What is the chipping hammer made of.
Jackhammer. We deliver a crushing blow!
The jackhammer is such a popular type of tool that it is produced in various versions of the type of drive devices used. Distinguish the following main varieties:
- An electric jack of a hammer is the most popular type of tool that is almost indispensable on construction sites. An important restriction on its use is the increased humidity of the room, in which the probability of receiving an electric shock increases. The only important drawback of electrical chipsters is the attachment to the electrical network.
- The gasoline jack of a hammer has found its active use among workers who carry out work to prepare the surface for laying road surfaces. Important advantages of such units are: mobility, that is, the absence of attachment to the electric network, as well as increased drive power, which allows you to perform a wide range of heavy work: from crushing concrete structures to soil trambs.
- Hydraulic. A professional type of tool, which is based on the principle of operation, is the use of oil pressure. Devices are compact, which is associated with the absence of drive units in their device, but at the same time they are tied to special hydraulic stations. If the cost of a hydraulic chipping hammer is lower than the price of electric and gasoline, then the purchase of specialized stations is problematic even for construction organizations and companies. Such types of chipsters are used in rooms with high humidity, where there is a strict ban on the use of electrical devices.
- A pneumatic junk hammer is another most common option of tools, which found active use not only among builders, but also road workers, miners, etc.P. Hammers are compact and ease of functioning. Shock actions are created using a special compressor, to which the chipper is connected through the high pressure hose. The disadvantage is the attachment to the compressor, but the products are characterized by advantages such as low cost, high efficiency, long service life and low service cost.
These are the main varieties of jack hammers that are produced by tool manufacturers. Among all these species, electrical and pneumatic models are especially popular. Gasoline units are characterized by high cost, so they are less in demand than previous types. Hydraulic drive tools are used only at specialized objects.
What is the chipping hammer made of
In its turn trigger mechanism consists (2): 1. The handle is made of kapron or silumin; 2. Vibration puck; 3. Spring; 4. Puck; 5. Trigger; 6. Plug; 10. Cup; eighteen. Union. For compressed air (working pressure 0.4.0.5 MPa);
Air distribution mechanism consists: 7. Valve box; 8. Ring valve; 9. Drill saddle; 11. Protective apron closing the exhaust holes;
Shock mechanism consists: 12. Piston. Drummer; 13. Trunk. The main and most expensive detail of the chipping hammer is made of alloy steel with polishing the inner opening and drilling longitudinal channels to supply compressed air to the barrel; 14. Jumper; 15. Axle box; 16. Peak. Executive body, has a length of 350. 450 mm and is made of carbon steel U7. U8; 17. The holding spring to hold the peaks from falling out when transferring the hammer with the simultaneous possibility of moving the peak along the axis of the hammer.
The principle of operation of the pneumatic junk hammer is based on reciprocating. The progressive movement of the piston. Drummer. The piston stroke. Drummer, at which a blow at the peak is called a working move, the return move. Idle.
The principle of operation of the starting mechanism. When pressed on the handle 1, the spool 5 and compressed air along the fitting 18 are moving, the channels of the glass 10 go to the valve box 7 of the air distribution mechanism.
The principle of operation of the air distribution mechanism is shown in Figure 2.3.Idling. When the valve box is reached, the compressed air enters the ring valve 8. On channels 19 in the trunk 13, compressed air enters the piston-attendant (3 a). Pressure under the piston.The drummer is growing, and it falls above it, since compressed air will go through the final openings 20. Due to the pressure difference, the ring valve is transferred, opens the inlet 21 and closes the hole 22 of the valve 9 saddles.
The piston drummer moves up, the exhaust openings 20 passes (rice. 2.3 b) the pressure under it decreases, and increases above it. The ring valve is transferred. The working piston work begins. Drummer (rice 2.3 c).
