When and by whom hand saws were invented
Different types of saws and their uses
Saws have been used for thousands of years, improving and expanding their variety to fill certain niches over time and with advances in technology and materials. Today’s “complete” collection of tools will include a variety of saws, from simple coping saws to complex combination machines and specialized table saws that incorporate the capabilities of several hand saws at once.
We will tell you about some specialized tools not used outside of the professions for which they were developed. You may also be surprised to find that many saws have different names in different countries.
In most cases, the shape of the saw and the number and shape of the teeth determine how the saw is used.
Here are 26 different types of saws, their uses and images:
Saws of various types
There are quite a few varieties, since its inception and until now, the tool is constantly being improved. Let’s see what they are depending on the design and appearance:
- Hacksaw. An ordinary hacksaw is good for cutting boards, small wood. It provides rough cuts, and it is not suitable for accurate cutting of material. The main advantage of the hacksaw. no need to connect to the power grid.
- Beam Saw. Also manual, but with a thin blade that gives you flexibility when sawing. Used for making joinery or carpentry.
- Manual circular. One of the most multi-tasking power tools available. It allows you to make longitudinal and cross cuts, plunge cuts, partial cuts and notches, cut workpieces.
- Circular saw. A tool for any carpentry job. It ensures that the material is sawn at the right angle. When cutting, the cutting blade can be rotated at the required angle, and it can be tilted to cut chamfers.
- Circular saw. It is a rather large machine made in the form of a table with a cutting disk rotating at high speed on its surface. All a craftsman has to do is point the material at the cutting disc and it will cut it easily.
- Electric jigsaw. Capable of making complex cuts, it has excellent maneuverability, enabling you to cut lines with changing direction while sawing.
- Sled. Similar in appearance to a jigsaw, but larger and more powerful than its smaller counterpart. Capable of sawing in confined spaces, sawing away bumps and making holes.
- Diamond. Diamond saw can cut glass, stone, tile and similar hard materials that normal saws cannot cut. Capable of making straight cuts, without any visible defects.
- A band saw is a tool capable of cutting material in curves. Made as a large machine, with a bed for placing the material to be sawn. Toothed metal plate is secured between two wheels that move it vertically, and the material shifts on the table in the direction of the blade.
- Spiral. Looks like a drill, but without the usual handle. Straight body allows to work with the tool, using it as in engraving, only the result is a sawed object or material. Can make interesting and exclusive things.
- Chain. Great tool for cutting wood, pruning branches, and felling trees. Also efficient in construction. Saws quite rough and messy, but very quickly and efficiently, hundreds of times more efficient than sawing by hand. Chainsaws differ mainly by design: gasoline-powered saws require gasoline to operate, electric saws require an electrical connection, battery-powered saws are very compact and mobile, but need to be recharged.
Unfortunately, there is not always a partner present for sawing. And working alone with a two-handed tool is very difficult. But skilled craftsmen know that even from such a massive tool you can make a one-handed tool. A two-handed saw can be used to make a bow saw.
Most often the handles in the saws are not fixed firmly. They must be removed from the two-handed saw, and in their place set long sticks. A slat of the right size is inserted between them, so that the sticks do not break from the pressure.
The upper ends of the sticks are connected by a rope, twisted like a flagellum, to guarantee the high tension of the blade. That’s it, you got a one-handed tool that you can work with alone.
How the world’s first chainsaw came into being
The technique of sawing was mastered by primitive people as far back as eight thousand years ago with the realization that a serrated tool cuts better than a smooth one. The most ancient primitive bone and wood saw that survives today was made of a single piece of silicon, a task that required considerable physical strength.
At the end of the Neolithic Era, a flint plate with teeth was used for dressing blocks of stone. Water-soaked sand, which acted as an abrasive, was poured under those teeth in the sawing process to improve friction. Sawing through was not necessary when labour was involved: the master made a deep cut and then split the stone in two with a wedge-shaped beater. It was the technique of sawing that made it possible to give products the right geometric shapes, which was an evolutionary breakthrough in technological and construction processes.
Cut once! Or saw, Shura, saw.
