What kind of hammer mechanism is used in rotary hammers?

Carbide how the carbide material affects the quality of drilling

The drill itself is made of strong high-alloy steel, which is the main material. But without stronger steel, the augers would wear out quickly and would not provide reliability when drilling holes. The core of the bit is the cutting part, and the efficiency of the corresponding work depends not only on the sharpening, but also on the presence of additional hardfacing materials. It would not be practical to produce drills out of solid carbide, since they would end up being very expensive.

According to the material of the blades on the cutting edge, there are a number of augers:

  • Pobedite is the most popular alloy, which is used not only in the manufacture of drills, but also concrete drill bits for drills. The tungsten carbide material is obtained by combining the two substances tungsten carbide and cobalt. The use of tungsten carbide makes the bit inexpensive and effective at the same time
  • Pobedite insert differs from pobedite drill in that the carbide material is not only applied to the cutting parts, but also to the base of the bit. This increases the durability of the devices as well as their service life. The presence of the teeth also affects the cost of the augers. How much does a good drill with pobedite insert cost, it all depends on the length and diameter of the device
  • Cast-iron drill bits are the cheapest models of drill bits, and it only makes sense to buy them if you need to make several holes in concrete. Distinctive feature of all hardened bits is dark color of the tip

hammer, mechanism, used, rotary

There are also diamond tipped bits, but they are quite expensive. This is mainly due to the fact that diamond is considered the strongest and most expensive material on the planet. Diamond spraying is mainly used on core drill bits, which are designed for making holes in concrete and reinforced concrete with diameter over 55 mm.

Once you know what drills for torches can be, you can choose the one that best suits your needs. When buying, you can also encounter such a feature as the difference in the shape of the cutting edge. They differ in the number of plates used in the cutting tips design. The most common have one plate and 2 cutting edges, but the most effective devices with two plates and 4 edges are considered. If necessary, it is also possible to buy a set of drills.

This is interesting! If the nozzle does not indicate what diameter of holes can be drilled, it can be measured with a caliper. To do this, you do not measure the cylindrical or spiral part, but the cutting edge. The protrusions of the plates show the diameter of the holes that can be drilled with the drill.

Pehorator structure and principle of operation

Understanding how the peorator is designed and how it works is necessary in order to better navigate in the choice of this tool. Roughly speaking, you can divide the peorator into the following systems and assemblies:

  • power unit;
  • percussion mechanism;
  • anti-vibration system;
  • safety clutch;
  • gearing of the perforator;
  • chuck.


Collector (brush) motor is used most often. It can be positioned horizontally or vertically. This determines whether it is a direct-acting or barrel-acting piston. The motor is what converts the electrical energy into motion that is then transmitted to the nozzle in the cartridge via a gear unit.

Impact mechanism

An electric banger uses a pneumatic hammer mechanism that converts the rotary motion into a reciprocating motion. This results in a high impact force at high rotational speeds while maintaining reliability. As the shaft rotates, a drunken bearing moves a piston that pumps and cuts air in front of the striker. The compressed air pushes the striker, which strikes the nozzle. When the air is depressed, the beater moves backwards. Drum spinners use a crank mechanism instead of a rocker bearing.

Anti-vibration system

Vibration is invariably generated during the operation of the ram, which makes the operator tired of holding the tool. To damp its effect, antivibration systems are used. They can be active or passive.

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Active anti-vibration systems are a shock-absorbing mechanism with a counterweight that compensates for some of the vibration generated by the shock mechanism. There are also handles which are attached to the body with a special joint. They allow you to damp some of the vibration.

Passive anti-vibration systems include dampers or handles that are not rigidly fixed (such as a connection via a spring pin or a torsion shaft). The use of elastic materials that absorb some of the vibration makes working with the pen more comfortable.

Safety clutch

The tool can jam in the material during operation, which can lead to loss of control of the pen. To reduce possibility of operator’s injury, there is a safety clutch that unlocks connection between tool and tooling in the moment of jamming. This avoids loss of control of the tool and injury to the operator. Remember to hold the hammer chuck firmly by both handles for the clutch to work properly.

Impact mechanism and chuck

The impact mechanism is an important part that transmits the energy of the motor to the chuck. Its quality determines the reliability of the tool, its efficiency and ability to perform complex tasks without overheating.