Working move. Under the influence of compressed air, the piston-attendant rushes down, passes the exhaust openings 20 and strikes at the peak 16. Compressed air located above the piston-attendant enters the exhaust openings. The pressure above the piston-attendant drops sharply and the ring valve is transferred (Fig.3 g). Pressure under the piston-attendant is growing. The idle piston begins. Drummer. Thus, switching the valve occurs due to the pressure difference in the valve box above and under the valve when opening the exhaust holes with the piston. Drummer.
Maintenance of chipping hammersJumping hammers received on the site should be disassembled, cleaned of lubrication and dust, rinse in kerosene (diesel fuel), collect, lubricate, try in work. As a lubricant, industrial oil is recommended for I20A with an addition of 25. 40% kerosene (diesel fuel).During operation, the hammer is lubricated using automatic. In the absence of automatic oil, grease the hammer by filling 30. 40 g. Lubricant in a fitting. Lubrication is made at least every 2 hours of work.Preventive inspection and repair of hammers is carried out in the workshops of mines at least after 150. 200 hours of work.
Safety Rules for the operation of jack hammers
Before starting work, it is necessary to check:- the state of the face and make sure that the slaughter is securely fixed;- the serviceability of the hammer;- attachment of the peak and lack of its curvature;- peak play in the box of the barrel. The radial gap between the piki shank and the axle should not exceed 0.25 mm;- fastening of the air supply sleeve;- the presence of oil in the car. Forbidden: – work with a jack of a hammer without a holding spring or cap;- turn on a hammer in the absence of a peak contact with the face (work in idle);- turning the hammer in the work with a blow.
2.One.2. PeoratorsPeorators are shocking mountain machines. Rotary action and are designed for drilling holes and wells with a diameter of 20. 150 mm in rocks of any fortress.
Peorators are classified according to the following main features:
By the genus of the energy consumed:- electrical. Limited use due to large dimensions and masses;- hydraulic. Limited use due to complexity of the design;- pneumatic. Received the widest application. 2. By design:- portable (PP) work together with pneumatic support;- columns (PC) are included with feeders;- telescopic (PT) for drilling rocutors and wells.3. By turning the drill:- with a dependent turn;- with an independent turn.4. By design of the air distribution mechanism:- with spool;- with valve;- with a non-valve distribution.5. By the frequency of shocks:- normal (1800 beats/min);- fast-managed (2300 or more).6. By the method of cleaning the spur from the drilling trifle:- with washing;- purging;- dustyss.
In the labeling of the peorator, information is laid about its classification. The procedure for marking the penetrator regarding the classification is shown in Figure 2.4
For example, for the PP35VB Peorator, where: P. Peorator; p. Portable; 35. Impact energy, j; in. Flushing; b. The lateral method of water supply for cleaning the spray from drilling trifles.
The following characteristics are characteristic of pneumatic peorators:– Nominal pressure of compressed air. 0.5 MPa.- Air consumption for:. Portable 2.8. 3.5 m 3 /min;. Telescopic 3.3. 4.5 m 3 /min;. Column 9.0. 13 m 3 /min.
Device and principle of operation of the pneumatic peoratorThe device of the peorator is shown in Figure 2.5. The peoporator consists of a case of the 1st mechanism 2, a vibration device 3, a muffler of noise 4, a device for cleaning a spray of brown trifles and dusting 5.
Device and principle of operation of a pneumatic hammer
In its constructive features, such a tool is included in the category of piston pneumatic systems equipped with an air distributor with an impact principle of action. The pneumatic ground is given due to the effect of the stream of compressed air supplied by the compressor on it.
The main constructive elements of the tool are:
- Shock absorber.
- Fixing ring
- Corps part
- The shock part or a battleship is an air distribution shock mechanism
- Buffer spring
In general, pneumatic hammers consist of several main nodes:
- Hapstock-a trigger, muffler and body enters the trigger. The silencer is used to suppress aerodynamic noise that occurs during the release of the air worked out by a hammer;
- Handle vibration protection. Involves equipping the tool with a glass with two sealing bushings;
- Anti.Vibration protection against a chisel. Includes a spring.Loaded sleeve and a manipulator;
- Shock node (start.Up device). Consists of a barrel, an air distribution system and a drummer.