How the saw works?The tree saw’s pedigree goes back 4,000 years (oops, some people here deny the possibility of cutting lumber even two hundred years ago, you can imagine now they will come running “robbing the coffers”). Over the centuries technological advances have improved the quality of the materials used for them, and successive generations of craftsmen have offered us many solutions to the task of sawing wood. fast, straight, finishing, etc. п. Some saws are designed to cut when you pull them toward you, some are designed to cut away from you. Nevertheless, all saws cut wood in the same way. The saw blade has an extended row of pointed teeth along the cutting edge. Each tooth acts like the miniature blade of a chisel, chisel, or knife, cutting small chips or slivers of wood that fall to the floor as sawdust.
Hand saws have long, flexible blades and are wide enough to make a straight cut. The best of hacksaw blades are made with an undercut, meaning that their thickness over the teeth is reduced so that they run more freely in the kerf. They also make a smooth bend in the top edge with a thinning in the front to improve the balance of the saw. Blades are sometimes coated with polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), or Teflon, to reduce friction.
Saw handlesThe handle should be behind the blade to allow for maximum working movement of the tool. While some saws are still produced with “old-fashioned” pistol-type handles, most have more powerful closed handles made of wood or plastic. Nevertheless, pistol grips are often used with lightweight saws and hacksaws because they allow more degrees of freedom and are more compact and lightweight. But the heavier, traditional “horned” wooden handles are as functional as they are comfortable.
Some thoughtful readers might wonder why they are so fancy? Is it for beauty?? Well and for beauty of course also, and some aesthetic tradition for wooden handles has been formed, but the main function of such pretentiousness is a comfortable possibility to work in reverse grip, providing not only comfort grip, but also protection of the hand (about this technique will be below). Modern and cheaper plastic handles, make it difficult to use this technique, but it is still possible. That said, such handles are often made to serve as a larger-sized angle at the same time.
Most “correct” grips should give at least a clear 45 degree positioning (highlighted with red guides).
Thus, it is possible to notice that, despite some aesthetic and ergonomic losses, especially when working in reverse grip, plastic handles have some advantages: relative cheapness, greater durability and the possibility to use the saw with such a handle as an angle and a jig.
In general, always pay attention to their handles when buying a saw. So, which do you prefer. the classic wooden comfort grip or the modern buttstock plastic one?? It is worth noting right away that the vast majority of “correct” hand saws and hacksaws have removable handles. What it’s for? Well, the first consideration that comes to mind is the convenience of tool storage. Saws and hacksaw blades, from a domestic point of view, have practically no thickness. The handles, on the other hand, have a thickness and volume. Secondly, saws have a certain resource, after exhausting of which they need to be re-sharpened. If we use the saw from time to time, most likely this problem will not stand before us so sharply, excuse the pun, but at intensive use (repair, rebuilding of a country cottage, a large volume of sawing work) it is very unhandy to use a dull “stupid” saw. Imagine, you mark out parts, fix them, get used to, and then you have to get distracted from the working process in order to resharpen the saw. Knocked down. It is easier to replace the blade and leave the sharpening for later. By the way, many professional carpenters, in principle, tend to exchange money for time, and having two or three spare blades, for adjustment of used blades turn to specialized workshops or services, which are able to perform such services qualitatively and quickly.Nota Bene! If the above considerations are important for you, pay attention to the fastening of the various handles. If they don’t match (at least within the same manufacturer), you can’t change them. It’s elementary, Watson! Now, let’s saw further.
View of a hand saw blade without a handle.
Teeth coming apartIf the teeth were just next to each other in an even row, the saw blade would jam after a few minutes of work. The teeth alternately bend in different directions to cut a groove or kerf that is wider than the blade itself.
I think I must repeat myself: my posts about tools are not a manual about carpentry, and I am not a professional carpenter or a carpenter myself. So I go over the very top, believing that the most basic information for people who use woodworking tools in the home is more than enough. For those who like to count rivets, I would like to inform you that I am aware of the fact that the tooth setting is divided into shear, group, combination and patented alternating. But I do not understand why I should burden myself and my readers with these nuances.