Another important element is the chuck, in which the nozzle is installed. We decided to dedicate a separate section to the description of the different cartridge types.

Impact mechanism

Choosing what is better: a peorator or a drill, it is worth first of all to think for what type of work the device is chosen. In a drill the percussion mechanism is much simplified, it is represented by a ratchet wheel with cogs on which a shaft jumps. Because of the simplicity of construction, a drill is much easier, but the impact force is lower. And endurance, too.

The striking mechanism of the pen is set up differently. The peorator is equipped with a pneumatic percussion mechanism, which strikes the face with enormous force. Therefore the functionality, power, and impact force of the peorator are much higher, although the weight of the peorator is of course increased.

The most popular are SDS type chucks, divided by size, viz: SDS-plus and SDS-max, as well as SDS-top. The chuck for the peorator is a characteristic of the power performance and weight of the appliance. When SDS-max torches, for example, a large and heavy tool is meant.

  • Mark the future insertion of the drill bit. For a hole perpendicular to the surface you need an angle.
  • Insert the drill of the required diameter and push it towards the marking.
  • Slowly press the start button and then push the tool in.
  • Remove the drill bit from the hole and release the button.

Principle of operation of the orator

Pehorator models differ in design features and applications. But they have similar components and characteristics. In this article you will find a detailed description of each characteristic and its influence on the possibilities of the tool.

On the market you can find a huge number of gears with different designs. But regardless of the many modifications of the device, they all consist of approximately the same components.

Electric actuator

The gyroplane is driven electrically. Collector-type drives are generally used. The lightweight models that are purchased for domestic use have the motor in a horizontal position. In the medium and heavy ones it is fixed vertically.

Devices with a horizontal drive are seen as more compact and useful when working in hard-to-reach places.

But such a design has its disadvantages.

For example, the actuator is poorly cooled because of its location and is subjected to high loads on its power component.

But machines with a vertical drive are much better cooled. What is more, their design gives you less impact vibration. Also thanks to the vertical alignment, the piston can move with a wide amplitude, which increases the striker amplitude. This advantage is due to the fact that vertical drives use a crank mechanism. Machines with a horizontal motor, on the other hand, use a roller bearing. Thanks to this, the rotors with vertical motors can work for much longer periods of time.

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The design of the percussion mechanism

The hammering mechanism enables the gator to do its primary function (drilling). There are two basic types of mechanism used in the tool:

The first type of mechanism is used in most modern tool models. Its main advantage is the high impact energy with low power of the power train. The electropneumatic mechanism is of two types. The first uses a roller bearing (for light models) and the second uses a crank mechanism for heavy and medium models.

The components of the striking mechanism include the roller bearing, ram, piston and striker.

During start-up, the impact force from the electric motor is delivered to the inner bearing cage.

In doing so, the outer ring begins to vibrate. The internal air volume between the ram and the piston is alternately under high and low pressure. At this time, the ram repeats the motion of the piston and strikes the striker, which, in turn, strikes the nozzle in the cartridge.

The pneumatic operation mechanism allows the unit to shut off during idle running. This is made possible by the ram moving forward if there is no contact between the surface and the bit. When the ram moves, the opening of the air connection from the piston chamber to the outside opens.

Crank mechanism in rotators works with high amplitude, which allows increasing impact power considerably (up to 20 kJ). The mechanism itself functions in much the same way as the previous. The torsional impulse is transmitted from the worm shaft to the pinion and then the crank sends it to the striking mechanism.

Anti-vibration system

Companies are constantly developing new systems that will improve the mechanism and reduce the amount of vibration received by the tool. All existing technologies can be roughly divided into two types:

Active vibration protection system is installed only on torches with high power. They use a mechanism made of a counterweight and a spring device. This technology cannot completely eliminate all the vibrations generated, but it significantly reduces their level. It is also helped by the device handle, which is attached to the body of the peorator by means of a hinge and springs to perform this task.

Sealing Solutions for Hammer Drills and Demolition Hammers – Freudenberg Sealing Technologies

The passive vibration damping system uses rubber pads on the housing. They also prevent the hands from slipping when operating the gyroplane. This system is less efficient.

