What steel is a wood hacksaw?.
Saws for wood for the house their types and requirements for the choice
In addition to power tools, a good craftsman should have hand tools in his arsenal. And it is not only a hammer and a set of keys, but even to the hand tools also includes a hacksaw for wood, to the choice of which requires an appropriate approach. It is used exclusively for woodworking. trimming trees, preparing rafters, beams and boards during construction, as well as the manufacture of various structures from woodworking materials. Wood hacksaws are the second most important tool after a hammer and should be chosen accordingly.
The choice of any tool needs a competent approach. Wood hacksaw, although considered to be the simplest hand tool, which consists of a cutting part and a handle, but it depends on it a lot. It is both the speed of the result and the quality of the cut, as well as the amount of physical effort a person makes when cutting trees.
Many craftsmen at home still have old hacksaws from the Soviet Union, which have one important quality. it is reliable. Modern hacksaws are less reliable, but more practical and easy to use. That’s why if you have an old wood hand saw lying around in your garage, don’t rush to throw it away. You need to sharpen your wood hacksaw in order to restore the tool’s performance. However, it is important to keep in mind that the tool must have all the teeth, otherwise it is not suitable for further use.
This is interesting! Lack of one or more cogs on a wood hacksaw not only reduces the performance of the tool, but also makes it unsafe to operate. After all, in the place of absence of teeth on the blade, the load increases, so it is not excluded that the material can break, thereby injuring the master, working with the tool.
If there is an old wood hacksaw in the arsenal, you can restore its performance, but if you decide to buy a new one, then you need to choose the appropriate approach. Before we choose, let’s consider the types of wood hacksaws, what they are and how they differ.
How to choose a saw?
Wood hacksaw is presented in the market in different variants. How products can differ:
A hacksaw with a change in one of these parameters can dramatically change its characteristics. Also, sitting comfortably in the hand of one craftsman, will not suit another at all. These factors must be taken into account when choosing a tool for different purposes.
This parameter defines quality and speed of work. TPI stands for the number of teeth per inch and is easy to determine the size and number of teeth. This parameter can be seen in the description of a hand held wood saw, often the value is printed on the blade.
Cutting metal on a wooden bandsaw
- Wood hacksaw with a coarse tooth gives a rough cut at high speed. It will come in handy for cleaning the area from branches, sawing boards for firewood and other activities, where you can get by with rough ends of products and trunks. TPI tooth size 36 is chosen for such tools.
- For products that need to be sawn accurately and evenly a fine-toothed hacksaw with TPI 79 will do. It is used for sawing fiberboard, particle board, laminate, repair work. The performance of such a tool is significantly lower than that of a coarse-toothed tool.
A joinery hacksaw is primarily selected according to its tooth size. So, for ordinary wood will do fine and coarse, and for “delicate” materials like Fiberboard need a fine-toothed saw. You can now see similar designations in stores: “for wood”, “for plasterboard”, etc.д. Their main difference is the size of the teeth, which is optimal for cutting each of the materials indicated on the label.
The teeth differ in shape, depending on this the tool acquires a different purpose:
- Hacksaw for longitudinal sawing is equipped with triangular-shaped teeth with oblique angles. Their appearance resembles hooks sharpened on both sides. This causes the saw to glide along the grain of the wood and cuts the blade smoothly, almost without jagged edges.
- Cross-cutting tool has teeth in the shape of an isosceles triangle. Mechanical hacksaw of this kind saws in forward and backward motion, but it can only be used for processing dry wood.
- A handheld mixed saw has alternate teeth of both types. The long curved ones saw the material in a forward direction, the triangles in a backward motion widen the channel for passage and pick up chips and sawdust. Today’s models have teeth alternating with hollow points. This allows to use the saw on dry and freshly cut wood, rough unnecessary fibers are removed through the holes.
Choice of steel
To make the tool last longer, it is necessary to choose high quality steel for blade manufacturing. Better if it is stainless.