Unsuitable (and vice versa) saw or tooth shapeThe teeth are given different shapes depending on the purpose of the saw. Longitudinal sawing teeth, or “ripping” teeth (1), are designed to cut along the grain, as is done when adjusting the width of a board. These are large teeth with vertical leading edges. Each tooth is sharpened at right angles (sometimes at a minimum of 90 degrees) to the surface of the blade, and its sharp tip slices through the wood like a chisel.
Cross-cutting teeth (2), are made to cut across the layers without tearing the fiber structure of the wood. This is necessary when cutting most joints or fitting a board to length. The leading edge of such a tooth is slightly tilted back and angled to form a sharp cutting edge and tip. Each tooth works like a knife and cuts the wood from each edge of the kerf. In this case the waste falls out as the blade passes through.
Japanese cross-cutting teeth (3) are similar in construction, but they are long (tall) and narrow, with a double-sloping cutting edge at the apex. I hope that the esteemed readers of this magazine will remember that the common name for Japanese tools (saws, thicknessers, hacksaws, planers, etc.) is.д.) does not mean that the tools are made in Japan. It is meant that this type of tool has its roots in the Japanese handicraft tradition and, while differing from the traditional and familiar to us, has an unusual appearance and different methods of use.
Universal teeth, or dual-purpose teeth (4), are symmetrical and sharpened on both edges for sawing along and across fibers. They are also called lancet-shaped.
How it’s made hand saw
Saw tooth sizeA saw for fine work. like sawing a dovetail joint, for example. the teeth are small and often standing up. But saws with small teeth cut slowly. To saw quickly, especially on resinous softwood, the teeth must be large, with deep indentations or gaps between them that allow large amounts of sawdust to be removed from the kerf. Tooth size is judged by the number of teeth in 1 inch or 25 mm of saw blade (I did not accidentally give a general idea of the British system of weights and measures in the previous post). As Valerie Ilyinichna would say, “bloody Churchill reached.”. This value can be represented in two ways: by the number of teeth per inch, counted by the distance between the bases, or by the distance between the tips. These numbers differ by one for the same size.
Sometimes saws come with variable tooth spacing, meaning that their width increases toward the handle. Sawing begins with a fine tooth to form a kerf, then the entire length of the blade can be used. I personally don’t like these saws. It’s not that they’re not good. On the contrary, I’m not. Not being a professional, I can not extract all the positive qualities of such a saw, and therefore I do not attach much importance to this approach. But from the point of view of the tool itself, this is one of the parameters for judging its quality.
It is worth noting that in the choice of tools it is often difficult to come to a clear-cut choice. There is always a tradeoff between price and quality, the capabilities of the tool itself, and our ability to use it. Science, as we know, has many hypotheticals. For example, many saws are made with electrically hardened teeth. They stay sharper longer than ordinary saws, but they cannot be sharpened by hand with a file.
The division of laborDefining in particular, let’s look at handheld saws in general.
Slitting sawLongitudinal saws are the largest among hacksaws, with blades about 650 mm long and 5 tooth tips per inch. It is a specialized tool, suitable only for cutting solid wood along the grain.
Cross-cutting sawThe cross-cutting saw is 600 to 650 mm long with 6 to 8 tooth tips per inch. It is ideal for cutting solid wood planks, but is too coarse for synthetic wood materials. Some Western-style saws are made with Japanese cross-cutting teeth.
I am not going to write anything about universal saws, because any universal tool has more disadvantages than advantages. Multipurpose or multi-purpose fighter-bomber). But it is a good idea to have a general-purpose crosscut saw in your household. It is impossible to foresee the future nature and scope of work.
Panel saw A panel saw has relatively small teeth, 10 to 12 tips per inch, for cross-cutting. It’s used for cutting synthetic wood materials, but also as a general-purpose crosscut saw. Length of the blade is 500-550 mm.
Working with hand sawsPosition the workpiece to be cut at a 45° angle to its surface, and the saw blade should be in line with your forearm. Remember the illustration at the beginning of the post?
