What you can do with a wood router
What features to look for in a router
Consider the following parameters when choosing a specific model:
Power. Affects the capabilities and performance of the router. Determines how long a router can be fitted to a specific model.
Depending on this parameter, routers are divided into:
A model with a 1500 watt motor is enough for home use. Heavy and powerful tool is usually purchased by professional craftsmen who need to solve complex and specific tasks. Beginners often run after the power, but don’t consider the size and dimensions of such a tool. As a result, they buy a heavy model that is not comfortable to work with and waste money.
Working stroke of the cutter. Important parameter. Characterizes the depth of penetration of the tool into the workpiece. The domestic models have a stroke of 20-50 mm, the professional ones more than 50 mm, and the most productive ones 80 mm. Working stroke of home models is not adjustable. Professional tools have a 0.1 mm step speed regulator. This precision is enough to work even with thin and expensive workpieces.
Turning speed. This setting affects the quality of the workpiece and the material that can be processed by the milling tool. The speed can be standard, slow or high:
- Standard: 20,000-30,000 rpm. The most frequently used speed for the majority of materials.
- Slow: 10,000 20,000 rpm. Used for processing plastic workpieces.
- High: more than 35 000 rpm.
Low cost routers have no speed control, better quality multi-purpose tools have a speed regulator. Cutters that work only with wood do not need this option.
Overload protection. Needed to protect router motor windings from overheating. It works automatically, implemented in various ways: from a simple signaling LED to a switch that automatically shuts off the power to the cutter. This feature is not used in simple routers; it is used in professional routers that are used for extended periods of hard work.
Protection against accidental start. Represents a button to be pressed simultaneously with the start button. Protects you from injury caused by accidental start-up. This button also locks the start button in the “on” position. This option is useful for craftsmen who use a router as a stationary tool.
Electronic speed control. Extra function that keeps the router motor at a pre-set RPM regardless of the density of the workpiece. This function is not required on domestic models. This function is usually used on professional tools.
Soft start. Additional function that enables infinitely variable increase in motor speed. Protects against occasional jerks, possible injury or damage to the workpiece. Extends the life of the router.
Features of working with the router
Before starting work with the key points that are important to consider when working with a router:
What is a cutter and what is it for?
Manual milling machine is an electric tool, which is an electric motor with a collet for installing a cutting tool on the shaft.
It has a platform or base, a type of worktable, which can move on guides and be fixed in a given position.
The cutting depth is set on the platform. On either side, there are two handles that hold the machine in position or feed it to the workpiece.
The router is designed for cutting parts made of different materials:
- Solid wood;
- Woodchip board, including laminated wood chipboard Woodchip board;
- Aluminum, duralumin;
- Soft plastic.
With a hand router can be made different types of treatment of the material. They include the following operations:
- Milling of indentations of different shapes. grooves, slots, slots, and other elements;
- Edge profiling. creation of profiled (shaped) surfaces, milling of quarters;
- Milling of special design elements. recesses for hinges, locks, handles, cleats and slots;
- Trimming curved and complex edges of furniture or special units.
In order to ensure accuracy and cleanness of the cut, the cutter has a lot of adjustment and setting elements. They are used to perform the following
- Changing the rotation speed of the shaft;
- Setting the plunging depth of the cutting tool;
- Depth presetting for quick change of cutting conditions.
Important! The manual milling machine is not suitable for mass production of large products. Best used in private households or by small workshops for low-volume customizations.
Cheap and sultry
Carving in wood is always beautiful, rich and expensive. This is done by talented people, artists or sculptors. But there are ways of carving, which anyone can do. For example, it is very easy to cut patterns with a hand router on wood. The work is performed by a small-diameter end mill on the contour of the drawing. To do this, you need to pick up a board of hard rock, nail a stencil cut out of cardboard, and mill according to the template.
The milling machine of any power is suitable for the work. It is desirable that it was light and comfortable, then it will be easier to copy the pattern. Therefore, you do not need to worry about what to choose a milling machine for beginners, the main thing is to pick up a cutter with a diameter of 2 millimeters or more. When working, you need to be diligent in order to pass evenly with a thin mill on the contour of the pattern and not to break it. The next step is deepening the background, for this purpose a large-diameter flag cutter is used.
Working with a hand router: instructions for beginners
Working with a hand router, whose video tutorials will help the novice craftsman, may seem difficult only at the beginning of the process. With the acquisition of the first skills to the processing of wood with their own hands, you can proceed bolder.
- The handheld router begins with the assembly of the tool. A cutter matching the diameter of the collet chuck is inserted into it. If necessary, the chuck itself is replaced with a different diameter. Then the shank is tightened in the chuck with a special wrench with enough force to prevent the cutter from galling in the chuck. After that, the spindle mechanism is clamped, the tool is ready to work.
- The desired milling depth is then set. To do this, it is necessary to fix the position of the mill by pushing on it. The exact depth is set with the help of a knob, which has several settings.
