Why a diesel single axle tractor goes bad
The main reasons why an engine goes bad are:
Wear of the cylinder block (piston group cylinder),
Wrong ignition angle;
The only salvation in this situation is to turn off the engine. But you will not be able to do it in a usual way. It is necessary to mechanically stop the fuel, air, and if the car is stationary, then try to engage a higher gear by first depressing the clutch, then releasing it sharply. In the latter case, there is a high probability of damage to the gearbox. It takes a lot of effort to stop the supply. If the car uses an electric petrol pump, you must de-energize it, to do this you need to know where the fuse that powers the fuel pump is located. Without special knowledge of its location it is not possible to do it promptly, and the engine can seize a wedge in five minutes of its work.
To prevent the air supply, it is enough to block the air inlet hose (hole) of the air filter with your hand or a rag, and also try to close the throttle valve with your hand. What can be traumatic for an inexperienced car owner.
So, we have found out what this process is. Regular repair and timely diagnostics of diesel engines allows reducing the risk of this malfunction. As you can see, the consequences can be most dangerous, up to the explosion of the power unit. Therefore, if the engine has become uncontrolled increase in speed and lost traction, immediately stop the flow of air into the cylinder. In small cars, you can do it with your own hand. to cover the air intake hose with your palm.
Sometimes, driving on a freeway or a city street, one can see an unusual sight: a truck, a road roller or a car, hardly visible through a cloud of smoke, spewing clouds of acrid stench from the exhaust pipe with a frantic roar. An experienced chauffeur will not be surprised to note: The engine has lost power.
Why does the engine go haywire?
Engine runaway is usually understood as a sudden and uncontrollable increase in rpm up to the critical level. It is especially dangerous when driving, because a sudden and unexpected acceleration of the car can easily provoke an emergency situation. But even with a successful shutdown, the engine can easily ruin at the limit rpm.
Diesel engine runaway is, as a rule, more dangerous than that of petrol engines. This is due to the different mechanism of speed control:
- Gasoline engines have a quantity control: the driver, by changing the throttle position, regulates the resistance of the intake system and, consequently, the amount of fuel mixture of a conditionally constant composition entering the engine. The pressure at the end of the compression stroke in this case varies in a wide range: from 12 bar at a sharp opening of the gas at low RPM to 1-2 bar when dropping gas at high RPM for an ordinary engine like VAZ;
- Diesel engines need to have a constant high pressure in the cylinders (over 20 bar) to ensure autoignition of injected fuel, so limiting air intake for them is unacceptable and leads to engine stalling. RPM regulation is performed by the amount of fuel supplied, and, accordingly, the quality of the mixture. This mechanism is called qualitative regulation.
Find out here how to make a car underbody light so you don’t have to pay a fine.
Thus, in order to dramatically increase the rpm of a gasoline-powered engine, you have to somehow quickly increase both the air supply and the fuel supply accordingly to preserve the fuel mixture’s ability to ignite from the spark. You will agree that this is a difficult condition to meet. Besides, it is easy to stall a gasoline engine by switching off the ignition (carburetor engines, of course, are capable of running on glow ignition when the spark plug electrodes overheat, but this is a rarity, requiring an extremely gross mistake when selecting the spark plugs).
To maintain the operation of the engine running on heavy fuel, no electrical circuits are needed, and even the path of fuel into the cylinders is not important. which is why even modern diesel engines with electronic Common Rail injection can go haywire when the ignition is off, when the injectors do not spray a single milligram of fuel. The fuel composition does not matter either: the high compression ratio allows even the most seemingly inappropriate substances to be ignited: old locomotive engines in coal mines were breaking down even with coal dust suspended in the air due to ineffective air filters.
Here we can see the real reason why diesel engines break down and why it is difficult to stop them: the breakdown occurs due to spontaneous intake into the intake manifold of fluids which can ignite in the engine cylinders, namely engine oil. In this case, disconnecting the fuel supply (closing the ignition switch-controlled solenoid valve on older diesels or disconnecting the pump and injection ECU on modern diesels) does not cause the engine to stop. as long as it rotates, oil continues to flow into the intake and it continues to rotate as long as oil is flowing. This closed loop can only be interrupted by engine destruction from critically high RPMs or oil starvation.
- Oil gets into the intake manifold in two ways: either through crankcase ventilation (but to increase its removal by this way up to critical values, you need a serious malfunction like piston destruction), or through a faulty turbocharger. the second variant is the most frequent and the most dangerous: oil is supplied to a turbine under pressure and thus through faulty seals it can get into the engine in such quantity that it develops revolutions, which go far into the red zone of a tachometer. If the engine is not stopped in time it will inevitably be destroyed by crank pin or main bearing shells due to the exhaustion of the engine oil volume. at high RPM it results in crank rod cracks that can easily pierce the cylinder block. Besides, the oil thus accumulates in an intercooler. even if you stop the engine in time, even after repair, the engine can go again to pieces, if you forget to wash out the intercooler.
