What parts of the chainsaw consists of. The device of the chain tension mechanism
The device of the chainsaw
Gasoline saws are widely used for harvesting firewood, clearing the site from thickets of trees and shrubs, during construction work, as well as logging. A simple design with an elementary principle of action effectively performs its task and is characterized by reliability, durability.
Different models presented on the market differ in functionality. But the principle of action and structure are practically identical.
- Clutch clutch;
- Auxiliary systems;
- Chain brake and tension mechanism;
The carburetor engine operates on an oil-banding mixture. The ratio of fuel proportions with oil are indicated in the manufacturer’s instructions.
Experts note that the duration of operation of the device without repair depends on its quality.
Tire length is also an important criterion. If you use a chainsaw only to cut branches on living trees in the garden, then the shorter the headset, the better. In the same case, when you need to cut logs with a diameter of 120 cm, you will need to use a tire of at least 60 cm long to make a cut in a circle.
Also an important criterion according to which the tool is selected is the presence of an effective anti.Vibration system. The fact is that during the sawing, the chainsaws vibrate greatly, and after a few hours of work, the hands begin to shake themselves. It is best to give preference to chainsaws in which the engine block is separated from the platform of the case, gas tank and handles.
What does the gap on the candle of the chainsaw affect
Dressing engines of internal combustion have a ignition that does not work with a malfunction of one of the structural elements. Like it or not, without the slightest part, the motor will not start. It’s not like with a TV: slammed on the lid, and everything worked.
Even a small misfire or breakdown in a debugged system can cause a malfunction in the operation of the unit. The slightest incapacitance on the candle as an example.
If the gap of the ignition coil is convicted within normal limits and there are strong electrodes in the chainsaw. Nothing can happen. But sometimes this is not enough to break through a dense mixture of the atmosphere at a long uncharacteristic distance.
How to tighten a chainsaw chain
Also more than necessary, the distance increases the energy production of the coil, reducing the fuse of the spark. The working mixture does not ignite when the starter moves. The result. The engine either does not gain momentum or does not start at all. Next, we will talk about which gap on the candle of the chainsaws is normal and how to fix the situation if you have them incorrectly on the saw.
Frequent breakdowns in chainsaws
Most of the breakdowns provoke accumulated garbage and sagging chain. Manufacturers recommend carefully inspecting the tool before each turning on. It is necessary to ensure that the chain is stretched, and its teeth are sharply sharpened. A little time to inspect the chainsaw before starting work will help save money on repairs.
Some nuances of the chainsaw can indicate its malfunction:
In such failures, it is strictly recommended to stop using a chainsaw. To repair the engine, it is better to contact an experienced master, and some problems can be eliminated on your own. For this, it is important to understand what part a failure at work.
In case of malfunction of the chainsaws, first of all, you need to check:
- Fuel. Low.Quality gasoline, which was stored in inappropriate conditions, may affect the launch of the tool. If there are doubts as fuel, it is necessary to replace it.
- Candles. Most often the chainsaws are not started due to flooded candles. It is recommended to get a candle, dry it and drain excess gasoline. It is better to store spare candles to quickly replace them and continue to work.
- Filter. In case of malfunctions, it is recommended to get a filter and check it for a breakthrough. Perhaps large chips damaged the canvas and fell into the instrument.
This is a minimum repair that can be carried out at home. All the necessary spare parts for the chainsaw can be found in the AgrotechService online store.
If the cause of the malfunction lies in the operation of the engine or carburetor, then it is better to attribute the chainsaw to the master. Inexperienced user can incorrectly assemble the tool and break the security system. It is better not to take risks and entrust a difficult repair to professionals.
How to blame the trees with a chainsaw. Rules for sawing branches of chainsaw
Due to incorrect calculations, wind speeds, transfer of the mass of the trunk, it can fall into an unplanned place, so when the tree falls, do not look away from it.
Most of the injuries occurs with a saw of branches. To avoid injuries, follow these rules:
The location of the engine can be: horizontal or vertical
Vertical location. In front of the engine, you can install a large muffler. This will reduce the noise of work. In addition, the unit maintenance is simplified. The vertical location of the engine is used in most professional chainsaws.
Horizontal location. In this case, the case has compact dimensions. Units of this plan are easy to transport and have a small weight. Most summer residents prefer it, since such an engine location is applicable in household chainsaws.
Device and principle of operation of the carburetor
Find out the device of the carburetor chainsaw. This device consists of:
- Diffuser, which is located at the entrance to the device;
- Valves regulating the supply of the mixture;
- Special sprayer;
- Float chamber.
There are 2 or 3 adjusting screws equipped with springs in the device. At the end of the screws are located needles-cones.
- When the engine is turned on, the air damn.
- The air moves forward and mixed with the combustible in the diffuser, where the passage is narrowed.
- The air goes through the nozzles, then it is cleaned with a filter and enters through the damper located at the inlet of the diffuser.
- At the same time, a special damper that is behind the diffuser distributes the mixture, and it falls into the combustion chamber.
The device is arranged in such a way that the volume of fuel, which passes through the nozzles, is regulated by the chainsaw bolts. The volume of fuel in the chamber depends on the valve with a sharp cone. The work of this valve is regulated by the membrane that controls the intake of the mixture into the chamber. The work of these nodes depends on the rotation of the ICE. The mixture is cleaned using the filter.