Handling the sawWhen you are using the hacksaw, keep your index finger pointed toward the end of the blade (1). First, saw in short reciprocating motions, close to the marking line on the outgoing side (remember the thickness pliers and the scribing knife), guiding the blade with the joint of your thumb (not with your fingernail, by any means)!) with your free hand (2). Do not be afraid! In this position you will not be able to saw off your left thumb, even cutting and scratching will be problematic; you will need to try particularly hard. But if you can do it, keep your hands off the saw. once and for all. That’s definitely not your thing : ) When you have your kerf in place, use the full length of the blade, making smooth, even movements with the saw. Rapid, uneven thrusts with a hacksaw are not only fatiguing, but also interfere with precision. If the saw begins to deviate from the marking line, rotate it slightly to return to the correct trajectory. If the kerf starts to get narrower and the blade gets jammed (many hesitate to use this for some reason. and in vain) use a small wedge (3). For smoother sawing rub the blade with wax, stearin or wax-like grease.Finish sawingAt the end of the cut, use your free hand to hold the pull-off (4). Cut the last few hinges smoothly and carefully to prevent the wood from splitting. When you finish sawing a long slab of wood, either turn around and saw toward the cut you just made, or change your grip on the tool (and you thought I was probably kidding about the reverse grip and the specific shapes of classic wooden handles?) so you can continue the process in the same direction but with the hacksaw with the teeth pointing away from you (5). You can place the workpiece at the height of the workbench so that the tip of the saw does not poke into the floor.
There it is, there it is. where-is-when-wound.I mean the reverse grip. Try this with a modern plastic handle. Now I understand why retro hand grips have such fancy shapes?
Positioning the workpiece (parts)If the workpiece is not positioned correctly, you cannot be sure of efficient work and safe results. Place solid wood or artificial boards on special supports that are about 550 mm high, which are called sawing gantry (or simply: gantry). Thin sheet material will “bounce” (wobble), jerking, if not placed at both ends of the marking line on rigid supports. This is especially true for plywood sheets, even if they are relatively “thick”. Hold the workpiece from above with your knee. If you feel more comfortable sawing at the height of the workbench. fix the part with clamps or in the comb of the workbench.
Next we’ll take a look at the archery saw, bailers, hacksaws, and it would seem more appropriate to consider some pattern below, but since we’ve already touched on practical tips a bit, let’s say a little about pruning saws. Once again we come back to shipbuilding and the “beveling” of veneers, planks and plywood.
BOTTOM (yes, yes, CAPS-LOGOM)What a beautiful term! This term refers to several templates under the most commonly used names of trimmers. Whiskers come in L-FORMS (or single) and P-FORMS (or double). L-shaped ones provide slightly more degrees of freedom, but are less accurate, and P-shaped ones are more rigid, clear, but not always convenient to work with. A mitre cutter or jigsaw is a template for sawing out parts, building up “on the whisker,” corner joints, etc. п., it can be two-sided and cheaper, one-sided. When working with a jigsaw, the saw moves in the kerf of the template with the required bevel angle. In one of my posts I wrote about the profile guide. Many people wondered what kind of miracle it was? So the Chisel is no less of a miracle!
Plastic, wood or self-made template. It’s a great tool to make the cut the way we want it to be. Forget them, jerks and small ones : )
HANDSHOTS Hacksaw blades (or HANDSHOTS) with their relatively light blades and fine teeth are exactly the right tool for accurate and precise work. The hallmark of this family of hacksaws is a very thin saw blade that allows you to cut any material accurately and smoothly. To compensate for the thin blade and to prevent it from deforming and bending, a solid brass or steel band (shoe) is installed on top, covering the upper edge of the blade. This element prevents the blade bending, actually being a stiffener.
Circular sawThe circular saw is the biggest hacksaw with a shank, with a blade length of 250 to 300 mm and 13 to 15 tooth tips per inch. This is a good all-purpose saw for sawing thick boards and making big joints. It usually has a closed handle like a regular hacksaw.
Edge sawThis is a miniature award for fine work. It has 26 tooth tips in one inch.
Model sawThis smallest of the awards is suitable for exceptionally fine, modeling work. The teeth (33 tips per inch) are so small that they cannot be resharpened, so you just change the saws when they run out. There are also awards like: dovetail joint award, dovetail award with adjustable offset handle (allows you to work with both right and left hand, which is sometimes very handy) and many others.Start working with it with short backward movements, holding the bounty at a slight angle. As the kerf is formed, gradually lower the tool to a horizontal position and continue sawing until the result is obtained.