- Cutter speed is set based on the data in the table from the manual and the parameters of the material, as well as the size of the cutter. The hand router must first be used as a roughing-out machine, in order to test the tool’s movements, milling depth, and speed. The correct course of milling is to move the tool away from yourself on a flat basis, and counterclockwise in a circular treatment of the product. Hand router operation is described in more detail in the instructional video.
Getting started and taking care of the tool
To understand how this device works, you should familiarize yourself with its main parts and their purpose.
Composition and function of the basic components
Manual milling device consists of a metal body and a motor, which is located in the same body. A shaft protrudes from the housing on which various collets, which serve as adapters, are attached. They allow you to install cutters of different sizes. In the collet is inserted directly into the cutter, which is fixed by a special bolt or button, which is provided on some models.
Main elements of a hand-held milling device and their purpose.
Design of the milling device includes a metal platform, which has a rigid connection to the body. It is attached to the body by means of two bars. The platen has a smooth finish on the outside to ensure smooth movement during work.
Manual milling device has some characteristics that are adjusted:
- By controlling the knob and the scale for setting the milling depth. Adjustment is carried out in 1/10 mm increments.
- By adjusting the rotation speed of the cutter.
In the initial stages, when mastering the tool, it is better to try to work at low or medium speed. Although it should always be remembered that the higher the speed, the better the work. Especially when it comes to critical, visible areas that cannot be camouflaged.
In addition to these levers, there is also a button to turn the product on and off, as well as a lock button. These elements are considered to be the main ones, ensuring quality and safe performance of works. Here there is also a parallel stop, which contributes to the convenience of work. It can be rigidly fixed or with the ability to adjust the shift of the working area, in the direction from the center.
Taking care of a handheld milling device
Usually, the factory product falls into the hands of a person tested and lubricated, so that additional, any activities should not be carried out. Only during the operation it is necessary to monitor its cleanliness and serviceability. At the same time, it should be regularly cleaned from dust and change the grease, if the passport says so. Particularly the moving parts need to be lubricated. As an option, you can use aerosol greases, but you can do with ordinary ones, such as “Lithol”. The use of thick lubricants is not recommended, because chips and dust stick to them. If you use aerosol lubricants, you can get rid of such a factor.
The base. the smooth part of the housing. also requires lubrication. Regular lubrication will ensure the desired smoothness of movement.
In spite of this, it is absolutely necessary to check the quality of the workmanship and the presence of grease.
Unfortunately, not all manufacturers, and especially domestic ones, care about the quality of assembly. There are cases when, after the first hours of operation, the product screws or screws are unscrewed, because they have not been tightened properly.
Turning speed adjustment
Operation of any tool is connected with certain conditions related, first of all, to the nature of the processed material. It can be plywood, composite material or ordinary wood. Depending on this you can set the speed of rotation on the appliance. As a rule, the data sheet always indicates the parameters of the device, depending on the technical characteristics and characteristics of the surfaces to be treated and the cutters used.
Rates of processing when using different cutters.
First, the work begins with the installation and securing of the cutter. At the same time, it is necessary to adhere to the basic rule. all work must be carried out with the plug out of the socket.
Cutter is installed according to certain marks, or if they are absent, to a depth of at least ѕ of the cutter length. How to install a mill on a particular model, you can learn from the instructions, which must necessarily be present in the technical documents on the device. The fact that each model may have its own design features and to tell about it in the article is not possible.
Installing the cutter on the device before starting work.
Both simple and more “advanced” models are available. Some models have a locking button for the shaft rotation, which facilitates the process of installing the cutter. Some, especially expensive models, are equipped with ratchets. So it is impossible to describe the process of the mill installation specifically, and it makes no sense, since everyone who is familiar with the work of such devices will understand the moment.
Adjusting the depth of milling
Each model has its own maximum milling depth. In this case, not always required exactly the maximum depth, but a certain depth, which is set before the work. Even if the maximum depth is required, then, in order not to overload the device, the process of milling is divided into several stages, changing the depth of milling in stages. For adjustment, there are special stops. limiters. Structurally, they are in the form of a disk located under the rod, which fixed the stops of different lengths. The number of such legs can be from three to seven, and this does not mean that the more of them, the better. Better if there is a possibility of adjusting each of the feet, even if their number is minimal. In order to lock the depth stop in an optimal position, you can use the depth stop latch in the form of a flag.
The process of adjusting the milling depth is as follows:
- Place the tool on a flat surface, then release the clamps and press the cutter by hand so that it rests against the surface.
- After unscrewing the locking device, release the turret stop.
High-quality, expensive models have a wheel for fine tuning the milling depth.
By using this wheel, the depth can be adjusted more precisely without violating the previous setting.
The depth adjustment wheel (green in the picture above) offers shallow adjustments.