How the chainsaw is arranged
The device of the chainsaw is not too complicated. The main elements of its design:
In the ignition system of modern chainsaws, there are elements that, depending on the speed of the saw, regulate the impulse. Most manufacturers today equip their equipment with electronic ignition instead of contact.
The electronic ignition system consists of the following elements:
Magneto. A type of alternating current generator. He supplies electric energy to the spark plug. Any magneto consists of a reel with a core and high.Voltage windings, a flywheel and a permanent magnet. Magneto are contacted or contactless.
Contact magneto has two winding conclusions. The first goes to the spark plug, the second. To the ground. The capacitor can be connected to such a scheme so that the contacts do not overheat and not oxidized.
In a contactless magneto voltage supply regulator. Reel. Thyristor, diode and capacitor regulate the current value. The electric network operates in time with the progressive movement of the cylinders and the rotation of the crankshaft. However, the connection diagram of all parts of the contactless magneto depends on the saw model.
- The magnet, fixed on the flywheel, rotates with it and induces the electric motor in the system;
- A current occurs in the circuit, which is converted using an electronic unit into electrical signals;
- Signals are transmitted to the candle;
- A spark forms between the contacts of the candle, from which the fuel-air mixture lights up.
In any ignition, the spark is formed when the engine piston does not reach its “dead point” about 3-4 mm.
The candle consists of a case, an insulator and electrodes: central and lateral. By its state, you can visually determine the ignition malfunctions.
After the fuel mixture fire, the motor begins to work. From time to time, the entire ignition system must be adjusted.
On most models of chainsaws, carburetors are arranged the same.
They have a damper in the case. With its help, both screws (main and idle), diffuser, pulse channel and input fitting are adjusted. The damper also regulates the supply of atmospheric air.
Understanding the principle of operation of the carburetor helps to correctly adjust its adjustment. He works like this:
- The engine starts, in the lower part of the case the air damper opens;
- Inside the float chamber and in the air channel, discharge occurs, because the piston moves;
- Air is absorbed through the diffuser;
- From a gasoline tank, a fuel mixture falls into the float chamber through the fitting;
- In the diffuser, gasoline is mixed with air;
- Through intake channels, the fuel-air mixture enters the combustion chamber.
Using the damper, you can adjust the intensity of air flow into the fuel, using the screws. Configure the engine speed, using a nozzle. The speed of gasoline intake into a diffuser.
Consists of a fuel filter, carburetor and a hand.Type fuel pump. At the same time, the pump is not in all chainsaws: in some models, gasoline from the tank enters the carburetor unit simply along the hose. The end of the hose with a fuel filter is immersed in gasoline, and gasoline stops entering the carburetor node when the tank is filled with air. To avoid this, a saapun is attached to the tank cover: when it is polluted, the motor stalls.
A manual.Type fuel pump allows you to fill the carburetor in advance with fuel, so the motor is launched faster.
Air purification system
The chainsaws are equipped with a preliminary and thin cleaning system so that the gas used to compose the fuel-air mixture is of good quality.
Previously, the air filters the mesh filter, then. Thin cleaning filters.
Due to the pollution of the filters, less air enters the carburetor node. As a result, the power of the motor drops. To prevent this, filters must be constantly cleaned: blowing or washing.
The starter starts the chainsaw motor. The mechanism of the starter consists of a handle, a cable, a drum and a return spring.
If you abruptly stretch the handle with a torso, the drum will cling to the shaft, the shaft will begin to scroll through. The spring will help return the handle to its original position. So that the launch of the motor followed the turn of the shaft, it will be necessary to pull the handle more than once.
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The chain step is the intermediate distance between the three rivets located nearby.
The larger the chain step, the greater the power of the engines, and its performance, and the efforts to increase the rotation of the drive star.
But the chains with a small pitch (more teeth and less the distance between them) vibrate less, their movements are smoother when cut, and the cut is cleaner.
Tires for chainsaws differ in length. Tire length is the length of the working part, that is, the distance from the front of the saw to the rounded tip of the tire nose. As a rule, the length of the tire is indicated in the instructions.
But the reliability of the saw tire is determined not only by its own characteristics, but also by other details. For example, an asterisk. If a star with a replaceable crown is made of durable materials, the tire will last a long time. Thanks to a shift crown, the beating level is reduced repeatedly.
To make the tire wear most uniform, it must be turned over periodically, then the service life will increase.
If the chain at the time of rotation accidentally touches the tree, a reverse blow occurs. In this case, for security reasons, the brake should work.
The brake system of the saw consists of brake stop and brake tape. You can turn on the system in two ways: contact (brake emphasis presses on the hand of a worker) and inertial (with a sharp blow to the tire, inertial forces appear on the brake).
Semi.Professional are more powerful models that can withstand enlarged loads when working related to construction. This class includes a huge range of models with increased power that are used in the performance of work (forest shaft, large.Scale construction).
But their disadvantage is not the opportunity to do work for a longer time. You can’t work on them for a day, since the tool from the load may become unusable.
The power of this class is 2-3 kW, the size of the tire is 40 cm long, the weight of the chainsaw is approximately 6 kg. Such models are useful with minor construction work and in the garden.