Which electric motor is used in the electric drill. Work in a contaminated environment


Drill (Azer: QAZMAQ; English: Drill; Whale: 演練; ESP: Boru; Jap: ドリル). Manual device for twisting all kinds of objects.

Mechanical drill (Kolovorot, drill with manual handling, manual drill).- In fact, any device in which you can squeeze at least some drill to drill at least something. The simplest option of a hand drill is a handle with a clamp for a core, is usually used to drill small holes during handmade. Exactly for the same work, a hand drill is used with a spiral rotation system, in which the rotation of the cartridge comes from the reciprocating movement of the drive handle along the rotation axis. The most common version of a hand drill is a columnar.- In addition to the fact that it is very simple in its design, it can be done with any lever, which can be very good for drilling viscous materials of large diameter, such as wood. Now Kolovorot is used very rarely, usually people who have no idea about the instrument as such and do not want to throw away the “heritage of the ancestors” in the trash with a show.Off “And if your electricity disappears. “” A mechanical drill with multi.Stage mechanical transmission is the most advanced manual drill

The very first drill can be considered a pendulum drill, in which the effort of reciprocating movement into rotation is transmitted through unwinding cords. Such a drill is not very accurate and durable, however, this is more than compensated by the fact that it can be made from any leaf materials.

Household electric motors and their use

Thanks to global electrification, our life has become more comfortable and comfortable. The life of a modern person cannot be imagined without electrical appliances. A lot of household appliances that are completely working on electricity are used today in every house. Even rural life is replete with various devices that make the farm more progressive and less burdensome for their owner.

In this article, we will affect the theme of household electric motors, which correctly serve in our vacuum cleaners, in washing machines, in coffee grinders, in food combine combines, in microwaves, and in many other household appliances, using which we do not even think about how they are arranged, and how important the role of the electric motor is in them.

Household electric motors are not industrial units for many kilowatts, this is often the result of the work of engineering thoughts to optimize ordinary, seemingly principles, in order to minimize deficiencies, and at the same time increase efficiency, as applied to a specific device. It is necessary that the engine is compact, not noisy if possible, and would not consume too much electricity, while certainly performing the functions assigned to the household appliance.

Let’s start with the kitchen. There is a microwave in each kitchen. Some kitchens have a kitchen combine, and a coffee grinder, and even a dishwasher. Consider the engines of these devices.

The recirculation pump of the dishwasher, designed to pump water into the detergents of the machine, has as a drive a small single.Phase asynchronous electric motor with a short.Closed rotor. The rotor speed is approximately 2800 revolutions per minute, and its power can be of different. From 60 to 180 watts usually, depending on the capacity of the dishwasher.

The engine winding is equipped parallel to the working capacitor, the typical capacity of which is 3 μF. This engine copes with its task perfectly. Rotates the impeller of the pump, pumps water.

In the microwave of the engine two. The first of them rotates a turning table. Here we need sore power and low revs, so this engine is synchronous, and although it is single.Phase, it has a gear gearbox. As a rotor, there is a round permanent magnet, which rotates at a speed of up to 3,000 rpm, but the gearbox lowers speed to 2.5. 6 revolutions per minute, which are transmitted to the table.

The power of this small washer engine is from 2.5 to 5 watts, and the supply voltage can be 21, 30 or 220 volts, depending on the microwave model. With its task-to rotate a table with heavy utensils-this motor-editor copes with a bang.

There is also a fan of the cooling system of magnetron in the microwave. This fan is rotated with a single.Phase asynchronous engine with a capacity of 10 to 50 watts, the rotor speed of which is 1200. 1300 revolutions per minute. The engine stator is typed from plates of electrical steel, the rotor is just a steel cylinder with a tucked shaft.

which, electric, motor, used

The working winding is made of a thin enamel pipeline, and is located on a plastic frame, worn on the stator. There is a launch winding here, the role of which is played by short.Seated single.Section, located at the edges of the stator, and form when turning on the starting moment.

The motor does not differ in high efficiency, but with its function. Rotate the fan, drive air through the magnetron radiator, copes.

