What are wood saws. Blade length and shape
Types and characteristics of wood hacksaws
It is impossible to imagine a professional carpenter or carpenter without a wood hacksaw, and in everyday life it is used quite often. The widespread use of this tool has contributed to the appearance of its various types, designed for certain operations.
In order to choose a pruning saw correctly, one must study its characteristics, imagine what exactly needs to be sawn with it and how often it will be used.
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Like any common tool designed to do a lot of work, a wood hacksaw is classified in several ways.
By type of cut and application
Saws can be cross-cutting, longitudinal (circular) or universal. These types differ from each other in tooth shape.
Saws designed for longitudinal sawing have a triangular, oblique-triangular form. Angle between them is from 45 to 60°, which allows you to cut wood only in one direction, while providing accurate and straight line for trimmer cut. They are most commonly used in furniture construction.
Saws with teeth resembling an isosceles triangle are used for cross-cutting wood. 45-55° cutting angle enables to cut workpieces both in forward and backward direction. These saws work most effectively on dry wood.
The multi-purpose hacksaw has two kinds of teeth. triangular and semi-circular (with the semi-circular being larger than the triangular). As the saw moves forward, the long prongs guide the saw, and the triangular-shaped, wider prongs enlarge the cut, so sawdust and shavings can escape unhindered. the smaller the angle between these teeth, the more accurate the cut.
Depending on their application, wood hacksaws are available as classic, cupped and spiked. Classic saws are used for longitudinal or transverse cutting of wood. Cogged wood sabre saws are designed for cutting holes and holes in logs. Grip saws are used to form elements for joining individual parts.
According to tooth size
One of the basic parameters of any wood saw is the size of the teeth. The size is understood as the pitch, that is, the distance between neighboring tips. Depending on this parameter, saws can have teeth:
Fine-toothed hacksaws (2.0 to 2.5 mm).) make precise cuts in wood and are most often used to cut very small workpieces.
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Saws with big teeth (4 to 6 mm) are used for cutting logs or boards.
Saws with medium serration (3.0 to 3.5 mm) used for workpieces with small dimensions.
There are also kinds of manual wood saws with teeth arranged in groups of 6-7 pieces, separated from each other by gaps. Raw wood is handled with such a tool. Gaps in the blade prevent slushy chips from clogging the sawing channel.
Classification by Design
Structurally there are several types of wood saws:
Narrow hacksaw blanks, the thickness of which does not exceed 10 cm. They are also used for filing garden branches, sawing curved pieces and other works. Structurally, these saws consist of a narrow blade with triangular teeth, connected to the L-shaped handle.
Standard hacksaw blades (GOST 2615-84) can have any kind of teeth. They are often equipped with sets of interchangeable blades for a wide range of carpentry and joinery work.
When machining hardwood the blades of hacksaws can bend significantly. This disadvantage is eliminated by saws the blades of which are equipped with a bead that acts as an additional rib of rigidity. However, its presence does not allow to make a cut deeper than the width of the blade itself.
A hacksaw with an award-winning blade resembles a planer in appearance. It has two handles and is used when it is necessary to make grooves or spikes. The depth of these elements can vary.
Bow saw is a blade stretched on a base made in the form of a large arc. It is connected to the handle with a threaded or tensioned connection, which allows you to use different types of blades during work. This in turn makes it possible to cut workpieces with complex cutting lines alone.
On the market you can also find folding wood hacksaws. They are very light and small when folded, which makes it possible for outdoor enthusiasts to take them with them on hikes or fishing trips. This saw has a short, pointed blade with small teeth.
There are other types of wood hacksaws. Among them, the garden hand saw, equipped with a narrow blade, for the manufacture of which chromium steel is used, is distinguished. It has widely spaced tines angled toward the handle. It’s great for those cases where you have to pull against yourself when sawing.
There is a two-handed saw, with which it is convenient to cut large logs or cut down trees. It must be operated by two people.
Hand chain saw is a short chain with hardened teeth and two handles on the ends. It is compact and suitable for camping trips. You can work with one person or two.
A modern and versatile tool. electric hacksaw, with which you can perform a large amount of different works. In some cases it is quite a substitute for a circular saw. Changing the blades, they saw with it not only wood, but also plastic, metal.
Whatever carpentry work you do, the end saw blade will cut the material at the required angle. With this tool, the craftsman can not only rotate the disc to cut at the desired angle, but also tilt the blade to cut chamfers.
In this segment there is a smaller range, but the power of the devices is enormous. A lot of work is much easier to do with an electric hacksaw than trying to cut everything with a handheld unit.
- Band saw. There are two main types: stationary and portable. It cuts materials in straight or curved lines according to given parameters. Does it quickly, efficiently and without much waste. and more bars and restaurants are using this slicing machine for industrial cuts in recent years.
