What kind of deformation does the saw’s teeth experience?. The shape of the tooth of the blades on the metal

Laboratory work on wood cutting tools

5.1. Purpose of the work. To identify design elements of circular saws, learn the purpose of each element, study methods of saw teeth preparation, measure basic parameters of saws, assess their conformity to GOST and define rational area of application of a particular saw.

5.2. Job assignment. For concrete three saws, given out individually to each student, to define the basic parameters of saws, to make impressions of gear wheels and on it to define angles of cutting, to make a sketch of one saw and for it to define the maximum allowed height of kerf, to define in compliance of saws with the requirements of State Standard and to specify areas of application of each saw.

5.3. Preparing for work. The student must, before performing the work:

Test your readiness for work by answering the entry control questions.

How to classify saws by the shape of the blade? What is the technological purpose of each of these types of saws?

List and specify the basic design parameters of circular saws.

List all tooth surfaces and cutting edges.

Define and state the angular parameters of a saw tooth.

Define and indicate the basic linear parameters of a saw.

c) cuts fibers in longitudinal and crosscutting sawing?

(a) Slant sharpening on the front and back surfaces;

Which conditions must be met to achieve a quality surface in longitudinal and crosscutting sawing??

What is the difference between the tooth profiles for longitudinal and cross cutting? What are their reasons?

What are the ways to widen the ring gear?? What is the rational area of application for each of these methods?

What is the purpose of the compensating cuts?

What are the types and versions of circular saws teeth profiles in accordance with GOST 980-80 and GOST 9769-79.

5.5. Purpose and types of circular saws. Circular saws are one of the most popular types of wood-cutting tools. Several types of circular saws are produced in series and are characterized by different technological requirements. The functional purpose of a circular saw is to differentiate between the connecting part (bore), the thin disc and the cutting part (ring gear). Circular saws are subdivided according to the shape of the disk in the cross section into saws with a flat disk, conical and undercut disk (planer saws). Teeth of circular saws with flat disc can be equipped with hard alloys in the form of plates and hardfacing of wear-resistant alloys. Circular flat saws for sawing wood in accordance with GOST 980-80 are most widely used. The standard provides two types of saws and two designs (Tab. 5).

Circular saws are made from high-alloy tool steel 9XF, saw blade hardness HRCe=4045.

Circular saws with tungsten carbide plates are mainly used for sawing of sheet and board wood, veneered boards, plywood, as well as for sawing of glued and solid hardwood.

Cutting plates of saw teeth are made of carbide-tungsten and cobalt metal alloy ВК6, ВК6-ОМ, ВК15, and saw body is made of steel 9ХФ or 50ХФА. Shape and dimensions of carbide inserts according to GOST 13833. Tungsten carbide hardness of saw blade HRCэ=4045, hardness of plates HRCэ=8688 (see table 18). tab. 5 and fig.19).

Type 1. with differently inclined front and rear main tooth flanks (by resharpening the rear and front surfaces obliquely) (fig. 19a, b, c);

type 2. without inclination of corresponding surfaces (fig. 19г).

a- with a flat disk; b. bilateral-conical; c. left-tapered;

г. right-tapered; e. planer with a single-cone undercut;

е. planer with a two-cone undercut;

In addition, type 1 saws can have one-sided sloping front and rear surfaces (left (Fig. 19б) and right-cone (Fig. 19в)).

These saws are designed for finish sawing of the edges of boards and board materials.

Circular tapered saws (TU 14-1-1809-76) (cf. fig. 18б) are used for crosscut sawing of sawn timber into thin boards to reduce timber wastes into sawdust. Thickness of plates to be sawn should not exceed 12-18 mm, otherwise the saw blade would not be able to bend them aside and would block the saw in the kerf. For asymmetric cutting use one-sided tapered saws (left and right tapered) then (see fig. 18c, d). Taper angle of the saws is 30 40°.

Circular saws. planing (see chart “Saws. planing”). tab. 5 and Fig. 18d, f) are used for finish sawing of dry wood (with humidity up to 20%) with high requirements to the quality of processing in any direction relative to the fibers. According to shape of cross-section section of disk there are saws with one-cone shape (see fig. 18d) and double-cone (see fig. 18е). Tooth profiles (cm. tab. 5) are designed for longitudinal, crosscutting sawing.