Another cause of diesel engine breakdown may become a failure of fuel injection pump on old cars with mechanical control. in this case the engine stops revving when you release the accelerator pedal, but turning off the fuel supply stops it. This variant, though not less unpleasant (repair of fuel injection valve is rather expensive), but does not have such destructive consequences.
Learn how a diesel works and what to do if the engine breaks down
How to stop a runaway engine?
Soviet drivers first encountered the propensity for diesel engines after the war, thanks to the widespread adoption of the YAZ-204 two-stroke diesel engine copied from the American GMC engine of the late 1930s. For almost forty years that it was in production, it was fitted to many different vehicles: trucks YAZ (Yaroslavl Automobile Plant), ZIL and MAZ, road rollers and even boats.
The two-stroke cycle that this diesel engine used required a supercharger for forced scavenging of the cylinders. In this role was a powerful twin-rotor Roots-type compressor, now often found towering over the hoods of American tuned muscle cars. Poor quality gearbox seals in the compressor gearbox (at that time our common rubber seals were exotic and their role was performed by low-efficiency felt packings) often lead to leakage of engine oil into the cylinders and cause the engine failure.
The frequency of this phenomenon led to the fact that in front of the superchargers at the factory were installed special emergency flaps, designed to shut off the engine manually. This is the only way to stop the furious diesel engine. if it is impossible to stop the fuel supply, the only thing left is to cut off the airflow.
It is the origin of well-known chauffer bikes about Kamaz trucks, which are able to swallow a sweatshirt. to stop the engine, which has gone to pieces, you should hammer some dense cloth into the air intake, often the same sweatshirt for long-haul truck drivers Attempts to stop a large-capacity engine by clamping the brakes in gear often result in the fact that the engine, which has gone to the mode of peak power, continues to drag the car forward, burning up the clutch.
So, the order of actions at loss of control of the engine:
- If there is a sudden, uncontrolled rise in engine RPM, immediately turn off the transmission and ignition, and if possible, move to the side of the road.
- Turn on the alarm and open the hood, if necessary to access the air intake.
- Do not attempt to close the air intake with your hand as this could cause serious injury. Never try to close it with your hand, it could cause serious injury! If you have a carbon dioxide fire extinguisher, point its nozzle into the air intake and open the tap. a powerful stream of non-flammable gas will make the engine bang and stop.
- Only tow the car to the place of repair or tow truck: do not try to restart it!
As a rule, at timely stop the lost in a run diesel engine does not receive damages (if, certainly, the reason of receipt of oil in the engine cylinders was not destruction of the piston) and after repair or replacement of the turbocharger without problems can be operated further.
As already mentioned, the diesel engine not only does not need the presence of the throttle, it is even harmful to its work. However, the surprise of many people familiar with the principles of work of diesel engines evokes its presence in modern cars with Common Rail injection, and this flap has only an electric control of the ECU injection.
In fact, its main purpose is to create a local zone of depression in the intake manifold after the turbocharger goes into operating mode for the correct operation of the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system. At the same time, when the ignition is turned off, it closes automatically, which provides smooth engine shutdown without a characteristic for diesel engines with mechanical fuel injection pump and prevents the engine from going to pieces. Therefore, if your automobile is equipped with such engine. consider that this article had only cognitive, rather than practical character for you.
Everything sooner or later fails, no exception and the car, so sometimes owners can face such a problem that the engine went into. What does it mean and how to fix it?? That’s what this article is about.
Out of fuel in the diesel engine, how to pump?
The situation is not as rare as it may seem, especially among fans of driving on the last remnants in the tank.
For some reason it is believed that in order to pump fuel from the tank, it is sufficient to unscrew the plug to release the air on the booster pump, pump it and this is enough. This is not quite right, in fact, in some cases, when the booster pump is faulty or pumping weakly, you will not be able to pump the system at all. Besides, on some cars the booster pump is not installed at all. What to do in these cases?
So how do you remove the remaining air from the entire fuel system?? After deflating the air on the booster pump, you only have to fill the fuel filter with fuel, removing air from the tank to the fine filter inclusive. Air remains in the piping from the booster pump to the fuel pump and in the fuel pump itself, and in some cases it is very difficult to remove it from there. So, I would advise you to unscrew the return bolt on the fuel pump itself, not the bolt on the booster pump, when pumping. Typically, on distributor HPPs. it is a bolt #17 with the word OUT, but other options are also possible (like bolts #19 on nissan, or solenoid valves). It is necessary to pump until the diesel fuel runs without air bubbles from the fuel pump. If there are constant bubbles coming from the return flow, it is necessary to find the source of air leakage. Only by removing the air from the fuel injection pump you can be at least somewhat confident in the possibility to start the engine, because with a weak priming pump and plunger pair it is extremely difficult to pump the fuel equipment simply by turning the starter.