- Chain saw. A well-known model that is often used in logging and orchards. The name implies that the main element is considered to be the chain, on which the sharp teeth are located. Its rapid spinning action activates the mechanism and cuts even large pieces of wood in seconds.
- Cut-off saw. Circular saw with the ability to move from place to place. Not only used with wood, but also capable of making a smooth cut even on stone.
- Circular. Here the large disc has sharp, large teeth. This model is used to work with wood, stone, plastic, concrete, metal.
- Combination. Circular saw with blade suspended on a bracket that can be adjusted to different heights and angles. Widely used in furniture industry and woodworking.
- Floor. As the name implies, it is a portable tool for adjusting floorboards. First of all, it is necessary for craftsmen who regularly engage in laying laminate, parquet and other materials.
- Electric jigsaw. Handy portable tool, able to cut curves and straight lines with great accuracy and without much waste.
- Circular saw. Reminds you of a handsaw. Indispensable when working with various materials that require precise measuring and angular sawing.
- Radial. Sharp disc on large handle above the table. It makes cuts and notches in wood for a variety of purposes. In doing so, precisely regulates the angle of inclination and the clarity of the lines.
- Saber. Similar to the jigsaw, but differed by the short blade that moves up and down. Designed for cutting pipes, wood and metal products. Indispensable when dismantling walls.
- Rotary. Universal model. In addition to cutting, it also grinds, sharpens, engraves and performs other tasks.
- Spiral. Moves in complex patterns, cutting curves. They are indispensable tools for people making arts and crafts or furniture.
- Table. widely used for woodworking or making lots of cuts.
The level of development of electrical engineering is high today. Before buying, analyze your own requirements to meet the most pressing needs.
All about choosing a wood hacksaw
Today there are different modifications of goods, each of them is designed for a certain type of work. That’s why the choice is more complicated. So let’s see what to look for when choosing a hacksaw.
The blade. it is the main element of the device and it determines its characteristics. The length of the blade is important. it can range from 25 to 50 cm. The longer the blade, the larger the items the hacksaw cuts. Less effort is required. But there is a disadvantage: a long blade is more springy, which is uncomfortable. This is especially noticeable during the processing of hardwood: oak, ash, maple, t.п.
Therefore the masters recommend to adhere to the rule: the length of the blade should be twice as big as the area to be sawed. This ratio ensures comfortable machining. A smaller saw will jam, it will have to be taken out with considerable effort. A blade that is too long will start to bend and stick, and could break. All this will make manipulation much more difficult. Choose a length of 250-300 mm for small items, 450-500 mm for large ones.
The width of the blade also makes a difference. Too narrow a plate will break even at a small bend. Overly wide tools are uncomfortable to work with, you have to exert considerable effort. Optimal width for hand saw. 100-200 mm. You should know that for different types of processing, products of a certain width are used. Therefore, craftsmen buy them in sets to choose the right blade for different purposes.
Use carbon or alloy steel for blade production. Each has advantages and disadvantages. Originally, low-alloy carbon metal was used. It’s malleable, it doesn’t break, but it wears out very quickly. Hardened varieties, on the other hand, do not blunt for a long time, but break under bending load. A kind of compromise is bimetal blades where the metal is hardened only in the tooth area. Bimetal blades are available in every construction store. They are ductile, do not break and do not blunt for a long time. But you can’t sharpen them again. Hardened metal is difficult to sharpen.
Gross Piranha wood hacksaw
For professional applications high alloy steel blades are available. They give the best quality of cut, but are very fragile. Softer varieties gain resistance to bending, but lose precision of cut. For saws use high-alloy steel of M50, M7, M2, M1 grades. Products made of it are labeled HSS or HS. These are the most expensive hacksaw blades.
For household applications, carbon fiber blades are available. They are plastic, not sensitive to bending, amenable to sharpening. But it is rather difficult to grind and set teeth qualitatively. Not all masters are able to cope with it and they turn to professionals for help in order not to spoil the saw.
For domestic use, it is optimal to choose a metal of medium hardness. It is marked with numbers 45 and letters HRC. A harder variant is also suitable: 60-55 HRC.
Saws by principle of operation
Electric sawing tools can be divided into three types depending on the principle of its operation: the tool with reciprocating mechanism (jigsaws, scroll saws, saws-alligators), circular (circular) and chain saws. Each type is intended for a certain range of tasks. Jigsaws make complex, curved cuts in virtually any material. wood, plywood, chipboard, OSB, fibreboard, other composite materials, plastics, nonferrous metals, steel, ceramics, rubber, foam rubber, cardboard, sandwich panels, profiles, etc. п. (except for asbestos-containing materials). The jigsaw will surely come in handy at the finishing stage: sawing a hole for the sink in the countertop, making holes for ventilation grilles, trimming the laminate in place when laying, cutting a hole in ceramic tiles. this is not a complete list of its applications.