Single.Phase collector engines are used in coffee grinders. Such motors have windings both at the stature and on the rotor. Through the collector-target node, the power is supplied to the rotor windings, and the speed of rotation of the blades of the coffee grinder is huge.

Motors of typical home coffee grinders feed on alternating current, and have a power of up to 180 watts. They develop turns significantly exceeding 3000 per minute, and can reach 20,000 or more revolutions per minute, this is a feature of collector engines.

The kitchen combine is also equipped with a single.Phase collector engine, but more powerful than in coffee grinders. The power of the engine of the kitchen combine can reach a kilowatt, and the turns here are regulated by means of thyristor control schemes, according to the principle, like light regulators. Dimmers.

The advantage of the collector engine, in relation to the kitchen combine, is a high torque and high maximum speed, since the engine is neither synchronous nor ordinary asynchronous, its speed does not depend much on the frequency, more on the average current.

Now move to the bathroom. Here, of course, is an automatic washing machine. From the very beginning, they used collector engines with thyristor revolutions. Such an engine is equipped with a tag, which allows electronics to accurately set the speed of rotation of the washing machine with any degree of loading.

A small pulley on the engine shaft is much smaller in diameter than the rotor, and at speeds reaching 10,000 per minute, 1000 revolutions per minute are transmitted to the drum through the belt, and the power can lie in the range from 200 to 800 watts.

In more modern washing machines, direct drive engines, bronnial asynchronous motors are used. As a rotor. An external rotor with 12 permanent magnets, and as a stator. The internal 36 coil stator. The coils are combined into three groups of 12 pieces, and allow you to implement a three.Phase frequency control control of the drum rotation (frequency up to 300 Herz) through an electronic BLDC controller, and power (the moment of rotation) by means of SWIM.Regulation.

How to find a malfunction and repair an electric drill

The shock drill is able to perform conventional drilling only with a blow. The gearbox of such devices can have both one or two speeds. As additional functions, there are reverse progress and the ability to set the desired idle speeds.

The shock drill has two braids that are in contact with the usual work of the drill. Когда необходимо выполнить сверление с ударом, то одна шестерня перемещается, таким образом, образовывая зазор с впереди стоящей шестерней. Next, the back gear remains motionless, and the one in front begins to slide along the teeth and move the cartridge up and down. This is how many shock drills are created. In this case, the number of such blows can be 40,000 in one minute.

It is worth noting that the drill shock function should be used only in the most emergency cases. If the drill is constantly used with a shock function, then very soon the shock mechanism may fail. It’s all about the gears that soon or later stand up and the shock mode of operation will disappear.

A tool such as a shock drill is an indispensable assistant in construction. For example, she can blame a brick without problems. As for concrete, the performance of the shock drill depends on the brand of concrete in which you need to drill a hole.

Suppose with 300-TOI brand of concrete, from which the internal partitions of the premises are usually erected, the shock drill copes perfectly. But this cannot be said about the 400th brand of concrete, which is involved in the construction of the supporting walls. In this case, it is necessary to use the peorator.

The electric drill is the most popular electrical tool during any repair, so it often fails in view of frequent and intensive use. If there are basic skills and the experience of repairing such tools, it will not be very difficult to repair the drill.

Possible malfunctions of a shock drill

There can be several causes of breakdowns of this kind of tool, there is an opinion that the main reason is the improper operation of the drill or not the “firmness” of the tool, in the view of which its insides consists of low.Quality components. Among other more technical reasons, one can distinguish the following:

Electric Drill machine Power tool buy from daraz online shopping

The failure of the mobile part of the electric motor, its stator or anchor;

Wear of collector brushes and their burning;

The wire break in the cord, in the drill itself or on the coil of the engine;

Reducer breakdown or clamping cartridge itself.

How to find what a malfunction

In order to understand the reason for the breakdown, sometimes it happens that it is not immediately visible, for example, the drill simply does not rotate. The inspection begins with a supply cord, often in view of intensive operation, the cord is interrupted either in the plug area or where. Something else. Also inspect the button and various controls. Try to turn out the cartridge.

