Which battery is best for an electric screwdriver.

Which battery is best for an electric screwdriver

Choosing a power tool for installation is a serious task when it comes to buying a cordless screwdriver. It matters which batteries are present in the screwdriver. This article discusses all types of batteries and their characteristics.

Today there are 3 types of batteries: Ni-Cd, Ni-Mh and the most common. Li-Ion.

Nickel-cadmium batteries

The first batteries for power tools were made in the 20th century with nickel as the cathode and cadmium as the oxidizer. Potassium hydroxide acts as an electrolyte, creating movement from the reducing agent.

Nickel-metal hydride batteries

This type of battery was created in the 1970s. and is an improved nickel cadmium battery, only instead of cadmium, the oxidizer is nickel-lanthanum. Ni-Mh lacks the main disadvantage of Ni-Cd. toxicity.

Lithium ion batteries

In 1991 they began to develop lithium-ion batteries, which today power all commercially available types of equipment, including screwdrivers AEG, Metabo, DeWALT, and other brands. The cathode and anode are aluminum and copper foil, respectively. These materials are separated by a porous separator containing an electrolyte. The lithium ion is a charge carrier and can penetrate the crystal lattice of other materials.

Lithium polymer batteries

Nowadays the improved analogues of the third type are widespread. lithium-polymer batteries with an increased level of safety. Polymer electrolytes have replaced the porous separators in them. These batteries are not flammable compared to lithium-ion batteries, due to the elimination of liquid electrolytes and dendrite formation during operation.

Topping the rating of the best batteries are batteries suitable for Makita brand tools. It is one of the most popular brands among domestic craftsmen. every second person has such a tool.

Makita 197280-8 Li-Ion 18 V 5 Ah

It is one of the best lithium-ion batteries. Makita batteries produce a voltage of 18 V and have a capacity of up to 5 Ah. The manufacturer gives up to 1 year warranty on these batteries. Li-ion cells have a longer life than other types of batteries. Users note the high capacity and power of the batteries. Thanks to their high performance, Makita batteries last much longer than other brands without recharging.

  • high capacity;
  • warranty service;
  • Power;
  • fast charging;
  • long service life;
  • Batteries are safe to use.

Andrey Sh. Externally very high quality product. Charge at purchase is minimal. Charged quickly, about an hour and a half. Shelf life is still small.

Makita 198311-6 18 V 5 Ah Kit

Continues the rating of the best batteries set Makita 198311-6. The kit includes, 2 batteries with a capacity of 5 Ah and a voltage of 18 V. Also included in the kit is a battery charger and storage case for storing and moving the kit. Batteries have a lithium-ion structure, so quickly charge and hold a good charge. Batteries of this brand are popular with many users and the manufacturer gives a one-year warranty when using a set of this model.

  • high quality;
  • power;
  • warranty;
  • durability;
  • no memory;
  • Large capacity;
  • fast charging;
  • Batteries do not run down by themselves.

Michael A. Quality at the top, acum case and the charger is made very high quality, acums charge quickly, according to the claimed 40-45 minutes. The fan works when charging.

Hammer AKM1220 Ni-Cd 12 V 2 Ah

A non-original, but good battery for Makita screwdrivers. This battery has a nickel-cadmium structure. The cell outputs 12 V and has a capacity of 2 Ah. The battery is designed to fit many Makita screwdriver models. Users appreciate this battery model for its high quality and long life.

  • high quality;
  • are not afraid of sub-zero temperatures;
  • safe in operation;
  • have up to 1000 charge/discharge cycles;
  • high capacity;
  • battery power.

Name hidden Great quality battery. Fits my Makita 6271 screwdriver. Came charged. it fulfills its purpose as a replacement for the original batteries that can hardly be recharged. I recommend.

Ni-MH (nickel metal hydride)

As a replacement for Ni-Cd cells in 1975 began work on a battery that would solve all the above problems, while maintaining the high performance of its predecessor. The problems were solved, but the advantages were few.

  • smaller size and weight,
  • low toxicity,
  • higher specific capacity (by 30%),
  • smaller memory effect,
  • high drop resistance.

