What is the drill execute drilling holes in metal

Drilling holes in metal

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Depending on the quality and number of workpieces to be drilled, the holes are drilled according to the markings or the conductor. During operation, the following basic rules must be observed:

  • when drilling through holes in workpieces, you must pay attention to how they are secured; if the workpiece is secured on the table, you must set it on a pad to ensure free exit of the drill after finishing machining;
  • the drill bit should be brought to the workpiece only after turning the spindle so that when it touches the surface of the workpiece there is little load on it, otherwise the cutting edges of the drill bit could be damaged;
  • do not stop the spindle rotation while the drill is in the hole to be drilled. First you must take the drill out, and then stop turning the spindle or stop the machine, otherwise the drill may be damaged;
  • in the event of grinding, vibration during drilling caused by jamming, misalignment or wear of the drill bit, immediately remove it from the workpiece and then stop the machine;
  • when drilling deep holes (l5d, where l. hole depth, mm; d. hole diameter, mm) it is necessary to periodically take the drill out of the machined hole to remove chips, as well as to lubricate the drill. This significantly reduces the probability of drill bit breakage and premature dulling;
  • it is recommended to drill a hole with a diameter of more than 25 mm in solid metal in two steps (with reaming or countersinking);
  • Drilling should be carried out only according to the modes specified in the flow charts or in the tables of reference books, as well as according to the recommendations of the master (technologist);
  • When drilling holes in workpieces made of steel or ductile materials it is obligatory to use coolant to protect cutting tools from premature wear and increase cutting conditions.

Marked drilling is used in individual and small-lot production, when making of conductors is not economically justified due to a small number of work pieces. In this case the driller receives marked workpieces with control circles and the center of the future hole (fig. 6.21, а). In some cases the marking is made by the driller.

Boring according to the markings is carried out in two stages: firstly, pre-drilling, and then the final drilling. Pre-drilling is carried out with manual feed, drilling a small hole (0.25d). After that, the spindle and drill bit are taken back, chips are removed, and the alignment of the circle of the drilled hole with the marking circle is checked.

If the pre-drilled hole is correctly drilled (Fig. 6.21, b), drilling should be continued and finished, and if the hole has gone sideways (Fig. 6.21, c), then make an appropriate adjustment: cut with a narrow chisel (cross cutter) two or three grooves 2 from the side of the center, where you want to displace the drill (Fig. 6.21, г). The grooves guide the drill bit to the intended location with the core bit. After correcting for misalignment, continue drilling all the way through.

Features of deep hole drilling

Deep Hole drilling is when the depth of the hole to be drilled is greater than five hole diameters. This technological operation is very complex and timeconsuming, and the main condition for its efficient performance is the effective cooling of the tool used, which usually takes place under pressure.

In order to drill deeply and accurately, it is very important to have the right direction of the tool at the beginning of machining. For this purpose a special conductor sleeve is used or such procedure is carried out on a previously made hole of smaller diameter.

Due to technical complications, deep hole drilling must be carried out with special equipment

Drill bits used for deep hole drilling must not be rotated at full speed outside the workpiece itself: it may cause the cutting part to deviate from the desired path. In addition, when drilling deep holes with a long drill bit creates unfavorable conditions for chip removal from the processing area, which can also lead to the withdrawal of the tool from the specified direction.

How to make a hole in concrete

Concrete is characterized by high strength properties, which makes it difficult to make holes in the base. It is therefore necessary to choose the right tool and auxiliary equipment. Then you can avoid a lot of dust, destruction of the walls, and the work takes less time and effort.

Kicking out a hole in a solid base is impossible without destroying the entire wall. The only correct approach is to drill through the concrete. Several demountable tooling options are available from manufacturers for this purpose. The choice is determined according to the parameters of the required hole and the power of the power tool used.

Drill or drill

Such a tackle is represented in the form of a rod. There is a shank on one side. It is a part that is installed in the socket of the power tool. The main part has a spiral notch and a groove for dust extraction. The T-shape working tip is a carbide cutting plate. The longevity and quality of the gear depends on its characteristics.