Electrical diagram and enclosure

Several methods are used to control the speed of the bits on the gator. Most require the handler to vary the amount of pressure on the starter button. Some models have a knob for this which must be twisted. The wiring diagrams of the different models differ considerably. Most often, they are very similar to an electric drill.

The body of the gyroplane is made of metal. Usually an aluminum or magnesium alloy is used for its production. In lightweight peorators, the body is made of impact-resistant plastic. Some models can be made of metal and plastic at the same time. The metal in this device is also needed for rapid cooling of the system.

Air is used for effective cooling of the entire system. It is delivered to the striker by the fan located next to the electric motor. This design avoids overheating of the device. The powerful airflow keeps the entire torch at the right temperature and prevents you from getting hurt. Some models have plastic covers that protect the hot spots. in other machines the housing is made of metal on one side and strong plastic on the other.

Safety coupling

Special couplings are used in the perforators to protect the device from breakage when the chuck jams. It also helps to avoid personal injury and overloading of the entire system. If the drill should suddenly stop, a coupling prevents the motor armature from stopping. It allows the chuck to disengage from the shaft and prevents it from burning out.

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Two types of couplings are the most common for the peorator:

The first type is made of a group of discs connected to each other. When the chuck stops, they slip, which helps the chuck separate from the other chuck. The second mechanism has two coupling halves with special dimples and ledges. They are attached to each other by a spring. The method of operation is the same as in the previous version. If the slip mechanism is triggered, the peorator makes a strong cracking noise.

It has been found that the cam-spring system is safer to use in torque motors. But it has an important disadvantage. During operation, the ends of the tabs on the coupling halves can become snapped, causing the mechanism to engage involuntarily.


The reducer is used to send the torsional impulse to the chuck of the peorator. It also helps the impact mechanism work. The gear housing contains several types of gears. They have a constant ratio. Some tool types include gearboxes with two speeds. To ensure reliability, grease is used and is applied during assembly or repair of the unit. Electronic speed control is used to set the number of rotational speeds of the rotor.


There are three types of cartridges used by most gator manufacturers. Their design is as follows

A cam chuck is also called a key chuck. When it is used, the bits are clamped using a wrench that allows the clamping and unclamping of the cams. In the quick-action chuck, tools can only be locked in place by hand. These designs are of the single-coupling or double-coupling type. These are used on machines with automatic shaft locking. SDS system is considered the most widespread system and is included in the construction of 90% of modern tools.

Design of a gyroplane

Regardless of their function and design, peorators have similar basic elements.

The design of a simple mains-powered gator

The barrel rotator has the same basic components.

Construction of a drum gorator with network drive

Barrel gorator has the same basic components

The percussion mechanism of a peorator can be made in two versions:

Mechanism with crank mechanism

The oscillating bearing is also known as a drunken bearing. This mechanism is used in light and medium gears.

Drunken bearing impact mechanism

A crank mechanism is used in heavy peorators.

Using a gyroplane

It is worth taking a look at how this tool can be used.

Impact drills are very versatile tools that can be used for a wide variety of jobs. They are mainly used for drilling holes in bricks, concrete and other materials used for masonry. They can also handle wood, plastic and metal.

They can be used to make holes for dowels and screws, on which you can hang pictures, mirrors, as well as cabinets in the kitchen or bathroom. You can also use the impact drill to attach baseboards or a TV wall mount.

These devices have a wide range of accessories that allow you to adapt the equipment for tasks other than drilling. Special tools are available for grindindindind surfaces, knead mortar, or cut holes of large diameters, among others. This makes impact drills an essential part of the hobbyist’s workshop.

Types of Pen Mounting Devices

Depending on the type of configuration, a distinction is made between linear or horizontal and angular or vertical rotary drills.

Tools with vertical electric motor provide more power than their counterparts. Used primarily for work on walls, floors. The increased weight limits the use of the peorator when drilling ceilings, it is not possible to hold it above yourself for a long time. Usually these are heavy devices for drilling large diameter holes, disassembling tiles, destroying walls.

Horizontal models are lightweight, can be held with one hand, work overhead, including making holes in the ceiling. Widely used for groove cleaning.

The horizontal perforators are up to 600 mm long and the vertical ones are 320 mm high.

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