Teeth can be carbide-tipped or regular. While the ordinary ones can be sharpened at home, the carbide-toothed saws are disposable and cannot be sharpened once they wear out. They are easy to recognize by their dark color as in the photo.
Length of blade
This is determined by the size and pitch of the saw tooth.
- Always a mini hacksaw is equipped with fine, fine toothed blades not exceeding 350mm in length;
- The multi-purpose hacksaw has an intermediate tooth size and is up to 550 mm long;
- A wide saw blade has coarse teeth with extra spacing and a blade length of more than 600 mm.
In addition to the length, the blade can vary in shape. Traditional saws are shaped like a rectangle that is narrowed on one side. It is a universal type of tool that can be used for everything.
The rounded blade is adapted for working on branches and other objects at a distance: it’s lightweight and glides effortlessly over the wood.
This part of the saw determines the convenience of the work. It should fit perfectly in your hand and be comfortable. Handles are made of different plastics that are pleasant to the body
Important note: the material should not slip if your hand gets wet. For this, there are grooves and grooves in the body of the handle and a rubberized grip
Technical characteristics of hacksaws
According to State standard requirements wood hacksaw is designed for carpentry and joinery work (manual wood sawing) and has to comply with certain technical characteristics.
The state standard specifies what materials can be used to make the blade, handles, what the connection between the working surface and the handle should be. Also there are specified permissible sizes of tools and their separate parts. There are requirements for sharpening and dilution of cutters, the minimum permissible value of sharpening to the front and back edges of the tool.
Gross Piranha 24101
Most comfortable handle Country: Germany (made in China) Rating (2021) 4.6
If a professional definition can be applied to the wood hacksaw, then this is exactly the model in front of us. German manufacturer took into account all the nuances and used them in their product. The teeth are sharpened on three sides and are hardened, so they do not blunt for a long time.
In addition, it is a universal tool that can be used not only to cut wood, but also plywood, as well as laminate. The teeth on the blade are very small and maximally sharp, what allows making a very fine cut without chips and even along the wood fiber. The manufacturer has also paid a lot of attention to the ergonomics of the tool. The handle is plastic and has a rubber insertion at the grip point. This tool is easy and comfortable to work with, even over a long period of time.
All about choosing a wood hacksaw
Today there are different modifications of goods, each of them is designed for a particular type of work. That is why the choice has become more complicated. Let’s find out what to look for when choosing a tool.
The blade is the main element of the tool and determines its characteristics. The length of the blade is important. It can vary from 25 to 50 cm. The longer the blade, the larger the items the hacksaw cuts. The effort required in this case will be less. But there is a minus: a long blade more springs, which is uncomfortable. This is especially noticeable when working with hardwoods such as oak, ash, maple, etc.п.
Therefore masters recommend to adhere to the rule: the length of the blade must be twice as big as the area to be sawed. This ratio ensures convenient handling. A smaller saw blade will jam and must be removed with great force. Too long will start to spring and jam, it can break. All this will considerably complicate manipulations. For small products choose a length of 250-300 mm, for large. 450-500 mm.
The width of the blade also matters. A saw blade that is too narrow will break even in a slight bending situation. Overly wide tools are inconvenient to work with, you have to exert a lot of force. Optimal width for hand saws is 100-200 mm. it is necessary to know that products of a certain width are used for different types of work. That’s why craftsmen buy them in sets to choose the right blade for every purpose.
The blade is made of carbon or alloy steel. Each has its own advantages and disadvantages. Low-alloy carbon metal was originally used. It is ductile, does not break, but wears out very quickly. Hardened, on the contrary, does not blunt for a long time, but breaks when loaded with bending. A kind of compromise is bimetallic blades where the metal is hardened only at the teeth area. You can buy bimetal blades in every construction store. They are malleable, do not break and do not blunt for a long time. But it is impossible to sharpen them again. Hardened metal is not easy to sharpen.
Gross Piranha wood hacksaw
High-alloy steel blades are available for professional work. They give the best quality of cut, but they are very fragile. Softer varieties gain resistance to bending, but lose precision of cut. High-alloy steel grades M50, M7, M2, M1 are used for saws. These are marked as HSS or HS. These are the most expensive hacksaw blades.