The shock system performs a number of basic functions:
- Provides air supply to the tool with its further distribution between the drummer moves and withdrawal after use from the overall equipment system;
- Translates the energy of the air used into the mechanical operation of the main working element. The shock unit.
Nozzle. Selected depending on the type of task:
- Chisel. The destruction of reinforced concrete and metal structures;
- Acute peak (pencil). Processing of frightened soil, brick or asphalt;
- Scrap (cylinder). Brick walls, ice, concrete;
- Shovel. Suitable for removing ice or for work with asphalt.
A pneumatic jack hammer can also be additionally equipped:
- The side handle, which allows to properly distribute the physical efforts, thereby ensures the comfortable operation of the equipment;
- Smooth start. Makes it possible to smoothly disperse the engine, increasing its service life, and excludes excessive overload of the device;
- Frequency regulator. Helps to configure a hammer to work with materials with different levels of hardness, controlling the intensity of the tool.
The principle of operation of the hammer is as follows: the pressure (compressed air) supplied through the hose, affects the handle, leads the tool and overcomes the resistance that the valve spring has. In this case, the valve shifts, and the holes of the distribution system of air are opened. The air begins to go alternately into blocks of a drummer of different types (either to the upper, then to the lower part of the cylinder), as a result of which the shock system begins to make quick movements of the reciprocal nature.
The main characteristics on which the efficiency of any type of chipper depends are the strength and number of strokes.
The principle of operation of the tool
The main feature of the chipper is that during the work process it is a blow of great power
For this kind of tool, an important characteristic is the energy of the impact. When calculating it, the number of impacts wearable per minute of working hours, as well as the generated energy for the same time period is taken into account. Modern chips have a fairly simple design
The battles located inside the case make oscillatory movements thanks to the existing drive. Mechanical impulses that arise in the process of its work enter the working body of the instrument-a peak that performs fast reciting movements, due to which the destruction of the material is ensured
Modern chips have a fairly simple design. The battles located inside the case make oscillatory movements thanks to the existing drive. Mechanical impulses that arise in the process of its work enter the working body of the instrument-a peak that performs fast reciting movements, due to which the destruction of the material is ensured.
When working, the tool forms rather gross energy, because of which the master has to feel strong vibration and noise. To reduce the manifestation of these influences, the chipper needs to start work, having previously taken the necessary protective measures.
The electrical version of the chipper works a little different. Here, also in the design there is a train driven by the rotor, which is forced by the electric motor. Mechanical movements made by a brisk is transmitted to peak. Although this tool is one of the most demanded not only by professional builders, but also for home masters, it has a number of significant drawbacks. During operation, the electric motor can give a spark, so it is prohibited by an electric chipper in rooms with increased fire safety. Another disadvantage should be called the need for a power source.
What power to take the device?
On sale there are models with a capacity of 500 watts to 2200 watts. Power directly affects the possibility of the device to work with denser materials and perform a larger amount of work in less time. However, you can compare power models within the limits of only one brand, since the quality of the performance of electric motors in jack hammers from different manufacturers may vary greatly.
In general, we note that for the impact of 40 J and higher the power of the device is 1,500. 2200 watts. If you have met a model with a blow of 50 J, and a power of 1000 W, then its high performance and the ability to work with dense materials under great doubt. If you need to hide the pit in the asphalt for repairing the road surface, take the device with a capacity of at least 1,500 W and the power of a blow from 40 j. For example, you can take a good jack of professional Bosch GSH 16-28.
Characteristic malfunctions of the chipsters, their do.It.Yourself repair
The most common malfunctions of the jack hammers are:
- Erasing the brushes or damage to the cable and the button on the tool operating from the electric drive;
- Clogging of the carburetor in gasoline chipsters;
- Clogging of air channels in the trunk of pneumatic concrete with dust or frozen water, which is contained in compressed air;
- Jacket of peaks in the cartridge.
The wear of the electric motor brushes is one of the most frequent breakdowns of the chipper. To replace them, you need:
- Remove the end cover of the electric motor.