Wood cutters, the working part of which has a cone configuration, are used to process surfaces of complex topography. In particular, such cutters are used for finishing grooves in the elements of furniture structures. For the manufacture of such wood milling machines in production conditions are used workpieces of complex shape, which is problematic to process at home. Such a cutter with their own hands can be made from a drill, the working part of which is given the required configuration.
Due to the fact that the homemade wood mill is used to process quite soft material in a few runs, there is no need to further strengthen the structure of the material from which such a tool is made.
Features of using a manual machine
Types of work
There are different types of hand milling machines, but we will talk about the plunge unit, as it is the most universal and is used most often.
With the help of this tool perform a variety of works, which can be conditionally divided into such groups and directions:
- Milling grooves, quarters and slots. These and other recesses in the workpieces can be located along and across the fibers and layers, have an open or closed shape, go to the edge. Most often these elements are used to form detachable and non-detachable joints;
- Edge routing. Profiling of functional and decorative elements, moldings, furniture, trims, etc. The most common examples are baseboards, fillets, baguettes, cornices, architraves, trimmers, etc.д.;
- Routing contours and complex surfaces. Making engravings, signs, original furniture, panels, interior elements. Templates and copying methods are widely used here;
- Cutting out special structural recesses, grooves, holes for locks, glazing beads, tenons, etc.д.
Profiling beams for the construction of wooden houses.
Various accessories can be added to a hand-held router to ease work and ensure line accuracy. These can be all types of rails, rulers, stops, frames, radial devices, etc.
Modern computer-controlled handheld machine.
There are various tools available for hand router wood milling. For manual work, special cutters are used, consisting of a shank in the form of a cylinder with a diameter of 6, 8 and 12 mm, as well as a working part with a cutting edge. These cutters may differ in size and design, shape of the cutting part, and materials.
Important! For soft wood, high-speed tool steel is used, and for stronger materials, blades of harder alloys are used.
There are many kinds of these tools.
In order to work properly and perform the above-mentioned operations it is necessary to ensure precise positioning of the cutter in three coordinates. To adjust the vertical direction, a dip mechanism is used, and the movement in the horizontal plane is provided in different ways: by means of a special guide bearing on the cutter, a guide bush on the bearing surface of the tool, or other devices, of which there are many.
Guide bearing is installed on edge milling cutters, which are designed for processing the edges of blanks.
There are such edge cutters for the hand machine:
- Profile. Are used for forming of shaped profile of baseboard, platband, baguette, etc.д.;
- Tapered. Needed for beveling edges at 45˚, 60˚, 30˚, etc.д.;
- Carving cutters. Needed for rounding edges. Forms a quarter circle of different sizes with a radius of 3 to 16 mm;
- Cone. Forms decorative edges in the form of fillets;
- Folding. Milling of quarters, thirds, etc.д. Most often used for joints and decorations;
- Circular. Help cut horizontal grooves of different thicknesses in wood surfaces.
What can you do with a woodworking router?
Also commonly used cutters without guide bearings, called slot cutters.
Among them, the most popular types are:
- Rectangular. Used most often to form rectangular grooves for various joints;
- Finishing. Semicircular grooves and grooves, decor;
- V-joint. Slotted cutter with steep walls. Used in lettering and engraving work;
- “Dovetail. Used for open and closed tenon joints in furniture production.
Important! Millers must be selected on the basis of material to be milled, spindle speed and type of equipment.
Setup procedure before starting the work. Set milling depth first. In the case of work at greater depths, it is achieved in stages.
Also the correct RPM must be selected. it depends on the diameter of the cutting part and the type of material. Frequency is typically 20,000 rpm or more for small diameter cutters and 10,000. 12,000 rpm for cutters around 40 mm in diameter.
Important! After a long period of working at low RPM, the machine needs to be run at maximum RPM for a while to cool down the engine.
Router. handheld power tool for working with different materials. It can be found in almost any workshop. Its operating principle is to transfer rotation from the motor to the workpiece (milling cutter), which acts on the material.
Milling machines are actively used in furniture production. They are used for the following tasks:
- surface leveling;
- shape cutting;
- copying parts;
- splicing parts;
- edge production;
- facing parts;
- drilling holes;
- engraving surfaces;
- and much more.
Milling machines are also useful for creating patterns on products, making balusters and skirting boards, assembling furniture fittings and drywall structures, replicating products made of wood, chipboard, fiberboard, plywood and plastic. Another use is for leveling surfaces where a planer cannot be used. With sufficient skill can be cut out with this tool even bas-reliefs and high reliefs, panels, three-dimensional compositions. Here are a few more examples of the use of hand tools in various areas:
- Decorative processing, cutting logos, lettering on wooden materials and products.
- Wood carving mills are popular in the handmade sector where they are used to make gifts, jewelry, toys, etc. д.
Among the professions whose representatives use routers most often are routers, furniture and parquet workers, interior door installers, drywall workers, staircase and flooring installers.