For domestic use they make blades of carbon material. They are malleable, insensitive to bending and easy to sharpen. But it is rather difficult to sharpen and set teeth qualitatively. Not all masters can handle it and they turn to professionals for help not to spoil the saw.
For use in the home, it is optimal to choose a metal of medium hardness. These are marked with 45 and the letters HRC. the harder variant is also suitable: 60-55 HRC.
The primary value in this tool is the blade. The brand of steel, the correct hardening procedure and successful sharpening will determine the ease of use of the product and its service life. The choice of a wood hacksaw is based on four basic characteristics:
The first criterion. the length of the blade. It depends on the needs of the buyer, so for small bars, boards, etc.п. 280. 300 mm of the hacksaw is quite enough. For building or country site a 450 to 500 mm blade is better. There are also larger models. when selecting which model you should be very clear about the size of the wood you are sawing. The rule is as follows: the length of the hacksaw must be twice as long as the largest workpiece for which it is designed. It is possible to cut less, but the comfort of use will be lost. There are several reasons for this:
- such a ratio allows all the teeth of the hacksaw during sawing to come completely out of the log, and this is an effective removal of sawdust (will not clog);
- Your hands are at ease, the sprawling motion results in less hand fatigue.
Tooth size and sharpening. This will affect cutting accuracy and speed. The pattern is as follows: a fine tooth means a clean and precise cut, but less speed; a larger tooth means a coarse cut at much greater speed and less fatigue. This characteristic is called “TPI” on hacksaws, which means number of teeth per inch (almost 30 mm). The more is the TPI value, the more “delicate” the cut will be. For example, for works with particleboard and fiberboard, this value should be at least 7. 9. Smoother cut surface without jagged edges.
For work in the garden, the cleanliness of the cut is not as critical, especially for trimming or sawing logs. The more important characteristic in this type of work is the speed of cutting and the effort to be expended. For this we need a hacksaw with TPI 3-6, distance between teeth from 4 to 8 mm.
The classic tooth shape is a triangle. These saws are typically of the sharpenable type. The latest generation of sabre saws with hardened toothing has a trapezoidal shape. They are designed for strength and durability from the start. When it gets blunt, go out and buy a new hacksaw or change the blade. It is not possible to sharpen it with all the willpower: it is extremely difficult to repeat the sharpening angles, and this steel is not amenable to the file. Provided that the manufacturing technology is respected.
Steel type. Standard hardness of metal for wood hacksaw is 45 HRC. Steel with hardness of 55-60 HRC is used for teeth. This type of hacksaw combines a flexible blade with high resistance to tooth wear. They are easy to recognize by their distinctive appearance. the teeth have a darker shade than the rest of the surface of the blade. These hacksaws are of the non-sharpening type. If the teeth are not hardened. They can be ground and resharpened.
Handle. Its ergonomics determines the number of calluses on your hands. There are two versions of the handle: flip-up or classic. The first option lets you change blades, such as with the Bahco Superior EX-19-XT9-C wood hacksaw.
Choice of hacksaw blades
When choosing a hacksaw for metal special attention should be paid to the toothed blade, because the smallest flaws can negatively affect the quality of work in the future. The blade should be free of cracks and corrosion and should be smooth. When checking, you bend the blade and let it go. It should instantly return to its original shape.
It should be noted that blades are available with 32, 24, 18 teeth per inch. The more teeth on the blade, the faster and better the material can be sawn, and vice versa. It is desirable that the metal saw has the ability to install the blade at an angle of 90 degrees, in order to cut large sheet materials. If this is not possible, the depth of cut is limited by the height of the hacksaw itself. There are models that have blade mounts made at a 45-degree angle.
Blade can be made of various materials, and it is necessary to choose it depending on what alloys you will saw exactly. It is best to choose a bimetal or tin-plate blade. Black blade, as a rule, is of very poor quality and lasts only for a few moves of the hacksaw, then the teeth begin to crumble, potholes appear, and it is impossible to work with such a blade anymore.