For applications where a chainsaw or circular saw cannot be used due to limited space and an electric jigsaw will not produce the desired result, the electric sabre saw is the right choice. It will cope well with the work of a manual wood sander, but without the need to apply excessive force, because the progressive movement of the cutting blade is exclusively due to the electric motor.
The pluses of electric wood hacksaws are considered to be an even cut with smooth edges, which cannot be achieved with a chain saw, as well as the lack of restrictions on the thickness of the workpiece, which is inherent in a circular saw.
Structurally, the saw consists of a drive motor with a gearbox and a cutting blade that runs on guides. An important characteristic of this type of electric saw is the length of the blade. It can reach up to 40 cm and more.
Technical characteristics of the tool
The saw is rightly considered the ancestor of a large family of hand tools. Since the creation of the first type of tool from iron, the saw has undergone many changes, having managed to acquire numerous “sisters”, capable of performing dozens of jobs.
In the household, it is impossible to do without “toothy helpers”: they are indispensable for pruning the garden, small carpentry and joinery work
Handheld wood saws differ from each other by many parameters: the size of the blade, the steel grade, the shape of the teeth, the design of the handle. Let’s look at each parameter in more detail.
How a hacksaw blade should be?
The main part of the tool is a hacksaw blade. The first thing you should pay attention to when choosing a product is the length of the blade. This parameter to a large extent determines the possibilities of its usage. At the same time the longer the blade, the more springy it is, which also complicates the process, especially when working with hard wood such as ash, maple or oak.
The long stroke allows less effort when sawing, because more teeth are cut in one stroke
When sawing small elements like skirting boards, bars or narrow slats you can do with a hacksaw blade 25-30 cm long. If you are planning to use the tool for more serious construction work, choose a product with a blade of 45-50 cm.
When determining the length of the hacksaw blade follow the rule that the length of the saw should be 2 times the diameter of the elements to be processed. You’ll only make your job harder if you don’t follow this guideline. The teeth of a short hacksaw will jam inside the wood, and a lot of effort will have to be exerted to advance the tool to release the sawdust each. Uncomfortable work will cause premature fatigue.
Traditionally the width of the product blade varies in the range of 10-20 cm. Models with a narrower blade are not allowed for technical reasons, as they break at the slightest bend. But it is necessary to take into account that too wide blades are inconvenient for manual work.
The material of the blade, which is most often alloy steel, is also important, as is its degree of hardening
Tool steel with high silicon and carbon grades is used for hacksaws:
Metal is hardened by exposing it to an alternating magnetic field, which produces a high frequency electric current. As it spreads across the surface, it heats the surface layer of the metal, which hardens after cooling.
Metal hardness of 45 HRС is considered to be a standard parameter, but it is preferable to choose products with blade hardness of 55-60 HRС. A hacksaw with a high-hardness blade will have sufficient flexibility, but at the same time high tooth stability. Visually, such a tool can be recognized by the darker color of the sharpened teeth.
Teeth on the blade
Tooth size is the decisive indicator of tool performance and wood sawing accuracy.
The teeth of a wood hacksaw perform a double function: they cut through wood and simultaneously remove sawdust
Sawing precision is measured by TPI, which is the number of teeth per inch.
There is an inverse relationship between these technical parameters:
- Blades with big teeth are very fast, but the cut is coarse and sloppy;
- fine-toothed hacksaws guarantee a clean, precise cut, but at relatively low operating speed.
When determining the correct size of teeth, look at the material to be cut. For example, if you work with chipboard where a high accuracy of cut is required, choose the tool with a high TPI of 7-9, and for sawing logs and garden work where a clean cut is not so important, choose TPI 3-6.
When selecting the right saw, the rule of thumb is that the minimum thickness of the log must be greater than the pitch of the three tines in any case
If you compare the hardened tooth and a regular tooth, the difference is that in the first version, subject to household use, the product does not blunt for a long time. But a hacksaw with a hardened tooth cannot be sharpened again. When it starts to cut badly, it simply has to be thrown away.
An ordinary tooth can be sharpened. Periodically it can be done with a special file, marked DTP (for sharpening of saws). To sharpen the blade, all it takes is a few strokes on each tooth.
Choosing Circular Saw Blades. Ace Hardware
Depending on the type of teeth used, there are three types of hand hacksaws:
- For longitudinal sawing. Equipped with oblique triangular teeth that look like hooks. The tool is designed to cut wood along the grain. These saws are sharpened on both sides of the tooth, making them capable of cutting both going forward and backward.