Drill for working with concrete Source.st

To understand which drill to drill concrete or drill, you need to understand the difference between the gear. It consists in the following:

  • The shank can be executed as a hexagonal cylinder or with longitudinal grooves. Drills are suitable for a drill chuck, and drills (second) are under the peorator and marked as SDS.
  • The strength of the material from which the tool is made. Drilling takes place in a reciprocating motion, which means that an impact force is applied to the concrete. That’s why the drill has a higher hardness and wear rating than the drill.
  • The drill bit has a special groove in the main part of the rod to divert mineral chips from the hole.
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To drill a hole in concrete, manufacturers supply three types of tools to marketplaces. They can be designed for rotary, reciprocating or combined. accordingly, the safety margin of the latter parts is higher than that of the former.

impregnation on the working tip of the drill bit may be pobedite (tungsten-cobalt alloy) or diamond.

Pobedite drills Source kakmarket.ru

in a drill, only the first option is possible, because diamond is a fragile material. Depending on the parameters of the required hole, one of three nozzles is used:

Drill bits are selected according to shank type and diameter. The size should be slightly smaller than that of a given hole, so that during the formation of the hole, the walls of the hole are slightly destroyed as the nozzle moves deeper into the wall.

It is also important to understand that you can drill a hole in the concrete with a drill only small parameters. This is explained by the fact that the mechanism of the power tool is designed only for rotary movement. The peorator additionally performs the function of a chopper, so choose a drill for it.

Advanced Peorator Functionality Source ytimg.com

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The peculiarity of concrete walls is the presence of iron reinforcement. If a tool with a pobedite or diamond pointing hits it, then the tool will quickly fail. Therefore, for such a case, you need to change the drill bit to one that is designed to work with metal.

Drill bit

For outlets with switches, ventilation routing with pipes, you need holes of a larger diameter than for fasteners. To do this, drill bits called core bits are used. The tooling also has a drill, only additionally between the shank and the tip there is a hollow cylinder with a diameter of 30 mm or more. Its outer edge is the cutting element of the tool.

Face of the bit for concrete has special hard teeth. Their performance depends on the quality of work, the speed of hole formation and the durability of the bit. Based on this, three types of tools are distinguished:

  • Pobeditovye are used for percussive drilling holes with a diameter of 20 to 100 mm. the material fails when exposed to temperature changes, so it is allowed to work only in dry conditions. In case of contact with reinforcement, chipping of the tooth is possible.

Pobedite bit Source.st

  • Tungsten carbide bits have a reinforced coating. This bit is designed to make a hole in a concrete wall without a torch. The nozzle copes accurately with brick and tile, so it is used for work with tiled bases. often such bits are sold in sets with interchangeable bowls of different diameters. Disadvantage noted only one. from the metal tool fails.
  • The diamond edge is used for work with a hammerless or percussion drill. Dry drilling and intermittent wetting methods are possible. The edge of the bowl here is divided into segments with longitudinal slots, which are covered with diamond dust or crumbs. It does not fear metal, is virtually chipped and has a high working life. The latter is useful for drilling large numbers of holes.

Diamond crown Source.ru

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Reaming is subject to the procedure of holes, which were previously obtained in the part by drilling. An element processed using such a technological operation may have precision up to the sixth quality grade, as well as a low roughness. up to Ra 0,63. Drills are divided into roughing and finishing, and they can also be manual or machine.

Cylindrical Manual Reamers 24H8 0150

The recommendations that should be followed when performing this type of machining are as follows.

Drill jigs

There are several drill jigs that make the process easier and make a large hole flat:

  • Drilling jig. Such a fixture is a housing in which there are several guide sleeves for drills of different diameters. The material used to make the sleeves is harder than the drill bits, so you don’t have to worry about the tool tilting to the side during drilling and widening the hole.
  • Drill mandrel. Such a product allows you to fix the tool so that during drilling it does not deviate sideways. In the absence of such a product, the tool can go sideways, resulting in the creation of an uneven edge. It can also be clamped at an angle. But this is not generally necessary when drilling in metal work.
  • Stand for a drill. Such a product, made by your own hands, can be an inexpensive substitute for a drilling machine, because it allows you to carry out work more comfortably. The clamped tool, when using a stand, moves along the bar by means of a lever. No misalignment at all, since the workpiece to be drilled is held securely in place by a clamp.
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Types of drills for deep hole drilling

Drill bits for deep hole drilling can be used:

  • spiral drills with a cylindrical shank, the parameters of which are regulated by GOST 886-77 (by design, spiral drills with a cylindrical shank refer to the tools of the long series, by means of which create holes with a depth exceeding the value equal to 15 diameters);
  • shotguns, the cutting part of which is completely made of hard alloy;
  • shotgun drills, on the cutting part of which carbide plates are fixed by means of soldering;
  • Shotgun drill bits equipped not only with the main, but also with intermediate carbide plates;
  • ejector drills, which are used to perform deep drilling on machines with horizontal positioning of the cutting tool;
  • cannon drills, on the surface of which there is a V-shaped groove designed for chip removal (machining with this type of drills is an obsolete method of obtaining deep holes).