However, there are cases where it is impossible to pump fuel from the tank with an ordinary booster pump. Because of dirt under its valves or leaking valves. This is also possible if you do not have a booster pump on some cars. In this case, I will give you some universal advice. Take a regular car tire inflator, remove the return hose from the fuel pump and try to pump air into it. This way you will create overpressure in the tank which will pump the fuel from the tank to the fine filter and then fill the HPF. It is only desirable to have an adapter on the pump hose which would fit snugly into the return hose. The basic requirement for this procedure is. the tank plug must be hermetically sealed, otherwise no pressure will build up. You can use a compressor to inflate it, but be careful not to inflate your tank.
So you pumped your HPF, but your work on pumping the fuel system is not over. Don’t forget that the high pressure tubes that run from HPF to injectors are currently filled with air, which is easily compressed. Therefore, to simplify the procedure of starting the engine, which is especially important with a weak or already saturated battery, unscrew the high pressure tubes from the injectors. Neither the booster pump nor even pumping by compressor through the return, you will not be able to pump the HPF further than the nozzles, since they have valves that open at a much higher pressure than the low pressure fuel pump develops, and the system of channels in the plunger pair is such that does not allow fuel to penetrate directly through them to the high pressure tubes at any position of the ram on the engine is not running.
Thus, to fill the high-pressure tubes you need to rotate the crankshaft with the starter or manually (though, be sure to bring voltage to the fuel cutoff valve). If you try to punch air out of the tubes by rotating the starter without unscrewing them from the nozzles, you will have to spend much more time and effort on this operation. In the case if the plunger pair in your HPF is very weak, you risk completely discharging the battery without trying to start the engine. Therefore, unscrewing the high pressure tubes from the injectors is not only desirable, but obligatory procedure. It is not necessary to unscrew the tubes completely, you just need to loosen them, and after they spurt fuel. tighten.
With this sequence of pumping fuel you will not just minimize the efforts to start the engine, but also save your battery, starter and in some cases the fuel injection pump.
I would not advise you to pump fuel from the tank when the fuel pump is empty by towing another vehicle. In some cases, when the booster pump ladders are running dry, it simply cannot pump fuel from the tank to the HPF. Prolonged turning of fuel injection pump on dry may lead to scoring of both booster pump and plunger pair, because these units are lubricated by fuel and in general there is a probability of overshooting the belt or timing chain.
For the same reason I advise you not to empty your fuel tank completely. Accustom yourself to the fact that your tank should be as full as possible. This will not only allow you to avoid such problems, but also reduce the likelihood of other unpleasantness. The fact is that if in winter you store the car in a warm garage or just in a room where the temperature is higher than outdoors (and in general the hot return gets in and heats the tank). When you go out in the cold, however, the air in the tank cools dramatically and from it condenses and moisture falls out and gets into the fuel. The more empty the tank is, the more condensate falls out. Then this water goes into the fine filter, and there is hope for the filtration system. If the car is not equipped with additional filters with sumps, then 100% water will penetrate into the fuel equipment.
The overall conclusion. check the serviceability of booster pumps, if they are absent, install them. No risk, try to always drive with a full tank. Service station “Kovsh” offers mechanical and electric pumps.
A diesel single-axle tractor does not start well
Mini tractor is considered a functional appliance. It is indispensable for farming. Attachment special equipment gives the opportunity to work the area, mowing the grass, snow removal, cargo transportation, planting and harvesting. Often there is a situation when a single–axle tractor does not start. The owner must determine the cause of the failure and repair the damage.
A single axle tractor starts and stops? Why does it happen? There can be several reasons why the motor equipment does not start when you start it. These can include:
- damage to the carburetor (in units with a gasoline engine);
- A defect in the ignition and glow devices;
- Low basic lubrication.
When unusual changes occur in the machine and its operation is made unstable, the first thing to do is to check the carburetor. In this essential node is committed formation of the air-fuel mixture (AFC) and the dosage of its feeding into the cylinders of the internal combustion engine (ICE).
And if the nozzles get clogged, there is no passage of the fuel system, so the carburetor loses the ability to start the engine.
In order to eliminate the defect, repair the fuel line, which implies a partial analysis of the carburetor, washing the pump, blowing nozzles through the nozzle for fuel.
If a single-axle tractor Neva fails to start, the causes may also be different. Sometimes the problem is hidden in the failure of spark plugs, which perform an important role in starting a carburetor engine, or glow plugs that provide diesel engine start. If the ignition devices are made wet, which happens due to the filling of fuel, the spark begins to disappear in them. If there is no spark formation, the fuel-air mixture is not ignited, and, therefore, the motor will not start.
There are various ways to solve such a problem:
- Carry out a minor repair and replace non-working spark plugs with new ones;
- “Burn” the flooded glow plugs and use the flame to clean them of traces of fuel.
The technique won’t start because of the glow plugs defect. In the diesel engine, the ignition of fuel is made from the contact with the hot air, which heats up in the cylinder during compression by the piston. This can be done without complications, if the machine is already heated and the working temperature is retained by the heated cylinder walls. However, in cool weather the engine is heated with the help of glow plugs, and if they are broken, you will not be able to start the single axle tractor.