A hardened blade looks like a nickel-plated stainless steel blade with dark-colored teeth. The dark color is an indication of their hardening. Bimetal blades for metal saws are painted in some color (yellow, red, etc.).д.) or even two-tone. Such blades will last much longer than budget black ones. After that all that remains is to make sure that the length of the blade corresponds to the length of the hacksaw, this is indicated both on the tool and on the blade.
The most important thing in this tool is the blade. Usability and durability will depend on the steel grade, hardening procedure, and sharpening. The choice of a hacksaw for wood is based on four basic characteristics:
The first criterion is the length of the blade. It depends on the customer’s needs, so for small bars, boards, etc. it’s enough to have 280-300mm long hacksaw blades for metal.п. 280. 300 mm of a hacksaw is quite enough. For construction or cottage work blades 450. 500 mm are more suitable. There are more. When selecting a model you should know exactly what size wood you are going to cut. The rule is this: the length of the hacksaw must be twice as long as the largest piece of work for which it is designed. Smaller lengths are possible, but the ease of use will be lost. There are several reasons for this:
- this ratio allows all the teeth of the hacksaw to fully emerge from the log during sawing, which means efficient sawdust removal (will not get clogged);
- the hands are lighter, the arm is not as fatigued with more sprawling motions.
Tooth size and sharpening. The accuracy and speed of the cut will depend on this characteristic. The regularity is as follows: a shallow tooth means a clean and precise cut, but less speed; a larger tooth means a rough cut at much greater speed and less fatigue. It is marked as “TPI” on hacksaws and indicates the number of teeth per inch (almost 30 mm). The more is the TPI value, the more “delicate” is the cut. For works on particleboard and fiberboard, for example, this value should be at least 7. 9. Surface of the cut will be smoother without “jagged” edge.
For work in the garden, the cleanliness of the cut is not as critical, especially for cutting or sawing logs. A more important characteristic in such work is the cutting speed and the effort to be expended. For this we need a hacksaw with TPI 3-6, distance between teeth from 4 to 8 mm.
The classic tooth shape is the triangle. As a rule, such saws are of the sharpenable type. The latest generation of sabre saws with hardened toothing has a trapezoidal shape. They are designed for strength and durability. When it gets blunt, we go and buy a new hacksaw or change the blade. It will not work if you want to sharpen it, it is extremely difficult to repeat sharpening angles, and the steel cannot be filed. Provided the manufacturing process is correct.
Type of steel. Standard hardness of metal for wood hacksaw is 45 HRC. For the teeth, steel with hardness of 55-60 HRC is used. This type of hacksaw combines a flexible blade with high resistance to tooth wear. Recognizable by their distinctive appearance, the teeth have a darker tint than the rest of the blade. These hacksaws are of the non-sharpenable type. If the teeth are not hardened. they can be dressed and resharpened.
Handle. Its ergonomic shape determines the number of blisters on the hands. There are two versions of the handle: a flip-over handle or the classic handle. The first option allows you to change blades, such as in the Bahco Superior EX-19-XT9-C wood hacksaw model.
Care and maintenance
A hand saw can only last for years if it is cared for properly. Most often the tools are stored in conditions of low temperature, humidity, may be contaminated by external sources.
That’s why you need a case for your wood hacksaw. It also protects against human injury when transporting the product. Covers vary depending on the length and shape of the working part, protect the product from contamination and adverse factors. the most practical material from which cases are made is polypropylene.
After contact with wood it is necessary to clean the cutting surface from sawdust and treat it with a special grease or immersion oil. It will protect the saw from rust and prolong its useful life.
A wood hacksaw is a must-have for the household. It is used as a multifunctional tool: one saw can not solve all problems at once, so there is a wide range of products with different length and width of the working area, frequency and size of the teeth on sale. To buy a product that will be used properly, it is best to use the help of professionals in carpentry.