GOST requirements for long series drills can be found by downloading the document in pdf format from the link below.

Spiral drills with cylindrical shank, produced according to the requirements of GOST 886-77, have elongated working part. In accordance with the provisions of the above-mentioned 77th standard, such elongated tools can be made entirely of high-speed steel or equipped with carbide cutting inserts.

GOST 886 of 77 year also states that this drill bit type can be cooled not only through external, but also through internal supply of coolant. Twist drills, as GOST 886-77 indicates, can be produced not only with a cylindrical shank, but also with a tapered shank. The very process of deep drilling, carried out through such drills, can be carried out as with their periodic extraction from the performed hole, which is necessary to remove from it the formed chips, and without performing such a procedure. If to compare twist drill bits with gun and cannon drill bits, then by using the former productivity of drilling increases practically by 8 times.

Examples of Working Heads of Shotgun Drills

Gun drills and gun drills are single-cutting type tools, with the help of which it is possible to create deep holes with diameters in the range of 0.5-100 mm. This type of drills are cooled through a hole made in their inner part, and the chips formed in the process of processing are removed by a special groove made on their outer surface. Cannon and gun drills, equipped with cutting carbide plates, have a tapered configuration of the working part, which provides better direction of the tool in the zone of processing.

Ejector drills refer to more modern means of deep drilling. Due to the absence of chisel grooves on their outer surface, they have a high rigidity.

Technology and tools for drilling large cross-section holes

They are tools made as a set of cylindrical sections gradually decreasing towards the tip, the ratio of diameters between which is adopted so as to reduce the force on the transition from the smaller to the larger diameter. Drills are usually made as double-entry, as they are not designed for thick sheet metal: the recommended thickness of the workpiece in the place of drilling is not more than 2-5 mm, and the latter is true for plastics.

Nomenclature of conical drills is limited to a range of 6-30 mm, because when this size is reduced, the tip blunts quickly, and processing of larger holes leads to a sharp increase in stress on the drive (for the machine) or on the hands of the worker (if a hand-held electric tool).

The peculiarity of design of conical drills is that they are produced with two types of shank. round and hexagonal. The latter option is more preferable, since the tool with a round shank can slip in the chuck under constantly increasing forces. This increases the danger of breakage, and reduces the performance of the operation. However, these drills also have a number of advantages:

  • It is possible to make a hole gradually, without burrs and sharp edges.
  • The presence of cylindrical pads makes it possible to obtain several holes of different diameters using only one drill bit: it is enough to control the value of the axial feed. This is more difficult to do with hand-held electric tools, so when using this method, it is worth stocking up on tool head or chuck travel limiters.
  • When drilling with conical step drills, the cutting force grows gradually, so the durability is not much reduced. Smooth conical drill bits are a different matter: although they are structurally simpler, they require (with manual feed) very high forces.
  • The tool is not only suitable for drilling large holes in metal, but also for producing operations like reaming, boring or countersinking.
  • As the sides of the tapered bits are grooved, they can be used for getting through cuts in metal materials.

When using the tool, spindle speed must be reduced and the runout of the head must be checked beforehand. The first warning is associated with an increase in drilling force, and the second with the occurrence of bending stresses that are dangerous to the tool.

Referred to the universal accessories, because for installation of such drill fit an ordinary drill or an electric screwdriver. The core drill bit consists of the following parts:

  • End alignment bits, which pre-drill the hole. By resting on it, the crown starts its action.
  • Shank.
  • Drill bit itself.
  • fastening screws.

Due to their assembled construction, core drill bits can be used to produce holes of different diameters: simply remove one core bit and install another. It is important that the final torque and axial thrust do not exceed the limits for which the tool and equipment are designed.

Core drills are not only highly productive, but also more durable. They are sufficiently rigid, there are no stress concentrators in them (no spiral grooves), and the load is distributed only along the circular line of metal cutting.