If the examination of a carburetor engine or diesel was not found defective candles, but the difficulties persisted, but also accompanied by pops in the muffler, it is necessary to control the functionality of absolutely all devices responsible for the ignition of fuel. A defect in these can also be a reason why a single axle tractor won’t start. It is better to perform diagnostics in the service center, where specialists will find the cause of damage and conduct expertly the restoration.
Motor vehicles won’t start and if there is a lack of lubrication fluid in the engine. Certain modifications are equipped with special control sensors, which, if there is a lack of lubrication, do not allow the engine to start. Special attention should be paid to those versions of machines that do not have such gauges. Sooner or later the degree of lubricating mixture will reach the limit value, and if it is not compensated to the norm, it will soon lead to wear of the elements and, as a result, to the major repair of the motor.
Preparing a power tiller for start
Difficulties with starting the engine can appear not only at the power tiller and cultivator, formerly used, but also at the new, just purchased in the trade center. For this reason, before starting the mini-tractor for the first time, you should read the instructions to it, then carefully examine all the connections and, of course, check the oil level in the engine.
Study the annotation, compiled by the manufacturer, should be in order to find out what the working revolution of the motor: four-stroke or two-stroke. It is important to understand this, because for modifications with a two-stroke engine (like the Mole cultivator) requires a special combustible mixture consisting of a mixture of fuel and oil in a special proportion.
Because of the mismatch of fuel special equipment will be noisy, and still can hurt the spark plugs and fuel line, which is fraught with failure of the gasoline pump, and it is already a direct way to an expensive repair in the HUNDRED. To find out if the fuel is suitable for the motor vehicle, you can see the smoke that appears. If the fuel is of poor quality, it will have a white tone, as it happens when the car is heavily tilted.
The quality of fuel is also important for a diesel engine. It does not start in winter. or it starts, but soon freezes. if its engine is filled with summer diesel, since at low temperatures it starts to condense and clog the fuel pipe.
Starting your power tool in both summer and winter should be done in the prescribed sequence. For example, to start a mole cultivator, the following procedure is used:
- open the petrol valve;
- set choke motor to “Choke” state;
- Switch off ignition and several times crank the engine with the manual starter;
- Start the engine again and move the engine to the “Run” state.
It is not uncommon to encounter conditions where the power unit starts easily, but freezes after a couple of seconds. In this case it is necessary to check the patency of the sump. If the reason is that the faucet is dirty, then it is cleaned with gasoline.
To start the engine with a diesel engine will be a bit more difficult. Start the diesel engine by “bleeding” the fuel line, i.e. by ridding it of air accumulation. To do this:
- open fuel tap;
- loosen the outlet pipe connections until fuel appears;
- twist the connections and blow out all the nozzles.
If after the operations the engine does not work properly, and the special equipment begins to smoke, then the reason is the old grease, and it must be completely changed. The unit doesn’t start also because of the lack of the volume of the oil fluid, so don’t forget to check this parameter.
Start-up of the power tiller after the winter or prolonged idle time also has its own nuances. In order to bring the unit into working position, do the following manipulations:
- open the petrol valve;
- check whether the power supply is on;
- check for grease;
- Start the engine at about half throttle.
Before starting your power tool, check all connections, including the transmission, clutch and starting mechanisms.
The technique is completed with gasoline or diesel engines. Starting a diesel motoblock and a gasoline-powered machine has differences. For this reason, analyze the factors that prevent the machine from starting for each specific type of engine.
Before buying a single axle tractor you need to prepare the machine. Check absolutely all the elements, make sure the mechanisms are firmly fixed.
Machines often refuse to work after winter. Prolonged interruptions are a prerequisite for malfunctions in the systems of a power tiller. Keeping in a cool and damp room leads to the following malfunctions:
Before starting a new power tiller, check absolutely all connections, clutch cable, reverse and throttle. Do not operate the machine if there are clips and torsion of the harness strands.
During the first start-up, be sure to check the oil level in the crankcase. Lack of lubrication ruins piston group. The crankshaft rotates at idle speed up to 1400 turns per minute. It takes a couple of seconds to create a scoring on the cylinder plane.
Old oil may be the cause of a non-functioning engine. At the same time the single axle tractor smokes white colored exhaust gases. An absolute oil change is in order.
Please pay attention, that a mini tractor is weakly started if there is a lack of oil. Observe this parameter before starting a carburetor and diesel single axle tractor. Some modifications have low level protection. Instrument blocks startup and unit stalls.
Do not forget that all engines require a specific grade of gasoline. Fuel for the two-stroke engine is cooked separately. The fuel mix consists of fuel and oil. The number of ingredients is kept in strict balance.
Starting a diesel engine after purchase can be difficult. The problem is that there is air in the fuel system. If the engine can not be started with long cranking (with the starter motor), airlocks must be bled. To do this, open the fuel tap and unscrew the connections along the course of the channels. Nozzles are considered the final point of purging.
In order for the internal combustion engine to start, it is necessary to implement several conditions. Let us list them in order:
Fulfillment of the mentioned conditions ensures the start of any engine.