On the other hand it is possible to note quite serious disadvantages in the same comparison:

  • the battery loses 1% of its charge every 24 hours,
  • inability to work at temperatures below.10 ˚С,
  • capacity can be recovered only in 40% of cases,
  • 2 to 3 times shorter lifetime (up to 500 cycles),
  • sensitivity to deep discharge (manufacturers recommend discharging to a maximum of 80%, which you have to determine almost intuitively),
  • much more expensive,
  • 5 times longer to charge even in fast charging, and in normal mode the time is 16 hours or more.

Ni-MH is significantly inferior to cadmium technology, so although used as a power source for power tools, from a user’s point of view, they will never be the best option of all.

How to find out which 18650 batteries are better in terms of technical characteristics

To determine the optimal battery 18650 series, the calculation of parameters in accordance with Ohm’s law is used. To determine the parameters you need to know the operating voltage U and the resistance R, which is measured with a test meter switched to ohmmeter mode.

The ratio of U and R allows you to determine the amperage in the power circuit, based on an analysis of the value is made the selection of the battery, which will work without overloading. When selecting, the capacity and dimensions of the battery to be placed in the tool case are additionally considered.

Current output

Choosing a high-current battery for an electric screwdriver from aliexpress

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The battery above is quite suitable for some simple flashlight like Convoy S2 or Convoy C8.

But if it comes to charging more than 5A, you can forget about it. I personally know how to buy these batteries for vape, for screwdrivers, I’ve even asked on my channel why this battery can not run the maximum brightness of Convoy M3. It’s simple. It doesn’t hold, it doesn’t hold. Chemistry heats, sips, boils and rapidly degrades.

And here we come to such an important topic as buying high drain 18650 batteries from aliexpress. As a rule, we are talking about the most popular high-current batteries: Sony VTC5, Sony VTC5A, Sony VTC6, LG HG2, Samsung 25R, Samsung 30Q. Accordingly, these batteries are most often counterfeited. Just look at the price on ali, and the price on nkon. You can not seriously think that the original battery with delivery from China will cost less than in a proven store without delivery?

Going to ali and typing high drain 18650 or IMR 18650 battery.

They’re all over the place. And frankly non-breed, and all sorts of tricky options, which are sold as a rule by different stores Liitokala and Varicore. Batteries look very similar to the original, distinguishes them paper sticker and disguise the name. For example VTC5A for Liitokala. Nowhere in the title does it say Sony. There are other ways to distinguish, I will not dwell on it, it is not difficult to find on the search.

What’s inside? It’s a medium-capacity battery of the same capacity. Why this lot has so many positive Комментарии и мнения владельцев? It’s simple. Capacity is easy to check and it is good or bad coincides with the declared one. And here by virtue of the fact that to check the real current output requires specific equipment and tools, the current is the most important thing in the battery, it is impossible to measure. You end up with 10-12 instead of the regular 30A. Technically, an electric screwdriver will start up with this current, because something like this could just as a rule fit into an electric screwdriver battery. Here comes the order of thousands.

In short, buy the original vysokotokoy battery on aliekspress you have almost no chance If you do find one. it will cost like a cast iron bridge, it may as well be bought offline. And all you have to do is to be satisfied with all sorts of LithoCal Varicor overpacks.

Anyway you get a medium current battery with medium capacity and I wouldn’t say it’s bad. It’s just not Sony and you shouldn’t expect 30A here. But to cram it into some voracious flashlight, why not? According to reviews, they build electric screwdriver batteries as well, and successfully. The question is that this screwdriver will work, but obviously weaker than it could with the original batteries. In general, you can take it. But it is necessary to understand that you will get not a piece of junk but not a high-performance original.

What kind of batteries to put in an electric screwdriver.

The most budget option for an electric screwdriver is the Samsung 25r. The capacity of 2500mah will still be significantly higher than the regular batteries in the battery pack, the same is true for a 20A current output. (pulsed, short, 5 sec. constant below)

With the same 20A current will be HG2, but the capacity will be higher, already 3000mah. Originals of course. Here’s what they sell on ali and you don’t know what the current will be. Because of the price-capacity ratio, the HG2 is a very popular choice for converting your electric screwdriver to lithium.