Saw blades for curvilinear sawingThere is a whole group of hacksaws for sawing curvilinear parts. These tools vary in size, allowing you to work with virtually any thickness of wood: from solid hardwood boards to thin veneers. Here’s a look at tools such as the jigsaw, jigsaw, and circular saw (hacksaw).
Circular sawThe 150 mm long circular saw blade is tightened with a metal frame in an arc shape. Circular saw is used for sawing curved surfaces in solid wood as well as synthetic wood materials. Blades (15-17 tooth tips per inch) are too narrow to sharpen and are replaced when dull or broken.
Circular saw. A bit like a jigsaw? But not the jigsaw.
JigsawIt has a deep arc frame and is designed to cut very steep curves in thin artificial wood materials, plywood or veneers. There are up to 32 tooth tips in one inch, and the blades are, characteristically, quite brittle. Be careful with it. And then there’s this. In English, “jigsaw” and “jigsaw” have the same designation: jigsaw. So unfortunate English and American carpenters distinguish these tools solely in context.
The circular saw (narrow hacksaw) None of the saws discussed above can be used for sawing in the middle of a wide board. The thin, tapered toward the end of a cupped saw blade is capable of making curves with sufficient steepness, and at the same time it is wide and strong enough to withstand the sawing direction. A set of blades with 8-10 tooth tips in one inch can be mounted on a pistol grip (these scissors have interchangeable grips). There is a variety with a straight longitudinal handle, which is convenient for sawing in any direction.
Pay attention to the tips of the circular saws. These are the only ones you should buy. The others are no good.
the traditional bow sawThe traditional bow saw appears to have remained unchanged since the earliest times. Tension of the saw blade is regulated with the help of a twisted cord stretched between two end pieces like a bowstring. Hence the name. The blade can be tilted so that the frame of the saw doesn’t get in the way when you’re sawing long boards. Depending on the requirements, there are four, five, six or eleven prongs per inch of blade. I’m sure many have seen something like this in their grandfathers’ workshops, garages and barns. So why do we need such an archaic tool?? And then, that such a saw can be made by anyone in the most need (joke, but true).
The bow saw is quite clumsy unless you use a good two-handed grip to control the tool. Grasp the handle with one hand, extending your index finger toward the blade. Place your other hand side by side so that your index and middle fingers span the rack on opposite sides of the blade.
Crosscutting with the compound bow saw (1)In this case turn the compound bow saw blade slightly so the structural elements of the bow saw do not obstruct your cutting line. Support the pullback after finishing sawing by sliding your hand over the saw frame on top of the blade.
Longitudinal sawing with a compound bow saw (2) Clamp the workpiece so that its edge protrudes over the workbench. Turn the blade 90° to the frame and use both hands to control the saw.
The item is not interesting at all. This is also possible with modern saws. But in the second case. The onion saw is an old one, but it can show its worth so that it would be hard to find a replacement without power tools : )
What was not included in this post?Of course, all these Japanese saws (Kataba, Ryoba, Dozuki, Mawashibiki and, of course, Hujihiki). Well, I do not use them much and I suppose that the others somehow do not use them often either. If anyone is interested, I’ll be sure to tell you. I have also omitted some details about the arbor for saw tooth setting and the triangular file for sharpening saws. But are you really willing to beat your fingers bloody to sharpen your saws yourself?
Working with a two-handed saw
It’s best to saw logs with two people. While working, partners take turns pulling the saw, pushing it slightly forward as they go back, helping the other person to move the tool in his direction. The process is not difficult, so the required skill will be developed quickly.
If you are a beginner when it comes to sawing logs, the following difficulties can occur:
To avoid complications, it’s important to work in a consistent motion. The pressure to both sides should be about the same. It’s easiest to saw with one person slightly elevated over the other. This creates an angle that allows the saw to penetrate deeper into the wood.
If done correctly, the tool can be used not only for sawing logs into pieces, but also for splitting them into boards.