Difficulties at startup indicate defective assemblies and elements. The success of repair work depends on the accuracy of diagnosis. If there are any deficiencies, the diesel engine block must be repaired. Service and minor repairs can be done in-house. You need a set of keys, a locksmith mechanism and a skillful hand.
At the stage of fuel preparation the following mishaps are possible:
- light filter is not letting air in;
- The tank lid hole is blocked;
- the fuel supply duct is clogged;
- carburetor is broken.
after a series of unsuccessful starts, it is advisable to unscrew the spark plug. The working part can be flooded with fuel. In this case, dry the element, then pump the cylinder through the hole. Twist the spark plug and restart.
If the spark plug is dry, it means that there is no fuel in the combustion chamber. Let’s perform several operations in turn to restart the feeding system:
- drain the old gasoline;
- Flush out the tank;
- Clean off dirt from the special filter;
- clean the fuel hose;
- clean the carburetor jets;
- fill the tank with the cleanest fuel;
- open the valve;
- clean the breathing duct in the tire.
Faults in the ignition system
The engine will not start if the ignition system is broken. Why it happens? Alternator, high-voltage cable, cap and spark plug can be the source of the problem. Visually inspect the ignition system components for cleanliness. Dirt and moisture are prerequisites for high force breakdown on the housing. Lack of spark plug contact can occur if the cap is not in proper contact with the main electrode of the plug.
Poor spark plug performance is indicative of a bad spark plug. The gap and type of electrodes should be checked. The gap is usually checked with a feeler gauge. Normally the value is 0.8 millimeters. If necessary, metal parts and insulator are decontaminated. A change of the candle is recommended.
The condition of the piston category elements affects the readiness of the engine as a whole. They function under severe circumstances. Under load, rubbing surfaces heat up. The cylinder, valve and rings are responsible for a significant parameter. compression. Low compression ratio in the cylinder will indicate replacement of elements.
It is also necessary to check the inlet and outlet valves. They must fit snugly against the saddles. The muffler is the last point on the trail of fumes. In the walls of the muffler over time deposited combustion products, and the engine stalls. For the standard exhaust gas passage it is necessary to clean the walls from time to time.
Gasoline for Moto-Blocks. buy it at filling stations. The fuel properties have a direct impact on the machines uptime. Do not start the single axle tractor on bad fuel.
General structure of a Moto-Block
The engine is the main and most important element of the tractor’s design. The engine is the heart of this type of machine. 4-stroke gasoline engine. Heavy-duty models are equipped with a diesel engine. Power range for customer demanded models: 6-13 л.с.
All modern models are equipped with transmission with front and rear speed. Advanced units are equipped with additional overdrive and downshift gears. Available transmission types: gear, belt, and chain.
Commercial Vehicle Weight Limit
Wheels with large treads act as a propulsion system. But not always: a low-powered motocultivator has no mounts for installing additional equipment, so instead of the wheels, metal cutters are installed, which process the soil.
Throttle control is performed by turning the throttle knob with a cable drive. The ignition system is electronic (single axle tractor is started by pushing a button) or mechanical (to start the power unit you must pull the starter knob).
Repair of a power tiller with your own hands. Expert tips and practical hints
As any other technique, a single-axle tractor needs timely repair and maintenance. Naturally, it is better to leave this job to professionals, who have experience and all necessary equipment at hand. However, you can handle most engine repairs yourself. And the more will be able to provide the first aid to the engine to finish the agricultural work, and only after the overhaul of the device.
The first thing you should pay attention to. the service life of diesel engines is different from that of gasoline engines. The diesel engine can provide as much as 4000 motor-hours. Gasoline engines can achieve 1500 motor-hours. It is for this reason the price of diesel motor blocks is much higher than the cost of gasoline models.
All breakdowns that can occur during the operation of a power tiller can be divided into two groups.
The first one is engine failure (often it is a problem during start-up or frequent failures in work).
To the second category of faults of power tillers can be attributed breakdowns of other mechanisms and assemblies
Breakdown of different power block systems (chain lubrication, cooling, etc.).)).
Proper diagnosis. the key to successful repair of your power tiller. If we talk about maintenance, regular checks helps to detect minor faults, which over time can develop into serious breakdowns.
If you don’t have enough experience, knowledge, tools or materials to repair or maintain your engine. don’t try to do it yourself, it’s better to trust professionals.
If you can’t start the single axle tractor and all your attempts are unsuccessful, it means there is some fault in the start system or engine. First of all, it is necessary to look at the plugs. If they are dry, the fuel is not reaching the cylinder of the motor. There are several reasons for these failures, from which the repair of the power tiller depends:
1) The fuel tank is out of fuel,
3) the opening in the petrol tank plug is clogged,
4) foreign substances have got into the fuel system.
In order to solve the problem of fuel you need to act as follows:
Fill the tank motoblock, and then open the fuel tap and clean the drainage hole (it is located in the cap of the gasoline tank).
Then we remove the fuel tap and drain the gasoline from the tank Flush the gas tank thoroughly with clean gasoline.