All diagnostic procedures end on this, the drill needs to be disassembled to access and inspect it from the inside. To do this, unscrew (all) screws around the perimeter of the drill housing and remove the upper half of the case. When twisting the screws, we pay attention to their length and remember in which openings of the screws what length were, it is easier to leave them immediately in the removed part of the case.

We examine the power cable and internal wiring for fences, cliffs and reliability of the contact connection. In the place where the power cable is included in the drill housing, you can often see the damaged outer insulation layer, its rupture, and the power cord itself is ultimately twisted.

If you have a faulty button or a reverse switch, then it is easier to replace with a new. You can certainly disassemble, clean the contacts, but it will be troublesome, many small spare parts and springs that strive to jump out everything.

One of the most common types of breakdown is the wear of the engine brushes, their replacement can be easily done at home. Sometimes, the brushes can be replaced without disassembling the drill housing, if the design allows.

Electric drill work simulation

In some models, it is enough to unscrew the plugs from the installation windows and install new brushes. Other models have a disassembly of the case for replacement, in which case it is necessary to carefully remove the brush holders and extract worn brushes from them.

which, electric, motor, used

A characteristic feature of a malfunction of electric grinders is a strong sparking and not stable operation of the electric motor when it works with interruptions or jerks. What comes from unstable electric contact between brushes and plates on the collector.

Do not also allow the brushes to worn to the minimum size. This is dangerous in that between the brush and the collector plates the clearance may increase. As a result, increased sparking occurs, collector plates are very warm and can “move” from the base of the collector, which will lead to the need to replace the anchor.

It is necessary to regularly clean the collector’s plates from the soil and constantly check the stretching of the brushes to the collector drum. Other malfunctions of the electric part can manifest itself in the form of a lack of rotation of the drill engine when there are no signs of the engine turning on (no buzzing).

If the drill does not turn on and its cartridge is easily turned by the usual effort, then you can most likely assume a malfunction of the electrical part.

Checking the concreteness of the cause is made as it is affordable, the network cord, the speed control button, the start.Up capacitor and the engine winding are simply nicknamed the multimeter in the resistance mode.

Among the electrical faults, a breakdown of the anchor can be noted. A breakdown of the anchor or stator occurs for two reasons. Improper operation and low.Quality motor wire. Global manufacturers use a high.Quality wire with double insulation and heat.Resistant varnish, which at times increases engine reliability and can significantly extend the temporary resource of your drill. Cheap models do not withstand prolonged and intense robots with overheating.

How to connect a drill button yourself?

Despite the fact that this process is quite complicated, you can do all your work with your own hands, observing some important rules. For example, remember that the opening of the case can lead to the fact that all parts and poorly fixed spare parts will simply fall out of the case. Naturally, this should be avoided, because then it will be quite difficult to assemble the device together. To do this, you can smoothly raise the lid, noting the exact location of the spare parts on paper.

which, electric, motor, used

The button is repaired as follows:

  • First, locks for the casing are tidied, after which it is carefully pulled out;
  • All rusted and darkened terminals are cleaned of soot, for which you can use alcohol or sandpaper;
  • We re.Collect the tool, making sure that all the details of the device are in its place, and check the operability of the drill. If nothing changes, we change the detail;
  • We fill the circulation regulator with a compound, and therefore, when failing, the part is simply replaced by the part;
  • Frequent breakdown is the erasure of the working layer under the rheostat. It is better not to repair it, just spend time in vain, it is better to purchase a new one and replace it and replace it.

Many are interested in where to get a similar scheme? First of all, she should go along with the instrument when buying it, but if there is no scheme, or you lost it, you will have to look on the Internet. After all, only with its help you can carry out repairs correctly, without errors. By the way, the speed control button and the reverse control button are located in different places, and therefore they will have to be checked separately.

Electric circuit

For practical work, it is convenient to use two types of presentation:

Simplified display

The method allows you to very simply imagine the connection of all engine windings to the electric network circuit.