Ideal choice is the Sony VTC6. 3120mah. You get 30A constant current and pulse current up to 80A (!) See chart. The original Sony VTC6 will make any battery device work at its best. But don’t count on buying the Sony VTC6 on aliexpress. You’re most likely to get something with substantially less current. Right now it is the highest-current battery among the 18650 chemistry, which is why it’s so beloved by mechwalkers.

Sony VTC5A\5 have the same capacity of 2600mah, but 5A will give you a. 5A more at short term max )

Buy the original high-current 18650 battery from China, but we will talk about a different store. Specifically talking about Banggood. Here you can see how much it really costs a good ac with delivery from China.

See here still unknown brands like Golisi, Shockly, Vbatty, Efest? Ironically, it is quite possible to take them. inside them there are good cells from the aforementioned list of brands. My initial skepticism was dispelled by the graphs of the famous in the relevant circles of the Dutch. That is, the current and capacity will match.

What battery is better Ni Cd or Li-ion for an electric screwdriver

Both types of battery cells are good. But the choice of battery type depends on the purpose of use.

The main difference between lithium ion batteries (Li Ion) and nickel cadmium batteries (Ni Cd) is the number of cycles. The Li-ion has 1500 and the cadmium has 500.

At first glance it seems that Li-ion is much better because it has 3 times more cycles. However, they are not. When choosing a battery, rely on the fact that the wear and tear of cadmium batteries depends on the cycles used. And the life of a Li-ion battery is based on its age.

Cadmium batteries have been in use for 7-11 years, and Li-ion batteries will not work after 5 years, whether they have been used or not. Therefore it is not advisable to buy several lithium ion battery packs “for the future”. They will all be in a defective state.

NiCd batteries in turn will last much longer if stored properly. This rule works even if an electric screwdriver with a Ni-Kd battery has not been used for a year.

It is not advisable to buy a used electric screwdriver with a lithium battery because there is a risk that it has not been used for a long time and is therefore defective or close to being defective.

On the contrary, if a b/e electric screwdriver is equipped with a nickel cadmium battery, it will retain up to 55-60% of its charge. Even if it hasn’t been used.

If you use an electric screwdriver or drill not very often, the Li-ion batteries are more likely to die “of old age”. Consequently, if you are not a professional handyman who uses an electric screwdriver daily, it does not make sense to buy a Li-ion battery.

Cadmium batteries are the best for domestic use. They last a long time no matter how long they sit idle. Nickel-cadmium batteries are stored in a crate until they lose their 500 cell turnover cycles.

Lithium needs to be charged constantly because it is stored at a minimum of 60% energy. If lithium is not recharged regularly, it is very likely to shatter prematurely, even if stored properly.

Battery Types

So, what are the rechargeable batteries?? Power drills commonly use nickel-cadmium and lithium batteries. There are also nickel-metal hydride batteries, and they are good in their own way. But for screwdrivers, they began to be used very rarely: these batteries, unfortunately, very quickly become hot when charged, and during intensive work of the tool. In addition, nickel cadmium batteries, while they may be called “veterans” among chemical current sources, still outperform nickel metal hydride batteries in many respects.

Nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride batteries

Ni-Cd are the first alkaline batteries, and the technology for their production was developed at the end of the 19th century. But due to the fact that in those days mass production of batteries was very expensive and required certain conditions, it was not until the 50s of the twentieth century that it started intensively.

Despite the criticism of many fans of more modern batteries, the capacity figures of nickel-cadmium batteries have a good. And they get much less hot in operation than Ni-MH batteries because of the endothermic reactions that take place inside them. If you remember your school chemistry course, endothermic reaction means nothing else than absorbing the heat released inside the cell and not releasing it into the external environment. And this is what happens with Ni-MH batteries.

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When comparing the characteristics of screwdriver batteries in terms of practicality and safety, cadmium batteries are much better. For this reason they are still the most popular batteries for electric tools for household use.