Saws sizes and tooth profiles are standardized (GOST 18479-73). Design feature of saws is presence of undercut corners. resulting in the teeth of the saws not being bent or flattened.

Lateral cutting edges of the planer saw teeth that form the cutting surfaces are in one plane. The saw blade with undercut is stable in operation, resulting in minimal kinematic and vibration irregularities in the cut. Cutting surfaces are close to planed surfaces in roughness (hence the name of the saws). Material of saws. steel 9XF or 9X5VF. Saw hardness. HRCe=5155.

a, b, c. type 1: a. with oblique sharpening of the front and back surface or only back surface; b. back surface (left); c. back surface (right); d. type 2. with straight sharpening of teeth; 1. flat disk; 2. carbide plate; 3. compensation slot.

Shear strain, theory and example problems

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Different body parts do not move equally when deformed.

Consider a parallelepiped of rubber, fixing its lower base on a horizontal surface. Apply a force parallel to the upper face of the bar.

In this case, the layers of the bar will shift, remaining parallel, the vertical faces of the parallelepiped will remain flat, deviating from the vertical by a certain angle. The strain that causes the layers to shear relative to one another is called shear strain.

The volume of a solid does not change due to shear deformation. The shear strain is shown schematically in Fig.1

For small shear deformations, the shear angle is proportional to the applied deforming force. If the shear strain is large, failure of the body can occur and is called shear.

The shear strain is felt in all beams at the support point, the bolts that connect the parts. Shear displacement can be observed in scissors, saws, etc.д.

This value is called the absolute displacement. The ratio to the distance between opposing faces is called the relative displacement. If the strain is small, the relative shear equals the shear angle. The shear angle is expressed in radians. The relative shear strain can be determined as

Hooke’s law in shear

Shear modulus is a constant that describes the ability of a material to resist shear. In the international system of units, shear modulus is measured in pascals.

Hardness Measuring Equipment for Steels

Table. Characteristics of Tare Files

There are three ways of measuring the hardness of steels by mechanical testing: elastic rebound; indentation; scratching.

Many different metals and alloys with different mechanical properties are used in the cutting tool industry. There are currently about three dozen hardness test methods related to the hardness measurement methods listed above, each with a very specific application area. There are several methods which are based on the same principles.

deformation, does, teeth, experience

Hardness of a material is its ability to resist plastic or elastic deformation when a harder body (indenter) is introduced into it.

This type of hardness measurement does not involve metal breakage and, moreover, in most cases does not require the preparation of special samples.

All hardness testing methods can be divided into two groups based on the way the tip (indenter) moves: static and dynamic. Static hardness testing methods are the most common.

A static hardness testing method is one whereby an indentor is slowly and continuously pushed into the material to be tested with a specific force. Static methods include Brinell, Rockwell and Vickers hardness measurements.

The dynamic test measures the rebound of a testing tool from the surface of a test piece. Dynamic methods include hardness testing by Shore and Poldi.

Hardness testers may be either stationary or portable. Several methods of hardness determination are most widely used in the Russian tool industry: Brinell, Rockwell, Vickers, Shore, Poldi, etc.

In technical literature, hardness is given by the letter H. hardness. hardness). H is always followed by one or two letters indicating the hardness testing method, e.g. HB. Brinell hardness; HRA, HRB, HRC. Rockwell hardness (A, B and C scale); HV. Vickers hardness; HSD. Shore hardness; HP. Poldi hardness; Hµ. Microhardness and t. д.

Today, in addition to mechanical hardness testing methods, other methods such as ultrasonic testing of steel hardness are commonly used. It is reasonable to use ultrasonic hardness testers to measure thin-walled cutting tools (steel thickness up to 6 mm), for example, to measure the bodies of saws, and these devices can be installed in hard-to-reach places, in particular on the saw spindles. In Fig. 2 and 3 shows a portable and a stationary hardness tester.

, So for companies (especially small and medium sized) it is wise to get a portable (portable) hardness tester such as a universal hardness tester. Such a device (the cost of not more than 100 ths. ) allows you, with the help of dynamic and ultrasonic measurement systems to determine the hardness of any tool (from saws and knives to end mills).

Making a quality knife from a saw in two and a half hours

From the outside it seems that it’s easy to make a knife, that it’s just a sharpened steel band and a wooden handle. But when it comes to practice, the picture changes radically. The key to this process is knowledge and experience. When you know, everything is simple, when you have no experience, everything is difficult.