The switch breaks both phase and zero potentials or one of them. A circuit of current is created through the brushes with the collector on the rotor windings.

A circuit scheme

Depending on the design features, the winding of the stator and rotor may have additional bends to power various control devices and automation of the collector engine or do without them.

Thermal protection eliminates overheating of the insulation of engine windings. She relieves the supply voltage when the sensor is triggered, stopping the rotation of the rotor and the executive mechanism.

The tachogenerator allows us to judge the speed of rotation of the rotor. In individual engines, it is replaced by the Hall sensor. To transmit signals to these devices, collection plates contacts are also used.

Which electric motor is used in the electric drill

To date, the drill has long become an indispensable tool in any house, and for every man the ability to use such a toy is almost a matter of honor. In addition, hanging a shelf with its help is much more convenient than suffering with a hammer and nails. However, there is no need for a highly professional pedorator, if in addition to shelves and small repairs, you do not plan to do anything. In order to figure out which drill to choose for home, you must first get acquainted with their views:

  • Ordinary drills. It would be more logical to call them screwdrivers, since their design is quite primitive compared to more modern devices. They not only make holes in some building surfaces, but without any effort twist the screws. However, their capabilities are significantly limited, so one such drill will not be enough to perform the entire spectra male work.
  • Shock drills. A modernized device that significantly expands the capabilities of a person in the construction and repair business. Using an additional element called an eccentric, such a tool breaks even concrete walls. The ability to switch modes at one point will turn the usual drill into a percussion tool, which can be really very convenient. Of course, it does not reach the pedorator, but for home use it is perfect.
  • Peorators. They are overall large.Scale and universal tools with incredible power and huge mass. Naturally, such drills are quite expensive, but an ordinary person is not needed to solve economic needs. Their use is useful only to experienced professional builders.

It is also worth noting that each such drill, in turn, is divided into cheap, average cost and expensive models. In this case, when we need to decide which drill to choose for home, the price does not play a special role. Expensive tools are not always considered the best, as you mainly pay for the brand.

Types of CD

To classify these devices is customary by type of power, depending on this, two groups of CD are distinguished:

  • Direct current. Such machines have a high starting point, smooth control of the speed and a relatively simple design.
  • Universal. Can work from both permanent and alternating source of electricity. Differ in compact dimensions, low cost and simplicity of management.

The former are divided into two subspecies, depending on the organization of the inductor, it can be on permanent magnets or special arousal coils. They serve to create a magnetic flux necessary for the formation of a rotational moment. CD, where excitation coils are used, are distinguished by the types of windings, they can be:

Having sorted out the views, we will consider each of them.

CD universal type

The figure below shows the appearance of an electric machine of this type and its main structural elements. This performance is characteristic of almost all CDs.

The design of the universal collector engine

  • A. A mechanical switch, it is also called a collector, its functions were described above.
  • B. Brush holders, serve to attach brushes (usually from graphite) through which the voltage enters the anchor windings.
  • C. Stator core (typed from plates, the material for which is electrical steel).
  • D. Stator windings, this node belongs to the excitation system (inducer).
  • E. Anchor shaft.

In devices of this type, excitement can be consistent and parallel, but since the last option is not produced now, we will not consider it. As for the universal CD of sequential excitement, the typical diagram of such electric machines is presented below.

Universal collector engine diagram

Universal CD can work from alternating stress due to the fact that when the polarity changes, the current in the windings of excitation and anchor also changes the direction. As a result of this, the rotational moment does not change its direction.

Features and scope of universal CD

The main disadvantages of this device are manifested when it is connected to the sources of alternating voltage, which is reflected in the following:

Previously, CDs were widely used in many household electrical appliances (tools, washing machines, vacuum cleaners, and t.D.). Currently, manufacturers have practically stopped using this type of engine by giving preference to non.Collective electromas.

Now consider collector electric machines operating from constant voltage sources.

CD with an inductor on permanent magnets

Structurally, such electric machines differ from universal ones in that instead of excitement coils, constant magnets are used.