In a nutshell, all the advantages of NiCd batteries can be summarized this way:

  • Significantly reduced risk of overheating. Not at risk of rapidly “burning out” or failing, unlike metal hydride batteries.
  • Robust metal housing. Cadmium batteries have a good resistance to internal chemical reactions and an excellent sealing of the metal coating. they can work quite well at very low temperatures, up to.40°С.
  • Long service life under proper operating conditions. 8 to 10 years without the need to change the battery pack.
  • Reasonable, affordable cost, unlike the more powerful but expensive lithium cells.

In order to ensure that the Ni Cd batteries for an electric screwdriver reach their full life expectancy, there are some effective recommendations for their use.

Since they are not afraid of deep discharge, you should work with an electric screwdriver until the battery pack is fully discharged. Then you can recharge the batteries without worrying that they will lose capacity: when charged, these batteries quickly replenish their capacity. Also better if they are stored empty. in this case, the “memory effect” will be much smaller and they do not need recharging during storage.

The “memory effect” that nickel cadmium batteries for electric screwdrivers have is actually not too great a disadvantage. In order for them not to “remember” the unnecessary level of charging, it is necessary to give them two or three full charge-discharge cycles. Then all of their best performance will quickly be restored.

To make the “memory effect” appear less frequent, it is not necessary to recharge them frequently. It is better to give them full recharge cycles, thereby “cleaning the memory”. This is what will ensure the nickel-cadmium batteries greater productivity for a long time.

What can be said about Ni-MH batteries, except that they tend to heat up? These batteries are less harmful to the environment. The “memory effect” is less pronounced than its Ni-Cd predecessors. But you have to charge them more often, because the self-discharge rate of these batteries is high. In popularity second only to cadmium batteries.

Lithium-ion batteries and their advantages

It is lithium-based batteries that are constantly on the radar of many consumers right now. Partly due to the fact that the lithium compound is used everywhere, in almost any gadget, from a smartphone to a personal laptop. They appeared not so long ago, if you compare the time of their emergence with nickel-cadmium. only in the 90s of the last century.

It is known that, in the beginning, lithium-ion batteries had a high degree of explosion hazard due to technological shortcomings. Nowadays the vast majority of them are equipped with charge level and heat control, which ensures their safety and increased productive lifetime.

What is so remarkable about lithium batteries?

Let’s look at their advantages in comparison with their predecessors:

  • Higher capacity, which extends their uninterrupted lifetime.
  • Lack of “memory effect” (at least that is what sellers and manufacturers claim).

High capacity ensures the successful use of this type of batteries in technical tools of professional plan.

For all their advantages, lithium batteries are very sensitive to the slightest voltage fluctuations during charging, as well as to sudden temperature changes. Of course, all chemical current sources are susceptible to these sensitivities to one degree or another. But experts in the field of electronics do not accidentally call “capricious” this type of batteries.

Unlike nickel-cadmium batteries, it makes no sense to buy lithium batteries in stock. They lose their capacity over time if not used for a long time, and they have a shelf life of no more than two years.

Changing my screwdriver from Ni-Cd to Li-Ion

The inevitable came. the batteries in my old Hitachi DS 12DVF3 finally died. They have been holding a charge disgustingly for a long time, but for small household needs the available capacity was enough, so I never thought about solving this problem.

To the point where I needed to drill a hole in a stainless steel kitchen sink, which took me about forty minutes! For one hole! One battery couldn’t be rocked at all, and the other one did, twenty seconds it spins, about ten minutes it charges.

That’s when I realized it was time to give a new life to my favorite tool.

Of course, to begin with I had to read a bit of theory to understand what I was going to do in general.

Of course, this topic is not new and everybody is busy converting screwdrivers to lithium. But everyone does it in his own way, depending on his education, amount of laziness and concept of beauty.

I had to make sure that everything was done correctly from the technical point of view, so that it would not look terrible on the outside and so that the batteries would be usable. After reading and reviewing a lot of material I took the project by AlexGyver as a base.

Determined the necessary elements, I went to Ali to spend money. Lithium batteries are ordered with nickel plates already welded on, so as not to bother either myself or them with soldering.

It turned out that the delivery of batteries is really long and while I was waiting for one from China, I bought another one from a local store, but without plates, because I have two cases for remodeling.

After a month and a half of ordering I finally received my parcels and was able to get down to work. First I disassemble one old case and look at the contents.