Recently I posted on the Internet a photo with seven blades, made in one day in a Stakhanovite rush.

Alexander Kudryashov asked in a comment how I make the descents even and symmetrical.

In response I joked: “It’s easy: take a “magic marker”, draw a straight trigger, say the magic words, and the straight trigger is ready.

But was it really a joke?? A joke, of course, but the truth is somewhere near.

Later, I offered to come over and see in practice how to make a proper escapement and the whole knife. And the offer was accepted.

By my idea, Alexander had to take part in the making: to choose the blanks for the blade, the material for the hilt, and the preferred length of the blade and hilt. Alexander was to leave our experiment with a finished, solid and, most importantly, working knife.

Alexander arrived smartly, wearing light sand-colored pants and a coyote-colored fleece jacket, which was totally unsuitable for the upcoming work. I had to give him work pants and a camouflage shirt in case he got dirty. Everything fit perfectly. he and I are the same size.

In the workshop, the work went according to a pre-planned plan. As the material for the blade we chose the good old mechanical saw made of HSS. Why?

This is a well known and repeatedly proven industrially hardened steel. Yes, it is difficult to process, but thanks to its red resistance (ability to withstand heat for a long time without hardness loss) it does not require cooling.

Thickness of the mech saw is 2 mm, which is enough for most working knife tasks. Mechpil knives are light, well-sharpened and, what is important, they are completely legal: the small thickness of the blade eliminates any suspicion of complicity with cold steel weapons.

Generally speaking, there are a lot of brands of high speed steels, but the manufacturer does not always indicate the exact grade, frequently stating it as HSS (high speed steel). New saws are rare and more expensive.

For the knife maker, the newness of the mechsaw is of no importance, so you can use a new saw as well as a badly used or even broken one to make a knife. The result will bear little resemblance to the original material. The disadvantages are that the steel is prone to chipping under lateral loading and is prone to corrosion.

Alexander chose an appropriate mechsaw blade made of HSS made in USSR. I cut off the excess and used an emery machine to make the contour of the future knife, then I roughened the workpiece with a trowel. a rotating steel brush, giving it a noble black luster, and painted the two sides of the blade with a blue broad-point marker designed for warehouse work.

Using the paint of the marker I marked the lines of the future blades with a caliper, paying special attention to the simultaneity of their appearance on the edge. He outlined the lines with a “magic marker” with a silver paint, which is nothing else but aluminum powder in a plastic binder.

Why with it?? Very simple. This paint withstands high temperatures, adheres well to the metal and holds firmly. The colors of ordinary colored markers burn out, fade, and crumble when working with metal. And the silvering holds up. That’s all the magic.

I mounted the blade on a special device for setting the escapement (cheaper version of the Chapay device, made by myself from a steel angle piece). I marked the place where the trigger will start with a marker and fixed it with a hand vice.

I roughed the metal off with a yellow 3M Cubitron II with a grain of P24 on a machine with an abrasive band (on the grinder). For evenness I started to remove the metal from the mark of the future handle with a marker and moved to the tip with even light pressure.

It is very important to apply the future blade evenly, parallel, with no tilting to the strip. I let Alexander stand for a while at the machine at the initial stage, using special devices. Removing the descents is a process that requires experience.

A little before I reached the silver lines of the “magic marker”, I changed the tape to abrasive P60 and began to smooth the line for the trimmer of the descents. I made several movements from the tip to the handle, creating a right angle at the beginning of the marks. Then the work on the ridge of the slopes has already begun.

For this it was enough to work with abrasives P80 and P120. It is unreasonable to use abrasives P180 and finer for very hard high speed steels. This is not Cubitron II, and on such hard steels the abrasives do not work well and for a short time. It is important to make the finishing of the blade on the same belt, because otherwise the sides will look different.

Knife made of high-speed cutter doesn’t need constant cooling during the processing, and this is one of the nice moments in its making. Of course, you should not overheat the knife, because the high temperature of steel leads to fast clogging of the abrasive by sticky metal particles. to salting.

Too much pressure on the metal is undesirable for the same reason. Tape that is clogged with metal that no longer “chews” but “licks” can be refreshed. To do this it is necessary to remove the metal clogged, lapped abrasive tips and free the grains that lie deeper.