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The sequence of obtaining a hole with a core drill bit is that first it is necessary to make a center hole, and then. the main one. That’s why the spindle stroke is somewhat longer.

The special tools described above are high-priced, and the most trusted tools are those produced by the Bosch brand. It is not recommended to chase after Chinese handicrafts, which are attractive due to their lower price.

Deep hole drilling. too complicated task?

Seco Feedmax SD230A, deep hole drills When faced with the need to drill deep (to a depth of 12 to 30 drill diameters), operators often find it quite a challenge. Many people are confused about how to do this kind of drilling and how to make sure the hole is flat, has the right size and surface finish, and that the tolerance is within tolerance.

Learn how to drill deep in the right way: 5 actionable tips in this article. These simple tips can help you get near-perfect deep holes, as well as increase productivity and tool life.

Find the right diameter for the pilot drill

When deep drilling, you must first make a pilot hole that is typically 2-3 times the diameter of the pilot drill bit. The pilot hole should be the same diameter as the deep hole drill bit you are using. This hole is the starting point for drilling, and is a kind of bushing that holds the long drill straight and prevents the pulling away of the drill. Without a guide hole, the long drill bit will vibrate heavily at the start of drilling and eventually break.

Turn off the spindle when inserting the drill bit into the hole

It is a common mistake to try to insert a rotary drill bit for deep drilling into a pilot hole. As a result, the drill bit hits the edges of the hole, which shortens its life. Instead, turn off the spindle, quickly insert the drill bit into the hole and, about 0.5 mm from the bottom of the pilot hole, turn on the spindle and start drilling without the drill bit coming out.

Quickly pulling the drill out of the hole is also a mistake. Once you have reached the desired depth, reduce the spindle speed to a few hundred rpm and almost completely remove the drill. Then turn off the spindle and pull the drill completely out of the hole.

Stopping the drill before entering the hole and slowly retrieving the drill at low RPM can increase cycle times, but only by fractions of a second. But this action increases tool life, which more than compensates for this small loss of time.

Pay close attention to drill geometry

The geometry of the drill bit is the key to successful deep hole drilling. the apex angle of the drill guides can be 140 degrees, for example, and the long ones can be 136 degrees. the first contact point of the long drill bit with the material when penetrating the guide hole is the center point of the drill bit, and therefore its positioning is ensured. Then the cutting edges come into contact.

Some deep hole drills have 2 guide strips in each groove. The drill tip makes the cut, and the guide strips on the sides help keep the drill in place. On long drills, the guide strips are only at the very end of the grooves to reduce friction. The more friction of the groove, the more heat is generated and the higher the risk of the drill bit breaking.

Solid carbide drill bits must be used for holes deeper than 12 drill diameters. Carbide tools are stiffer and less prone to misalignment than high speed steel or cobalt tools. However, for deep, large-diameter holes (3 in. and larger), long drill bits with interchangeable cutting inserts are used.

Ensure correct chip removal

The main cause of drill bit failure is improper chip removal. While the geometry of most long drill bits provides effective chip breaking, chips must also be effectively removed from the hole. Drills with polished grooves and reverse taper do it best.

Coating minimizes heat generated by friction and so prolongs tool life. However, the most important condition for chip removal is coolant. Even a single chip left in the hole can lead to breakage, so high-pressure coolant supply through the tool is the only option. High pressure flushes chips out of the hole through the drill grooves. Using a drill bit with internal coolant also eliminates the need to periodically remove it from the hole.

Use the right drill chuck

Hydraulic and crimped chucks offer minimal runout and are therefore ideal for deep hole drilling. These systems are slightly more expensive and the only alternatives are precision collet chucks, which, however, must be of high quality and provide very little runout.

Last and very important advice. ask an expert. The cooperation between the workshop and its tool supplier determines the choice of the right deep hole drill bit, and indeed any other drill bit.

Manfred Lenz, Product Manager for Drilling

Manfred has worked with Seco for more than 16 years. Acting as drill manager, he is now responsible for all aspects of the company’s drilling tools in North America. It works closely with the international R&D department in the development of new products to meet the stringent production requirements of the market. Manfred also works with Seco sales people, providing them with technical information and cost-saving solutions that benefit customers. In his spare time, he enjoys boating, bowling and Golf.

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