Varieties of hand saws: a choice
Take away the hand saw from the mankind. progress will stop. This statement is no joke at all. Without the device, capable of cutting metal and wood, stone and concrete is impossible functioning of manufacturing enterprises and spheres of market production. How does a handsaw look like. a question that requires a separate coverage, because these devices are not only necessary literally everywhere, but also very different. It is impossible to do without saws in the household. Any man always has at least one hacksaw, and a good craftsman can find a whole arsenal of “toothy” tools.
HAND SAWS (HACKSAWS) FOR WOOD. LET’S LOOK INTO THE MOUTH OF THE HAND-HELD ‘PREDATOR’.
Wood is a natural material, the basis of which are high-strength fibers. In compressive, tensile, and bending stresses, its specific strength is on par with that of many metals. It is not for nothing that until the mid-1930s wood was one of the basic construction materials in aviation, second only to duralumin in strength but not in strength per unit area. Destroying the structure of wood is not easy.
HAND SAWS (HANDS) are one of the basic tools for woodworking. And not only that, they are also used for a variety of man-made materials like particleboard, laminate, PVC and so on. In order for the HAND saw to work, its teeth need to be set differently. DISTRIBUTION is the mechanical deflection of the teeth to the sides so that the width of the kerf exceeds the width of the blade, otherwise it will “wedge”. But too wide a kerf is not necessary either, because it would take extra effort to make it. For example, according to STANLEY, a reputable manufacturer of HAND saws, with a blade thickness of 0.5 to 0.7mm, the blade must be set too far apart to be able to work.75 mm the kerf width determined by the degree of separation of the saw teeth should be 1.25 mm.
Regarding the size of the saw blades. the practice of indicating it has not taken root in Russia. In the rest of the world, however, it is customary to indicate the pitch of the sawtooth in the number of “teeth per inch” (TPI. TOOTH PER INCH) or the number of “point per inch” (PPI. POINTS PER INCH), which is converted from TPI using the formula PPI = TPI 1. Often they are indicated together with a fraction, for example, “7/8”. In practice, the size of the sawtooth is used from about 2.5/3.5 at HANDSaws for rough work on wet wood and up to 14/15 at HANDSaws for finer work. there have been very few specialized HANDSaws for working with man-made materials, but the need to work on them has greatly influenced the evolution of HANDSaws for wood. The development of the sawmill has taken several directions: improvements in the design and spacing of the saw blades has led to improved efficiency, while the use of modern materials and processing techniques has improved durability.
Saws for wood
Cordwood saws, which in some countries are also called cutters, use blades of the same size as the saws. Where the sawmill cuts (cuts along with the fiber), the lumber from the firewood cuts across the fiber. Cordwood saws can have blade diameters ranging from 20 inches (51 cm) to over 36 inches (91 cm), depending on the power source and intended use. Cordwood saws are used to cut logs and slabs (sawmill waste) into firewood. In a cubic meter and Cord (pcs.) The usual measurements of cordwood (by grade) or untreated logs. “Cordwood” means uncut logs four feet long. In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, farmers supplied homeowners in town with firewood, which was then sawed again and split to length and circumference suitable for wood heaters and stoves. Almost all of these devices were designed to accept 16-inch sticks. for convenience, a piece of wood cut into three equal lengths. After the piece of wood was re-sawed into three 16-inch pieces, it could easily be split to stove size with an axe.
Most wood saws consist of a frame, blade, mandrel, support and power source. Cradle. Is a sliding or tilting guide that holds the logs while sawing. Some wood saws are driven by a belt from the power take-off pulley of farm tractors. Others, mounted on a tractor’s three-point linkage, connect to the rear PTO. Self-propelled models are powered by small gasoline engines or even large electric motors. The mandrel is a shaft and set of bearings that support and transmit power to the blade. frame. is a design that supports the support and the blade at a comfortable working height.
Cordwood saws were once very popular in rural America. They were used to cut small wood into firewood in an era when hand saws were the only option. Logs too big for a wood saw were still sawed by hand. Chainsaws 10 today have largely replaced saws for cutting firewood. However, some commercial firewood producers and others use wood saws to reduce wear and tear on their chainsaws. Most people consider wood saws to be an unsafe and outdated technology.