It is easy to do. Take the quick-cutting saw blade and use it as a file to go diagonally against the moving belt at the place of bending (on the contact roller). This action does not give the abrasive a pristine aggressiveness, but it refreshes it and allows you to work on it some more.

Useful Drilling Techniques

You can use different techniques to work with hardened steel. The most common techniques are characterized by the following features:

  • Acid surface treatment. This technique is characterized by long-term use, because it takes a long time to reduce the hardness of the surface. Sulfuric, perchloric or other acids can be used for digestion. The procedure involves creating beads that will contain the substance used in the cutting area. After prolonged irradiation, the metal becomes softer and can be drilled using the conventional version.
  • You can use a welding machine to achieve this. When exposed to high temperatures, the metal becomes softer, which makes the procedure much easier.
  • The most commonly used specialty drills. There are commercially available options that can be used to process hardened steel. In their manufacture, metal with high resistance to wear and high temperature is used. However, the complexity of manufacturing and some other points determine that the cost of special tools is quite high.

In addition, a hammer is often purchased to achieve this goal. Using it, you can make a small hole, which will make further drilling easier.

Best Metal Cutting Blades For Circular Saw

How to Install a Blade in a Metal Hacksaw. The Metal Worker’s Handbook

A metal hacksaw is considered a fairly common hand tool that is designed to split a work piece into several separate pieces of a certain size. Its design features are characterized by the fact that there is an opportunity to conduct periodic replacement of the working plane.

When working metal there is a high probability of fast wear of cutting edge. That’s why the function of changing the band was provided, which requires a small amount of time. There are simply a huge number of different types of blades, let’s consider the features of choice and many other points in more detail.

Types of hacksaw blades and their design

It should not be forgotten that the production of working hacksaw blades is carried out in accordance with the established standards in GOST 53411-2009.

Specified information in this normative and technical documentation determines the allocation of two main groups: for machine and manual cutting.

It is worth considering that the machine hacksaw blade on metal is purchased very rarely, because such equipment is used very rarely. The following designs are produced for the hand hacksaw:

  • Single metal hacksaw blade with 250 mm spacing. The total length is 265 mm. This version is suitable for machines without high output requirements.
  • Single versions with a distance of 300 mm between the two clamping elements. The overall length is 315 mm.
  • For higher productivity the installation of a double hacksaw blade is carried out. The length of this version is the same as the previous one.

When selecting, you also pay attention to the width, which is 0.63 mm for the single version and 0.8 mm for the double version. The tooth height in the first case is 12.5 mm, in the second 20 mm.

Pitch and pitch are also regulated, since this determines many of the performance characteristics.

In the manufacture of such a product, a variety of alloys can be used, which largely determines the main performance characteristics. The following alloys are the most common:

Hacksaw blades with tungsten carbide coating have recently become quite popular, as they are characterized by high wear resistance. It is worth considering that the sputtering can have the most different colors, on sale there are blue versions of designs, the usual steel is dark gray.

The considered tungsten hacksaw blade is characterized by the fact that while the hardness of the working surface the structure is characterized by high sensitivity to bending load. That is why if the metal is cut carelessly, such a product can not last long.

Manufacturers can achieve a high strength indicator due to heat treatment. In this case it is worth considering the following:

  • The main part of the product is characterized by the hardness of the surface layer of about HRC 44-46.
  • Depending on the type of material used in production, the hardness of the tooth varies in the HRC range of 64 to 67. This indicator is characteristic of alloyed alloys. Fast-cutting steel is characterized by its HRC hardness in the 73-78 range.

Do not forget that significant variations in hardness make the product sensitive to bending. The tool is designed for different loads, it should not exceed 60 kg at a pitch of 1.4 mm, as well as 10 kg at a tooth pitch of less than 1.4 mm.

Quite a large number of varieties of such a product determines that with the selection of a suitable performance variant does not arise serious problems.

