
Some manufacturers grind at a high angle, others prefer a smaller sharpening angle. When choosing, it seems that a cutter with a high sharpening angle cuts faster and cleaner.
However, the higher the angle of attack, the faster the wood cutter wears out. We recommend choosing cutters with medium or low sharpening angle: they will last longer and will go through several resharpening sessions.
Brazing quality and solder material
It is said that the soldering on the mill should be done so “purely”, The cutter should not lose its steadiness even after prolonged use. This is especially important if you work with hardwood. hornbeam, oak, pear, walnut, etc.
They say the solder material should contain more silver and copper (like PS p40 and PSr 37.5 solder grades). Then the soldering strength will be sufficient. If you use other brands of solder, the alloy is likely to contain more nickel. and therefore will be less durable.
We don’t think this is quite the case. We’ve noticed in our work that even the cheapest cutters don’t lose stability when working. and if they do, they wear out before they do.
One last little tip!
Among other things, the quality of your router work is also influenced by whether you have additional attachments. Better yet, buy a set of stops and templates. Then you can put everything you need into practice and start lathe work. and most importantly, desire and inspiration!
Here is a detailed review of the CMT cutter catalog, also here you can learn more about CNC router bits.
Cutters for a hand router on wood
One of the simple and common methods of processing any wood is considered to be milling. Like any other tool, the router has some of its own features and varieties. When choosing one, it is important to determine the type of cutter that can be used for the job. Hand routers are most often used in woodworking, particularly for custom furniture making.
Cutter set for router
Buying cutters by the piece is quite expensive. It is better to buy a set at once. Set, of course, has a higher cost than a single cutter, but if you buy the same cutters separately, you will spend a lot more. There are many such kits available and they are sold at any store. Consider the five most common sets from the company Diold:
- the first set has six edge milling cutters with radii of 3, 4, 5, 6, 8 and 10 mm, equipped with a support bearing from below. The shank of all cutters has a diameter of 8 mm
- the second set has 12 router bits. When you buy the kit, you get two edge milling cutters with 6.35 and 9.5 mm radius and with support bearing; one shaper cutter with two 4 mm radius and with support bearing; three end mills with 6, 12 and 16 mm diameter; one end mill with 12.7 mm diameter; one corner mill (90 degree angle) with 12.7 mm outside diameter. There is also one groove cutter with a radius of 6.35 mm; one end radius cutter with a radius of 6.35 mm and a support bearing; one end mill with a 45 degree angle with a support bearing, and one groove (under the dovetail) cutter with a face diameter of 12.7 mm and an angle of 14 degrees. Such a great set will be a true helper for the beginner carpenter, because it helps to perform different types of works on creation of simple pieces of furniture
- The third set contains 16 items. It is very similar to the previous set. In addition to the above, you will find 3 and 12.7 mm diameter end mills, a 3.2 mm radius slot cutter and a 6.3 mm special drill
- the fourth set is designed for professional carpenters. The set contains 12 router bits of reinforced design with all the functions of the second set
- the fifth set has some similarities with the fourth, but it has 20 router bits of reinforced design with a wide variety of features and the addition of a face groove cutter with a width of 9.5 mm and a diameter of 32 mm. The set is also designed for professional craftsmen.
In addition to the above sets the company Diold have another 10 sets, complete with cutters in various combinations. The choice of kits is wide enough, any master will pick up suitable for himself.
Wood router bits: types and kinds. Overview
When choosing a router, you should decide how it will be attached to the router. Here we are talking about the units of measurement of the diameter of the shank:
- Shanks, which are measured in millimeters, are usually marked. 6, 8, 12 and 16. These are the most common dimensions in millimeters.
- There is a measurement in inches. half and quarter.
If you translate inches into the millimeters we’re used to, you get 12.7 and 6.35. The difference, as you can see, is not big, but it is important, because the wrong tool can no longer be mounted in the wrong size. The diameter of the shank will directly depend on the collet. This is the sleeve in which the shank is clamped. Be sure to pay attention to this parameter in order to buy the right cutter for the mount.
Milling machine shaft can produce up to 25 thousand revolutions per minute, so a reliable attachment is your safety and long service of the tool.
According to the type of construction wood cutters are divided:
- Assembled. The base is used as a blanks of the desired shape, and already to it the cutting edges are welded. Let’s note right away that now such modifications are in the majority.
- With replaceable edges. Longer service life, knives are reversible. If a cutter blade becomes blunt, it can be simply turned over.
- Monolithic. Cutting edges become an integral part of the base, the blade 100% will not break off, but it is impossible to replace it.
According to the type of blade location cutters are divided into:
It is important to remember that inclined cutters cut pieces of wood from the workpiece, which increases the quality of work and reduces the risk of splinters. The straight ones just “chop” the wood, so they are only good for roughing.
According to the material cutters are divided into:
- HM. These are the markings for quick-cutting cutters, which are only suitable for working with soft wood.
- HSS. These are hard-alloy milling cutters that can work with hardwood. The price, of course, is higher.
Let’s find out what type of cutters you need for each type of woodworking.