  • Here I have to carefully break off the upper contact area, it will be needed later. I would also need nickel jumpers to solder the batteries of the second block, so I put this junk aside for now. Further I am trying on new components in order to understand what kind of work will be needed.
  • While getting ready I checked a VariCore jar for compliance with the specifications, you can expect anything from the Chinese. What was my surprise when the device gave the final value of the battery capacity: 2892 mAh instead of 3000 mAh! With all the tolerances and uncertainties, it was a great result!
  • the place for three 18650 banks and BMS board in the standard battery case is not enough, so it was decided to get rid of the latch and remove all the unnecessary plastic elements from the inside.

As it turned out later, it was the right decision. The case holds well without a lock, because of the very strong spring loaded clamping plates inside the screwdriver, and the new battery itself is a little lighter than the old nickel-cadmium battery.

I saw on the internet a variant of putting lithium tanks and the same BMS board without removing the latch, but I didn’t like the way it looked and gave up on this layout.

But in my case, just getting rid of ribs inside the case was not enough, because three 18650 banks wide enough to fit in anyway, I had to mill mill the self-tapping screw guides a bit.

Without the remaining charge indicator it would be quite dull and outdated, so I take a voltmeter and solder to it a button with an extended sting (13 mm)

I used a file and a sharp knife to make a place in the box for it, and not very carefully, but very reliably glued it to the “hot snot”.

So that’s a pretty face that turns out

After all this pampering begins the most responsible stage. the assembly of the power unit In the presence of the lithium cans welded electrodes, this case is not particularly difficult.

As always, Amtech NC-559 flux proved to be excellent, or rather its excellent Chinese copy.

Many say that the battery without acid can not solder. Soldering acid, I also have, but I decided to try my favorite flux in a new environment for him, and even here it worked fine.

Only I had to scrape the pad with a knife, otherwise the solder was laying very loosely and it could lead to a catastrophic overheating of the lithium battery.

It turned out the following neat assembly, on which I glued two strips of double sided adhesive tape to fix the BMS board.

At the same place where I got the lithium batteries, I bought a thick power wire in a silicone insulator. It’s not a cheap treat, but I wanted power and flexibility, so I didn’t skimp on it.

With great impatience I soldered the bottom of the voltmeter and began to test the semi-finished product

The voltmeter was surprisingly accurate, I didn’t even need to calibrate it.So, two parts of the future upgraded battery are connected, the only thing left is to prepare the third part for mounting.

Carefully I fix the broken off contacts on the contact pad with gorgeous five-minute “epoxy”. Probably the sense of doing it that way was not much, because the pins will be squeezed with a self-tapping screw for the final assembly, but it would be safer for me.

After drying, I drill holes. Under my screws was a drill 2mm in the pad and 3mm in the lid, followed by countersinking 6mm drill, so the head of the screw was flush with the surface.

The last steps before final assembly are very important. It is necessary to insulate everything as much as possible and carefully lay all the wires.

When everything has been checked a hundred times, you can twist.

Tried a new battery in operation. Awesome! Cranks fast, holds the load, on the penultimate graduation of effort ratchet works accurately.

What more could you ask for??! Except that the second one is the same! Made it as they say “hot on the trail” or “while you’re at the cash register” or “strike iron” and so on, until all the tools were put away. The process is, of course, exactly the same, except for connecting the cans into an assembly.

Just needed nickel plates from old batteries, because the second set of cans I have without welded electrodes. Photo did not make, worked, but the process is simple, but requires extra accuracy and 440 ° C on the soldering station.

What are the basic parameters for choosing circuit breakers?

To calculate and choose a circuit breaker, you need to consider the following parameters:

Working voltage. This is the voltage at which the switch works without failure under installation conditions. Circuit breakers can have different rated operating voltages, which correspond to different characteristics.

Rated current. This is the maximum current value that can circulate indefinitely through the circuit breaker without exceeding the temperature values allowed for the components through which the current flows.

Conventional thermal rated current. This is the current above which the circuit breaker will trip in the event of an overload.

Magnetic trip current adjustment. This is the current above which the circuit breaker trips in the event of a short-circuit. Sometimes this current is determined based on the type of tripping curve.

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