Principles of blade selection

It is important to choose correctly the most suitable variant of execution of a product to concrete operational conditions. If the surface does not have the required properties, it will not last for a long time. The selection criteria can be called the following points:

  • The most important selection criterion is the distance between the two fixing holes. Some tools have a special device that can change this parameter.
  • The next selection criterion is the toughness of the metal to be cut. If work involves cutting of common soft alloys, such as copper or aluminum, choose a product with the lowest hardness of the surface layer. X6VF steel is very common, imported blades have the HCS marking. It is also possible to work hard metals, for which the HSS hacksaw blade is suitable, imported marking HSS,
  • Also takes into account the thicknesses of metal being cut and the quality to be achieved after machining. Abroad, the decisive criterion is PPI. the number of tooth tips per inch in length. To ensure high quality requires a PPI greater than 24, if performance is a priority, then the version with an index of less than 24 is chosen.
  • When choosing one pays attention to the quality of the cutting edge spreading. This parameter should correspond to the standards of the above mentioned GOST. There are three main variants of setting: one set to each tooth, one set to each tooth, or two set to each adjacent tooth.

Many people are looking for a hacksaw blade that can last for a long period of time. Keep in mind that the service life is influenced by the quality of the coating applied. The use of inexpensive substances becomes the reason why a large number of cracks appear on the surface when heated.

The quality is also influenced by the uniformity of setting. A good metal hacksaw blade has a deviation of no more than 45% on a length of 10 mm.

A visual inspection also allows you to determine whether the individual teeth are equal in height.

Precise results are obtained using a micrometer or other precise measuring device.

How to mount the blade on the metal saw blade

The design of the tool in question allows for quick change of the hacksaw blade.

It is worth considering that if a mistake is made, the product in question will not last for a long period.

sharpening process

When sharpening, the saw must be firmly mounted so that it does not vibrate when the file is applied. Otherwise the quality of work will be low.

Fix the hacksaw blade vertically, often in a vise, in homemade clamps, but if neither is available, you can do without them.

Clamping method without special devices. “on the edge of the workbench. The blade of the hacksaw is laid so that only the teeth of the saw dangle from the edge of the table. However, the handles of the saw are always thicker than the blade, and therefore the place next to it can not be put tightly to the workbench. Therefore it is necessary to use a corner of the table, and then the handle of the saw will not interfere.

If a clamp is available, it can be clamped as follows.

And this is the way without a clamping mechanism, the fixation is made only by the hand of the sharpener. This is quite handy and safe.

In the right hand takes a file or file, and, holding the blade of the hacksaw with the left hand, proceed to sharpening.

The saw teeth are sharpened one by one. This sawing method moves the file from top to bottom. The file is placed against the tooth to be sharpened and pushed downward with a force.

Basics of Wood-Mizer blade sharpening

It is necessary to hold the file with an inclination in two planes. In the horizontal it is about 30 degrees. In the vertical. about 60 degrees. Angles of inclination are individual for every saw, because they can differ both by tooth shape and size.

Here’s what you should get: to the right of the saw pointer, the teeth are machined, and to the left, they are not.

To the right of the file pointer are the sharpened teeth, to the left are not

tool used

Since saws have different shapes and purposes, so do their teeth. And you need a variety of tools to sharpen a hacksaw properly.

A triangular hand file with one working side. The profile of this tool is not standard, if a regular triangular file has all sides equal and working, then this file has one working side, and is shaped like an isosceles triangle with a very large base.

This single sided triangular needle file is perfect for sharpening fine or oblique teeth. When working, it acts only on the surface to be machined, on others it only slides. No risk of grinding on the adjacent tooth.

Standard triangular file. A compact tool that is easy to sharpen most standard wood hacksaws.

Triangular file. Perfect for sharpening saws with a large tooth.

Lab work on woodworking tools

5.1. Job purpose. Identification of constructive elements of circular saws, learning the purpose of each element, learning how to prepare saw teeth, measuring the main parameters of saws, assessing their compliance with GOST and determining the rational application of a particular saw.

5.2. Work assignment. For concrete three saws given out individually to each student, define basic parameters of saws, take impressions of gear wheels and on it define angles of cutting, make a sketch of one saw and for it define maximum height of kerf, define according to GOST requirements and specify areas of usage of each saw.

5.3. Getting ready to work. The student should, before performing the work:

deformation, does, teeth, experience

Check your readiness for work by answering the entry control questions.

How to classify circular saw blades? What is the technological purpose of each of these types of saws?

List and specify the main design parameters of circular saws.

Specify all surfaces and cutting edges of the tooth.

Define and specify the angular parameters of the saw tooth.

Define and state the basic linear parameters of a saw.

c) cuts fibers in longitudinal and crosscutting sawing?

(a) Slanting along the front and back surfaces;

Which conditions are necessary for qualitative surface of circular saws in crosswise and lengthwise sawing??