- If you need to make a hole for furniture fittings. You need a specific burr cutter for blind holes. They come in a variety of diameters, so choose according to the size of your hardware on which you want to mount, such as a cabinet door.
- You need to work the edge of a coffee table or simple tabletop, or make an original cut on a beautiful piece of wood. You need special edge mills, they are often called end mills. If you work with templates, you can use straight edge routers that have lower or upper bearings. There are also disc, shaped, fillet, bar, half-pin, cone, shaped edge milling cutters, which allow you to create the desired profile.
- You need to create a groove in wood of a certain shape and depth. In this case, you will need groove cutters, which can be of different diameters, with two or one blade. There are slot cutters, for example, to create V-grooves or create rounded grooves. This type also includes “dovetail” cutters, which help to create grooves to connect various joinery workpieces. Grooving cutters include fillet cutters that make U-shaped notches as well as rebate cutters that create a longitudinal groove in the edge of the workpiece.
If you. If you are a beginner carpenter, we advise you to buy the following types of cutters first:
The design of any router bits includes two main elements: the shank and the working part.
- Shank enables fastening of the cutter in the chuck of the machine used. By design, the shank of a hand router tool can be cylindrical or tapered, and there is also often a flattened surface on the shank to prevent it from slipping in the chuck. In addition to ensuring secure fixture in the hand-held router chuck, the shank also ensures that the tool penetrates the material to the required depth. Selected models are equipped with a bearing on their shanks, which serves as a stop that guides the workpiece in the correct direction during machining. Because of this design, the edge of the workpiece is properly shaped with the hand router, and the fixture itself is subjected to minimal wear because of the easy replacement of the bearing. over, such a bearing nozzle does not need a copying ring mounted on a hand router, which greatly simplifies the work.
- The working part of the tool for a manual milling machine performs the main work. it determines the shape and qualitative characteristics of the processed surface. This element has a monolithic design (all made of high-speed steel) or it is equipped with interchangeable set disks fixed on the central axis. The second design variant is more expensive, but it is more practical, as it allows, using one shank, to create tools with different configuration of the working part on its basis (the so called slip-on milling cutters).
Design of cutters with carbide inserts
According to the material of manufacture, tools for hand routers are divided into two main types.
- Cutters made of high-speed steels are designated by the HSS marking. Tools made of this material perform well when processing soft wood with a hand router, but when working with hardwood, they quickly overheat and blunt. One big advantage of this milling cutter type is, among others, its low cost.
- Wood router tools can have a cutting part made of carbide plates. Such products, which are mainly used for hardwood, can be identified by the HM designation. Although they are subject to slower wear, it is difficult to obtain a high-quality cut in soft wood. However, milling must be carried out at slower speeds than with HSS cutters.
Wood cutters for hand routers also differ in the shape of their cutting teeth, which can be straight or helical. Straight cutters, while easier to service, blunt faster. In addition, chipping and scoring can occur when using such cutters for wood with a heterogeneous structure.
Tools for manual milling machines, the cutting teeth of which are arranged in a helical line, allow to get a practically perfect milled surface. Meanwhile, the use of such cutters is associated with certain difficulties, which consist in the fact that for sharpening you need to use special equipment, so if they lose their cutting properties, they are often simply replaced by new ones.
The angle at which the working edge is sharpened is also important. This angle, the value of which is chosen depending on the characteristics of the material to be sharpened, usually does not exceed 90°. The design of the cutting edge, in addition to the front and rear occlusal surfaces, also includes a rather complex configuration of the surface, which is responsible for efficient chip evacuation from the machining area. It should be borne in mind that without a properly formed chipbreaker it will not be possible to perform high-speed milling.
Set milling tools (router bits) are often performed with double sharpening of the cutting part, which allows you to double their working life. Once one of the working elements, of which the cutting part consists, becomes blunt, it is simply turned over by 180°. Meanwhile, working milling bits with double sharpening due to the peculiarities of their design can not be performed in a complex configuration, which significantly reduces the efficiency of their use and, accordingly, the quality of the result of processing.
Correct preparation for work. key to success
As you can see, a milling machine. tool is absolutely necessary if you are engaged in the manufacture of furniture, windows, doors.
However, before proceeding directly to milling, you should properly prepare the workplace and tools.
- Determine for yourself what speed you need the router to work at. You also have to be aware of the cutting depth.
- The material to be milled must be firmly fixed. For this purpose, it is possible to use clamp cutters.
- To achieve an effective result, it is important to choose the right cutter.
Also clearly determine what task you will perform. Because each cutter has its own specific shape, width, length, shank and cutting part. Flat routers align surfaces, shaped routers. decorate, carving. rounded edges, rectangular ones make grooves and grooves. V-shaped cutters are needed to form holes at an angle and cut out inscriptions, rebates. to create a quarter, a dovetail cutter is suitable for cutting studs (connections of parts in the furniture industry).
Working with a hand router on wood involves the use of various milling devices. the most popular tool. Vertical milling machine. it has a spindle positioned vertically, on top of the workpiece. It is ideal for machining the edges of parts, creating grooves, tenon joints, etc.
If your task is. If you are milling a circular workpiece, you must use an additional element. special scraper. It guarantees the exact size of the circle, which is aided by the support plate.