The design of the collector engine on permanent magnets and its scheme

This type of CD is most widely used in comparison with other electric machines of this type. This is due to low cost due to simplicity of the design, simple control of rotation speed (depends on the voltage) and a change in its direction (it is enough to change the polarity). The engine power directly depends on the strength of the field created by constant magnets, which makes certain restrictions.

The main scope is low.Power drives for various equipment, often used in children’s toys.

which, electric, motor, used

CD on permanent magnets from a toy time of the USSR

The following qualities can be attributed to the following qualities:

To eliminate one of the main disadvantages of these devices (aging magnets), special windings are used in the excitation system, let’s move on to the consideration of such cd.

Independent and parallel coils of excitement

The former received such a name due to the fact that the windings of the inductor and the anchor are not connected to each other and are powered separately (see. And in Fig. 6).

CD schemes with independent (A) and parallel (c) winding of excitement

The peculiarity of such a connection is that the power of U and UK should differ, otherwise the moment of power will arise. If it is impossible to organize such conditions, then the coils of the anchor and inductor are connected in parallel (see. In Fig. 6). Both types of CD have the same characteristics, we considered it possible to combine them in one section.

The moment of power in such electric machines is high at a low speed and decreases with its increase. It is characteristic that the currents of the anchor and coil are independent, and the total current is the sum of the currents passing through these windings. As a result of this, when the current of the coil of excitation falls up to 0, the CD is most likely to fail.

The scope of the use of such devices. Power plants with a capacity of 3 kW.

  • The absence of permanent magnets relieves the problem of their failure over time;
  • A high moment of force at a low speed;
  • Simple and dynamic control.
  • The cost is higher than that of devices on permanent magnets;
  • The inadmissibility of the current drop is below the threshold value on the excitation coil, since this will lead to breakdown.

Technical characteristics and electrodele functions

No thorough repair, perhaps, will do without the use of a drill. Many installation work also often involve the drilling of holes. However, not everyone has the tool in everyday life when the situation requires this.

Let’s figure out what a drill is, what its functions and what the technical characteristics of the drill can be, so that everyone can get a suitable tool, without overpaying for unnecessary excesses.

So, the drill is a manual power tool, the main function of which is the drilling of holes. The holes with a drill can be drilled in plastic, in a tree, in metal, and even in concrete, but not every drill is suitable for concrete, but about this we will talk further.

A modern electric drill is a universal tool, because you can not install a drill in the cartridge, so the drill is applicable both for grinding and for the preparation of construction solutions (as a mixer).

The modern electrode market provides a fairly wide range of tools for choosing, while all electrodelers can be divided into two classes: professional and household. Differences are primarily in the technical characteristics.

Professional drills are designed for frequent regular use, they easily withstand many hours of loads, while they do not overheat and do not fail, they are distinguished by increased power. More than 500 W and the quality of working nodes.

Household drills are less powerful and less bulky, but they are not able to withstand the load long.Term, so you can only work with a household drill with interruptions every 10 minutes. Thus, for regular work, a professional drill is needed, and for rare domestic applications. Respectively, household.

The main characteristic of the electric drill is a power that is usually in the range from 300 to 1300 watts. Two of the most important parameters of the tool are inextricably linked with the drill power. The number of revolutions per minute and torque. If you consider two drills of different capacities, but with the same speed, then a more powerful drill will have a large torque.

How does this affect practice? If the drill with high speeds begins to overload for the time, it will begin to overheat, while more powerful, adapted for the return of high indicators of torque, the drill will easily withstand this mode. Professional drills are distinguished by a large torque at high speeds.

Consider an example: Bosch GBM 10 RE Professional is capable of developing a torque of 20 nm at 1676 revolutions per minute, while the power consumed from the network will be 600 watts, with a useful given capacity of 360 watts, Metabo BE 1100 at 2800 revolutions is capable of developing the moment 16 NM, but it has more power. 1100 W consumption with a useful power of 660 watts.

Obviously, a more powerful drill (as in this example) will be able to work one and a half times more efficiently. But again, in one case it is advisable to use the first drill, in the other. The second. To work with soft materials, there is enough power up to 500 watts, while for more solid materials it may require 1000 watts.