The connecting hose, which is located near the carburetor, you need to remove and blow it with a fuel pump along with the carburetor jets, without disassembling it.
If the fuel reaches the carburetor, but does not enter the cylinder. then the problem is in the carburetor. In order to fix it, it needs to be removed, disassembled and thoroughly cleaned. After assembling and reassembling the assembly.
Before we proceed to these works, it won’t be superfluous to refresh our knowledge about the principle of carburetor’s work.
Malfunctions of the engine systems at startup
If, after checking the plugs, you find that they are still wet. then there is no problem with the fuel supply. The engine still will not start. You need to repair your power tiller and maybe the cause of the breakdown is the ignition system failure.
There is soot on the spark plug electrodes (in this case you should thoroughly clean the plugs with sandpaper, and afterwards they should be washed with gasoline and dried).
The gap between the electrodes does not correspond to the value specified by the manufacturer in the operating manual of the engine (then you need to adjust the gap, bending the side electrode to the required size).
Damage to the spark plug insulators or high-voltage wiring (cannot be repaired, spark plugs or wiring must be replaced).
The “STOP” button is shorted to the common ground (in order to start the engine normally, this short circuit must be reclosed).
Damaged contacts in the spark plug corners (must be repaired).
The gap between the starter and the magnetic shoe does not correspond to normal values (you need to adjust the gap).
Defects on the ignition system stator (in this case, the stator must be replaced).
Air intake through carburetor seals, spark plugs, spark plug heads and cylinders, as well as carburetor and engine cylinder connections
If you find leaking connections, check the fastening bolts, tighten them and the spark plugs, and check that the gaskets between the spark plug heads and cylinders are intact.
The carburetor choke does not close completely
In order to solve this problem, you should ensure easy movement of the flap and check the correct operation of the drive. If seizures are present, they need to be corrected.
Compression problems and carburetor malfunctions
It happens that the engine starts, but its start is accompanied by considerable difficulties and takes much effort. Motor is functioning rather poorly, unable to deliver optimum power. In this case it is necessary to repair the power tiller, and one of the possible causes of such malfunction is loss of compression. It can be identified by these signs:
Soot is visible on valve surfaces and cylinder seats.
The inlet valve is damaged or has lost its original shape.
In order to restore compression the following measures are taken:
Check the condition of the timing mechanism of the engine.
Parts that are soiled by soot are thoroughly cleaned or replaced if defective.
The condition of the piston rings is evaluated and the broken elements are replaced.
If, when the engine is running, there is thick black smoke coming from the muffler, and the electrodes of the spark plugs are covered with soot, or there is too much oil on them. it can be a signal of such abnormalities:
The carburetor gets too rich a fuel mixture.
The fuel valve is leaking.
Piston ring wear has occurred.
The air filter must be cleaned if it is clogged.
To correct these problems it is worth doing the following
Clean or replace the air filter.
If the smoke that comes out of the muffler while the engine is running is light in color, and a white deposit is noticeable on the electrodes of the spark plugs. This is a signal that a poorly concentrated fuel mixture is entering the carburetor. Such problems are solved with the help of carburetor settings.
Problems with the engine while the power tiller is running
Sufficiently large and heavy loads succumb to the nodes and parts of the engines, which are installed on agricultural motor equipment. This leads to the fact that due to overloading they can suddenly break down right in the process of performing a particular task. After a fairly short time, this will lead to significant failures.
If while working with your power tiller you hear some suspicious noises that are unusual for your helper, if it jerks or if you notice that some of its systems don’t work properly. turn off the engine immediately. This means that your power tiller needs service. You need to give the engine some time to cool down. Only then can you begin to work on correcting the problem.
If the engine starts to rev automatically while running, going out of speed, it may mean that you need to pay attention to the mounting of the regulator levers and linkage. It is very likely that it has come loose. If this happens the owner of the walking tractor has to readjust the throttle.
When the throttle is fully open and the engine begins to lose power when you press the throttle trigger. The engine may even come to a complete halt. This is a sure sign that the machine is overheating. If this happens, stop the engine and wait for a few moments for the components to cool down. Next, you need to check the oil level in the crankcase and check whether the ribbed surfaces of the cylinder heads and blocks are dirty.
Excessive strain on the motor can cause it to jam during operation. There are several reasons for such malfunctions:
A nadir has formed on the bottom head of the connecting rod.
If your tiller engine is jammed you need to disassemble it and evaluate all of its major components. Any broken, deformed, melted parts need to be replaced.
Other problems that can occur when you start your engine
What to do if the engine on your power tiller does not run smoothly and does not deliver its optimum performance?
There are several reasons for such motor behavior:
Clogged air filter. Blockages prevent air from getting into the carburetor, resulting in poor fuel combustion. Because of this, you will have to change and clean the filter often.
Clogged muffler. The residual fuel together with the products of its combustion create a rather thick deposit on the internal walls of the silencer. You need to remove this fouling to successfully troubleshoot the problem.