- Extract brushes and check the degree of their wear. On most models, a fuse is installed in the brushes, which, with strong wear, pops up under the influence of the spring, which is clearly visible to the naked eye.
- Replace the brush that has become unusable.
- Assemble in the backward sequence.
When clogging the channels of a pneumatic hammer, it just needs to be disassembled, and rinse all the details in kerosene well. Often channels are clogged with ice, which needs to give time to melt. The ice is formed when the squeezed air is exhaust, when the temperature in this place decreases sharply. Dismantling the tool must be done in the following sequence:
- Unscrew the fixing spring and extract the peak.
- Remove the locking ring of the muffler and the muffler itself.
Bosch GSH 11 VC Professional Demolition hammer with SDS-max
Remove the locking ring of the muffler on a chipped pneumatic.Type hammer can be a special tool, squeezing its ends to the sides
The riveted ring of the industrial zone is removed by a special device
The indoor lock of the chipping hammer is simply extracted from the hole
The upper part of the pneumatic chipper simply leads from the tool body
The ring valve after removing the industrial zone is easily disconnected from the chipper
Turning the glass, you can easily extract a junk hammer from it
When jaming the peaks in the cartridge, you need to remove the cartridge and use the press to extract the peak. The cartridge should be cleaned from dirty lubrication and washed in kerosene.
Gasoline chipping hammers and their varieties
The principle of operation of jack hammers that operate on internal combustion engines is almost completely identical to electric devices. Instead of an electric motor, an internal combustion engine is used, which drives the piston. With its help, the pressure of the air affecting the boiler increases in the chamber. The boiler, in turn, hit the heel of the drummer, passing the shock wave to the nozzle fixed in the cartridge.
Basket chipping hammers are classified into types of type used type. They are two.Stroke and four.Stroke. Jumping hammers with two.Stroke engines differ in advantages such as compact dimensions and low cost.
Units with four.Stroke engines have a large supply of power and performance. They weigh quite a lot, which allows them to be used not only for crushing the material, but also for the purpose of compaction of the soil or bulk substances.
It is interesting! The main advantage of the chipping hammer that works from the internal combustion engine is mobility. This excludes the need to connect them to an electric network or compressor, as is characteristic of the units of the electric and pneumatic type.
Pneumatic jack hammer It is a manual shock tool that is used when working as a wedge and lever. Its executive body (peak) is introduced into coal (or breed), separating it from the array.
Making a welding chipping hammer. Beginner welding project
Jurk hammers are used mainly when developing steep strata in complex mining and geological conditions, when it is impossible to apply other, more effective means of mechanization-combines and strings. In addition, they are used in the development of weak shale, ores, and auxiliary works.
Pneumatic jack hammers are made by the Tomsk Electromechanical Plant. AT. AT. Vakhrushev. Their technical characteristics are given in the table. IV.Nine. Working air pressure in hammers took 0.5 MPa.
Large work was carried out on the typification and unification of the main nodes and parts of pneumatic jack hammers. The exception is only trunks and drummers with different sizes, but their diameters are also unified. Further improvement of jack hammers is carried out in the direction of increasing their performance, economy, reliability in work, as well as improving the working condition of the worker when applying them: reducing return, vibration, noise, dust formation.
Electric chipping hammers In underground conditions, they did not receive application due to lower performance, reliability and greater mass than that of pneumatic jack hammers. They have some use on the surface of mines during construction and other works.
Pneumatic jack Hammer M39 (rice. IV.43) consists of an executive body. A peak holding its spring sixteen, trunk 11s intermediate link 4, Inside which there is an air distribution and shock mechanisms, a handle / s vibrogasyshnm device.
Compressed air is brought to the hammer but a flexible sleeve, which is connected by nipple 22, fitting 20 and nuts 21. To prevent self.Adaptation of the fitting, a spring washer is installed nineteen. The sleeve has a diameter sixteen mm and length not more than 12 m.