In some droplets there is a speed adjustment function and the possibility of reverse, which is very useful in cases where a high torque is required at low speed, or a drill should be used as a mixer for the preparation of building mixtures, or even as an electric screwdriver. The speed adjustment is usually carried out with a special button. According to this parameter, drills are two.Speed and with a reverse. Additional nozzles are used to implement the function of a mixer or electric screwdriver.

Drill cartridge can be fast.Packed or gear (fist). A fast.Packed cartridge is very convenient when working, where a quick change of equipment is required, for example, when installing drywall sheets. The cam cartridge is accompanied by a gear key, the change of drill here takes more time, but such a drill fastening is more reliable, which is extremely important when drilling rough metals.

The cartridge can be removable or not removable. The removable cartridge is easy to replace if necessary, if the drill is used in the process too different in diameter, then the suitable cartridge is simply placed for the corresponding diameter of the drill. By the way, the maximum diameter of the drill for a specific drill is also an important technical characteristic, and you should not exceed the permissible diameter, so as not to overload and not damage the drill.

Square drills are especially notable, equipped with a special shock cartridge and a ratchet mechanism, which is somewhat approaching the usual drill already to the pedorator.

The shock drill is useful when working with concrete, brick or stone. In addition to rotation of the drill, such a drill additionally moves the cartridge back and forward, which increases productivity when working with solid materials. If hard work with reinforced concrete is foreseen, then you need a full.Fledged peorator, and the shock drill will not work.

An important parameter is the material of the housing of the drill gearbox, plastic or metal. The metal case is obviously more reliable.

Mentioning additional options, we can note the convenience of removable handles, as well as the possibility of attaching a drill to the bed. These options bring additional convenience during work, and many contribute to increased performance.

As for the power supply, the electrodery, then there are nuances here. For example, during ceiling work, a drill without a cord, working from the battery, is indispensable. Although the power of such a drill may not exceed 400 watts, and the battery requires regular recharging, the convenience of its use will affect the effectiveness of the work on the work.

If we talk about drones with a cord, it is better if the network cord is removable, such a cord is convenient to store, you do not need to be wrapped in a drill, at risk of damage. In fairness, we note that for comfortable work with a traditional network drill, the most convenient cord 4 or more meters or more.

Where manual drills are used

The first invention of a person, with which manually drill holes in concrete and tree was called a collar. On the basis of the columge, manual or mechanical types of drills (and after and electric) were invented, which gained wide popularity. The columnar has the form of a curved frame, which is equipped with a cartridge for fixing the drills.

The columnar was not a very convenient device when working, which was distinguished by developers to create a hand.Type drill. There is no need to return to the past, so let’s dwell on the question of where a device such as a manual drill is now being used now.

Kolovorot: the design of an indispensable assistant in the economy of the USSR

The use of such drones today is no longer as relevant as 30 years ago, but they are still used to screw screws and screws. For such purposes, screwdrivers are used, but not everyone has such tools. Sometimes the power of electric screwdriver is simply not enough to screw the screws into a wooden or plastic base. The screwdriver is also problematic, so the manual apparatus always comes to the rescue.

The product is also used to drill holes with crowns. Electric screwdriver has a low power to work with crowns, and the drill has a high speed of rotation of the cartridge. Drilling large holes with a manual tool, although it will take more time, but at the same time will definitely not lead to a breakdown of the tool. The tool under consideration cannot be called the most necessary, but you should also not rush to get rid of it also. In addition to home workshops and garages, where the tools in question are used very rarely, they are also used in medicine. Without its help, it becomes simply impossible to conduct operations on bone tissues and when installing knitting needles for bones.

It is interesting! The use of a manual type drill allows you to achieve more accurate results.

Modern type of mechanical drill

Electric counterparts, although they are able to perform work ten times faster, but they have not such a large power supply as hand products. It is problematic to drill a hole in the metal with a manual device, however, it will not be difficult to make a hole in wood or concrete.

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