Contamination of the carburetor. If you find this problem, remove the unit as soon as possible and thoroughly clean all components. After performing this operation, you need to assemble the carburetor and make its adjustment.
The cylinder piston group is worn. This is caused by temperature shock and high loads that even the strongest, best quality metal cannot take. Parts may be worn or out of shape. Such components should be replaced immediately, as this can lead to irreversible engine damage.
Breakage of the ratchet clutch or ratchet body. You can detect such a malfunction by observing the crankshaft when starting the engine. If the crankshaft will not move, the ratchet and clutch housing must be replaced. This requires complete disassembly of the starter assembly.
Poor tightening of the screws securing the starter housing to the motor housing. You can spot these kinds of problems when you start the engine. If the starter cord does not return to its original position. you need to adjust the starter. To do this, loosen the screws and set the location of the assembly so that the cord can normally return.
Starter spring breakage. One of the most common and common reasons why the starter cord does not return to its original position. is the breakage of the starter spring. You need to replace the part to get the starter cord to work properly.
Correct, timely and high-quality maintenance of the main parts and components of the engine of your power tiller is a guarantee that your machine will last a long service life. It is also important to replace worn parts with new ones as soon as possible. Therefore, if you notice the slightest malfunction or failure in the work of the engine of your power tiller. immediately get your power tiller repaired. After all, if you delay. it can develop into a very serious damage, which will lead to a breakdown and downtime motoblock.
causes, consequences. Diagnosing Diesel Engines
The most common engines at the moment are diesel and gasoline. The latter was born much earlier, but now its popularity is declining. Diesel engines are more productive and economical. However, in order for the engine to meet these two requirements, you need to know how to operate it properly. You can’t let a diesel engine go bad. Today we will look at what this process is and why it occurs.
Sometimes you hear “the diesel engine’s gone bad”. What it means? Dismounting is the uncontrolled increase in the engine crankshaft speed, regardless of the accelerator pedal position. In most cases the driver cannot control the process. The crankshaft is turning at high speed.
Sometimes the rpm goes up to 5,000. This is dangerous for the diesel engine. This action takes several minutes. Blocked power train as a result. Often accompanied by thick black smoke from the exhaust pipe.
Causes of the HPF
One of the main causes of this phenomenon is a malfunction in the high pressure fuel pump or fuel rail. As a result, fuel enters the combustion chamber without any restriction. It is an uncontrolled process. And the more of it gets into the chamber, the higher the engine rpm. After that the timing mechanism (often with chain drive) has no time to react to these changes. Incorrect phase distributions bend the crankshaft, intake and exhaust valves. The consequences in most cases are very regrettable. What to do if the engine has gone to pieces?
There is only one way to save the aggregate. to shut it down. But it is not always possible to do it with a wrench. You have to cut off the air flow in the combustion chamber yourself. But in some cases the diameter of the intake opening is very large. And even with improvised means, you can’t shut it off. The air will still come in through the small cracks. It is worth noting that on passenger cars, the oxygen intake is at the bottom. That’s why you have to cut off the air supply after the air filter. For this purpose, a screwdriver unscrews the clamp and stops the oxygen supply to the branch pipe. This should be done as quickly as possible. Remember, this is a matter of minutes. The second option is longer, but effective. If the engine has gone to pieces, you need to stop the fuel supply by disconnecting the fuel line. But there is not always time to do it. Consequences. bending valves and damaged crankshaft. The worst thing is that during this time, splinters of the cylinder block fly. An explosion is like a grenade. It’s not safe to be around an engine like this. But it does not happen immediately, but after 3-5 minutes of such engine operation.
There are many reasons why a diesel engine can go haywire. If it is a turbocharged engine, there is a high probability that this happens because of that mechanism. The element is cooled by the oil. Sometimes it leaks. As a result, the mechanism is not able to boost. The engine speed increases involuntarily. As they increase, the oil pump starts pumping grease faster. It ends up in the combustion chamber. There is black smoke coming from the exhaust pipe.
If this fault occurs, it can even leave the unit without lubrication. Because all the oil goes into the exhaust pipe. There have been cases where, even after the fuel supply has been cut off, the unit continued to run purely on lubrication. Even if this process lasts no more than a minute, it is enough to cause the engine to break down. It’s especially common on older military engines. They are designed to consume fuel oil and kerosene. So it shouldn’t come as a surprise that the engine continues to run after the fuel supply is cut off. If a diesel engine fails, the crankshaft may break in half. It is not necessarily that it will tear out the cylinder block and fly out with splinters. In some cases, the engine will continue to run, but with characteristic knocking. What else happens when the diesel engine is at a loss? With increase of number of revolutions, temperature of engine rises. It overheats quickly. Also, if it’s a turbine leak, there may be fires around the exhaust manifold. Pistons can jam in a matter of minutes. And it does not matter what is the current inertia of the flywheel. Even if the car stands at idle, crank bolts and other elements of crank mechanism may break off.
Why only on diesel engines?
Practice shows that it is only the diesel engine that breaks down.