- For cross-cutting sawing. The teeth of the tools are in the shape of isosceles triangles. This design allows the material to be cut easily, both when cutting forward and backward. But this tooth type is only suitable for working with dry workpieces, not fresh wood.
- For mixed sawing. Products have a compound design that combines triangular cut edges with slightly elongated semicircular jagged edges. This solution allows the semicircular teeth to make a guide cut when the hand moves forward, and when it returns. the triangular teeth expand the channel, removing chips and sawdust from it.
Classification of electric wood saws
Electric saws are divided into the following types:
Electric jigsaw. Such a tool allows you to cut both straight and curved parts. The cleanliness of the cut depends on the selected cutting blade. Jigsaw not only cuts wood, but also thin metal, plastic, tile. Thickness of the workpieces, sawn with elektrolobzik, up to 15 cm, but in this case the tool should be powerful and modern, preferably with a pendulum stroke. A jigsaw that has this function is called a pendulum wood saw. However, this tool has a disadvantage. it is impossible to make a perfect cut exactly, the saw from the vibration is often led sideways.
Wood circular saw. Such a saw can also be in a table version, it will be mentioned below, and this type is called a hand-held circular saw on wood. It is equipped with a powerful motor, which provides good performance, allows you to make a fast and accurate cut. The maximum thickness of the workpiece that this tool can handle is 8-8.6 cm. In this, it is inferior to the jigsaw. But the angle of cut of the circular saw is stable, unlike the jigsaw, the saw blade of which sometimes bends. The second name of this tool is the circular wood saw.
A chainsaw is indispensable in forestry or orchard work. It is very handy for making firewood. It makes a rough cut, but it is easy to fell trees and cut unwanted branches and limbs with it. There are three kinds of chainsaws.
The reciprocating saw makes a coarse cut. Its operating principle somewhat resembles an electric jigsaw. They differ in that they have a coarse blade and are suitable for work that does not require precision, such as dismantling wooden structures. Sabre saw produces a strong vibration, but it does not produce sparks.
Wood band saws come in many variants:
- A chainsaw. perhaps the most popular and in demand;
- Electric saw. inconvenient in that it requires connection to a power outlet and, as a consequence, limits movement;
- Cordless saw is convenient for all but one thing. it must be periodically recharged.
- In the form of a machine tool;
- as a handheld machine.
A machine is used to cut wood. It allows you to make fine, precise cuts in both straight and curved lines. For a better understanding of how a band saw for wood works, the video at the end of the article is presented for viewing.
A circular table saw for wood is used by professional carpenters to work in the shop. Such a machine is very convenient and allows you to make accurate and precise cuts. The cutting blade tilts to the side if desired, making longitudinal, transverse, and angled cuts.
Wood trim saw is used when a cross-cutting cut of boards, beams, laths, platbands is needed. It is a stationary saw that cuts horizontally and vertically set angles that can be adjusted by turning the table and changing position of the saw. To perform a longitudinal cut there are saws equipped with a top table. Sideway or end grain wood saw comes with a broach, it gives an opportunity to cut a wide workpiece.
A wood-cutting saw is called a workbench in common parlance. It makes a perfectly smooth and clear cut. A cutting disk protrudes from the slit in the worktable to permit slashing and cross-cutting, mitre cuts and compound angles. guards are installed on the work table to keep the workpieces moving in the direction of the cutting blade, and an angle gauge is provided for cutting at an angle.
If large holes are required, a circular wood saw is used. Such a saw is more like an attachment for a drill or electric screwdriver, which are used as a drive. Circular saw is a disk with protrusions to which rounded saw blades are attached. They are most often sold in sets that include blades of different sizes to make different holes.
recommendations for choosing
In order to choose the right hand saw for wood, you need to follow a number of recommendations. You need to pay attention to the following:
- Purpose. Carpentry work requires a saw with fine teeth that provides a high precision cut. Carpenters need a blade with coarse teeth.
- Uniformity of blade. Carefully bend the blade at an angle of 30-45 ° and release it. The slightest deviation in the line of bending (even within 2 mm) indicates a low quality of metal.
- Frequency of use. If you need a saw for occasional work, it is better to get a tool with hardened teeth. The service life is quite long, and you do not have to worry about sharpening and setting.
- Cost. Quality models from leading manufacturers are much more expensive than the mass-produced goods. But a high price is a kind of guarantee of durability and longevity. But it is not reasonable to buy expensive tools for one-time work.
Decide on the purpose of the tool, see how it fits in your hand. Read the instruction manual included with the tool if you have one. These minimal “tricks” will reduce the risk of choosing a bad tool.