Shock mechanism consists of a barrel with a box pressed into it fifteen And a jumper of the barrel fourteen And the drummer 12. The stroke mechanism is designed to convert the energy of compressed air into the mechanical operation of a moving drummer, which strikes the piki shank.
Air distribution mechanism consists of a valve box 6 With a ring 5 and two valves 7, made in the form of flat segments. The air distribution mechanism is designed to supply compressed air to the barrel cylinder, t. E. In the camera G the direct stroke of the drummer and in the chamber D of the reverse, as well as for the release of spent air into the atmosphere.
To supply compressed air to the drummer, longitudinal channels are drilled in the hammer trunk, and channels are used to remove the exhaust air that are formed by the barrel surface eleven and the surface of a steel shirt thirteen. The latter is strengthened on the locking ring ten, which holds a stopper from falling out nine and used to remove air from the exhaust channel. Stop Prevents self.Adaptation of the threaded barrel 11 and intermediate link 4. Two pins eight prevent spontaneous displacement of the valve box 6 relative to the barrel eleven.
Starting device made in the form of a sliding line on an intermediate link 4 liner 17 from fluoroplast. This liner is pressed to an intermediate link by the force of the spring and compressed air. When pressed on the handle one The hole in the liner coincides with the hole in the intermediate link and the compressed air enters the air distribution device of the hammer, while the spring 2 Compressed.
When removing the effort from the handle one springs 2 the hole in the intermediate link is unclenched and the hole 4 Overlaid by the liner 17. The hammer is on. To prevent air leaks in the starting device, a cuff is installed eighteen From oil.Resistant rubber.
An additional camera is used to reduce the vibration of the hammer and reduce the harmful effects of the return on the worker’s body AT, which is located at the end of the reverse (idle) drive of the drummer and can significantly improve the working cycle and reduce the return of the hammer. In addition, a vibration insulator is used 3, Parting the hub of a hammer from the handle. The connection of the handle and the intermediate link was carried out by two fixers 23, which are constantly retained in an uncleaned vibration insulator 3. When the hammer is turned on and off, the latches move in the grooves available in the handle.
The principle of operation of the chipping hammer is as follows (rice. IV.44). By the beginning of the idle, the drummer and the valve are in the lower position. Clusted air under pressure P0 through the channels above the valve and the longitudinal channel a Enters the camera B Under the drummer. As a result of this, the drummer moves up, displacing air from the upper cavity BUT into the atmosphere through exhaust holes B1 and B.G. When the drummer blocks these holes, the air in the chamber L begins to compress and at the same time exert pressure on the valve from below. With further movement, the drummer will open the exhaust hole B., as a result of which the pressure in the chamber B will drop sharply and the valve will move up, opening the path of compressed air into the chamber BUT,. The workshop’s working stroke will begin.
By the beginning of the working course, the drummer and the valve are in the upper position. Compressed air through the channels under the spool enters the camera BUT Above the drummer. Under the pressure of compressed air and its own weight, the drummer moves down, displacing the air out of the chamber B through exhaust holes Bx and B. When the drummer blocks these holes, air in the chamber B will begin to compress, increasing through the channel a Dress pressure on the top. Next, the drummer will open the exhaust hole with its rear edge B Pressure in the chamber BUT And under the spool will drop abruptly. The spool will move down, the drummer will strike at the piki shank, after which the idle stroke of the drummer will begin.
In construction and repair, you often have to use many different tools. To perform particularly laborious operations, it is important that the tool can cope with the loads and effectively perform the tasks assigned to it. One of the often used by professional builders of devices is an electric jack hammer.
Using this device, you can quickly destroy various types of materials within the framework of the construction or repair stage. However, not every model of an electric chipper will be able to cope with the task that has arisen. Therefore, an electric chipper must be chosen not only taking into account the thickness of the surface, which needs to be destroyed, but also the properties of the material from which it is made.
No less attention should be paid to the selection of the peak that will be used to perform working operations. Since this is the main working body of the tool that is performed to destroy, its choice needs to be approached as carefully as the chipper itself.
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