And there are reasons for that. The engine speed on gasoline is regulated by the throttle valve. It lets in a certain amount of air, and as a result, the number of shaft revolutions can be adjusted from 1 to 7 thousand. The maximum speed of the gasoline motorcycle engine is 10-13 thousand. As for the diesel engine, its operation is controlled by the amount of fuel, not air. There is no throttle valve in the construction of such a unit. And in order to ignite the mixture, it does not need candles and sparks. Even if you remove the battery, such an engine will continue to run. As for modern diesel engines, they have much less chance to go wrong, because the amount of fuel is strictly metered by injectors. Here the system is controlled electronically, so if there are problems with the gas pedal, the computer will stop or partially reduce the flow of fuel into the combustion chamber. It usually takes less than a second. That way, if the diesel engine has gone to pieces, you won’t have to unscrew the fittings and lines yourself, or close the oxygen access. Electronics will do it for you, but it is so fast that you won’t notice it.
What to do next?
If you or the electronics have shut down the engine when it has crashed, do not restart it under any circumstances. Try to leave the place of the accident with a tow truck or a tow-truck. A restart can cause increased blowdown of the machine which you are not likely to be able to shut down.
How to avoid malfunction?
To avoid serious consequences, you need to monitor the performance of the HPF.
An engine with a turbine or compressor should not drip oil or “consume” more oil than normal. The limit is 1 liter per 10,000 kilometers. Timely oil changes and repair of the cylinder-piston group can reduce the risk of blowouts by several times. Remember that if the seal is broken, the oil will enter into the intake manifold along with the air. Such a mixture burns much more intensively. So the RPM will increase. And so on, until the oil runs out completely. Crankcase ventilation should also be monitored. If it is not properly sealed, oil fumes will enter the intake manifold. When the mileage of the car is high, the piston rings are not able to remove all the film. The result is that the pressurized vapors from the crankcase enter the combustion chamber. It is impossible to control this process.
Adjustment of the fuel injection pump is a mandatory event for every diesel unit. This pump is driven via a gearbox from the crankshaft. Its operation depends on the current engine rpm. To keep it contained, you use a centrifugal regulator. What does this mechanism do? It automatically adjusts the fuel injection system. The device limits the fuel supply at high crankshaft rpm.
Further pump adjustment
If diagnostics of diesel engines shows that the mixture is prepared incorrectly, the most likely cause is in the fuel injection pump, and the centrifugal regulator fails to cope with this function. For this purpose a special adjusting stand is used.
The pump should be cleaned of dirt and other deposits before checking. Then the injection timing is checked by the marks and the low pressure valve is diagnosed. To do this, unscrew the valve and hit it with a hammer (light strokes) on the upper part. The next step is the setting of the cycle output. This is adjusted with the lock nut. If necessary, it can be unscrewed or screwed and then clamped. Normal diesel engine idle speed is 770-790 per minute. For further adjustment use the hydraulic corrector by turning its rod counterclockwise or clockwise. Timely troubleshooting ensures reliable operation of the power system and the engine as a whole.
So, we have found out what this process is. Regular repair and timely diagnostics of diesel engines can reduce the risk of this malfunction. As you can see, the consequences can be the most dangerous, up to the explosion of the power unit. Therefore, if the engine speed has become uncontrollable and traction is lost, immediately stop the air supply to the cylinder. In small cars, you can do it with your own hand. cover the intake hose with your palm.
Black smoke as a sign of diesel engine malfunction
The black smoke from the car’s exhaust pipe indicates that the fuel-air mixture is over-enriched. Working of the engine with such a mixture increases the wear and scuffing of details and units of a cylinder-piston group. This is because the excess diesel fuel washes oil from the walls of the cylinders, thereby deteriorating lubrication. In addition, diesel fuel also gets into the oil, liquefying it, and worsens the lubrication conditions in other parts of the engine. Often the liquefaction rate becomes so high that the fuel-oil mixture level in the crankcase rises, and a characteristic smell appears.
This indicates faults in the power supply, ignition and injection control systems.
Black smoke represents products of incomplete combustion of diesel fuel (soot particles) and is clearly visible against a light background. Accompanied by the following malfunctions:
- high consumption of diesel fuel;
- poor starting;
- unstable engine operation;
- high toxicity of exhaust gases;
- loss of power.
Why the engine goes bad. determine the cause
The last breakdown is very dangerous, as it can lead to the following consequences:
- a combustion that occurred in the exhaust manifold
- jamming of the engine due to overheating;
- and even its destruction due to the high mechanical stress.
So, the engine went to pieces, and the reasons may be different, so to eliminate the problem it is extremely important to identify what exactly contributed to the appearance of the piece. If you see thick smoke coming out of the muffler while the RPMs are rising sharply, the turbine is most likely malfunctioning. And one of the causes of turbocharger failure, in turn, is oil leakage. In this case even with fuel cutoff it is quite possible that the engine will continue working, just on oil.
If the cause is a faulty fuel rail of fuel injection pump, it leads to engine overheating with all ensuing consequences. You can also tell by the black fuel with air bubbles in the “return”.