What are the differences in tooth profiles for longitudinal and cross cutting? What are they caused by?

What are the methods of extending the ring gear?? What is the rational use of each of these methods?

What is the purpose of compensating cuts?

What are the types and designs of circular saw teeth profiles according to GOST 980-80 and GOST 9769-79.

5.5. Designation and types of circular saws. Circular saws are one of the most mass-produced types of wood-cutting tool. Several types of circular saws, having different technological purposes, are serially produced by industry. In a circular saw in terms of functionality distinguish between the connecting part (planting hole), a thin disc and the cutting part (gear ring). Circular saws are subdivided according to the shape of the blade in the cross section into flat blade, conical and undercut (planing) saws. Teeth of circular saws with a flat disc can be equipped with hard alloys in the form of plates and hardfacing of wear-resistant alloys. Circular flat saws for wood sawing according to GOST980-80 are most widely used. Two types of saws and two designs are prescribed by the standard (see table). 5).

circular saws are made of high-alloyed tool steel 9XF, saw blade hardness HRCэ=4045.

Circular saws with tungsten carbide plates are mainly used for sawing sheet and board wood, veneered panels and boards, plywood as well as for sawing glued and solid hardwood.

Cutting plates of saw teeth are made of carbide-tungsten and cobalt metal alloy ВК6, ВК6-ОМ, ВК15, and saw body is made of steel 9ХФ or 50ХФА. Shape and dimensions of carbide inserts according to GOST 13833. Hardness of saw blade HRCэ=40 45, hardness of blades HRCэ=86 88 (see: (in Russian). table. 5 and fig.19).

type 1. with differently inclined front and rear main surfaces of teeth (due to oblique sharpening of the rear and front surfaces) (Fig. 19a, b, c;)

type 2. without inclination of corresponding surfaces (fig. 19г).

a- with flat disc; b. double-conical; c. left-handed conical;

г. right-conical; e. planer with a single taper undercut;

е. planer with two-cone undercut;

Besides, saws of type 1 can have one-sided sloping front and back surfaces (left (Fig. 19б) and right (Fig. 19в)).

These saws are designed for finish sawing on the edges of boards and panel materials.

Circular tapered saws (TU 14-1-1809-76) (see: b. fig. 18б) is used for ribsawing lumber into thin boards to reduce wood waste into sawdust. Thickness of plates to be sawn should not exceed 12-18 mm, otherwise blade could not bend them aside and would block the saw in the kerf. Unilateral tapered saws (left and right tapered) are used for asymmetric sawing (see fig. 18c, d). Taper angle of saws 30 40°.

Circular sabre saws. planing (see “18. table. 5 and fig. 18d, f) are used for finish sawing of dry wood (with humidity up to 20%) with high quality requirements to processing in any direction relative to fibers. Single taper circular saw blades are differentiated according to shape of cross-section (see fig. 18d) and double-tapered (see fig. 18е). Tooth profiles (see Pic. tab. 5) are designed for longitudinal, crosscutting sawing.

Saws sizes and tooth profiles are standardized (GOST 18479-73). Design feature of the saws is the presence of undercut angles. the result is that the saw teeth do not bend or flatten.

The lateral cutting edges of the planer saw teeth that form the cutting surfaces are in one plane. The circular saw blade with undercut is characterized by stability in operation, resulting in a quality of cut that is characterized by low values of kinematic and vibration irregularities. Surface roughness of kerf is close to planed (from here and the name of the saw). Material of saws is steel 9XF or 9X5VF. The hardness of the saws is HRCe=5155.

a, b, c. type 1: a. with oblique grinding of front and back surfaces or only back surface; b. back surface (left); c. back surface (right); d. type 2. with straight teeth grinding; 1. flat disc; 2. carbide plate; 3. compensatory tear.

Home machining of toothed blade

To process the circular saw it is not necessary to have a special machine for sharpening circular saws with your own hands. To fix the blade in a certain position, you can use a flat stand, which has several nuances:

  • The surface must be level with the center of the sharpening disc.
  • The sharpening plane should be at a 90 degree angle relative to the toothed wheel.
  • To create a different tilt, the fixture must have a swivel joint.

To select the right angle, mark it with a colored marker. The fixture must be installed in a powerful vise. Do not allow even the slightest movement of the special stand.

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